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Direitos de propriedade, estratégia e ambiente institucional; Property rights, strategy, and institutional environment

Monteiro, Guilherme Fowler de Avila
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 15/09/2010 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
15.9%
A presente tese investiga como o Ambiente Institucional influencia o modo de governança de direitos de propriedade e a estratégia das firmas. O estudo divide-se em duas partes. A primeira parte empreende uma investigação teórica que se constitui em três etapas. Primeiro, examina-se o modelo de direitos de propriedade de Barzel (1994, 1997, 2003). Segundo, analisa-se uma abordagem de estratégia competitiva baseada em direitos de propriedade (Property Rights Perspective; Foss e Foss, 2001). Especificamente, argumenta-se que tal abordagem representa uma extensão do modelo de Barzel e demonstra-se que os conceitos introduzidos na etapa anterior possibilitam uma formulação mais geral da Property Rights Perspective, conduzindo a uma definição de estratégia competitiva que concilia as noções de strategizing e economizing (Williamson, 1991). A terceira etapa, por fim, examina particularmente o estabelecimento de estratégias de proteção de direitos de propriedade. Um modelo heurístico baseado em Williamson (1996) é proposto e com base nele três formas básicas de proteção são definidas em função da qualidade do Ambiente Institucional: estratégia centrada no sistema legal, no estabelecimento de mecanismos privados e no abandono de atributos valiosos. A segunda parte da pesquisa busca evidências empíricas que suportem o modelo teórico. O estudo examina três casos de proteção de direitos de propriedade sobre a tecnologia transgênica em sementes de soja: EUA...

Seguro-desemprego e rotatividade no mercado de trabalho brasileiro : uma análise da relação entre as variáveis

Santos, Carlos Augusto de Oliveira
Fonte: Universidade de Brasília Publicador: Universidade de Brasília
Tipo: Dissertação
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
15.9%
Dissertação (mestrado)—Universidade de Brasília, Faculdade de Economia, Administração e Contabilidade, Programa de Pós-Graduação em Administração, 2014.; O programa seguro-desemprego foi efetivamente instituído no Brasil no final da década de1980 – o que representa uma defasagem de, aproximadamente, 50 anos em relação à instituição de programas similares nos países desenvolvidos. Desde então, o programa foi sendo modificado e sua abrangência ampliada. Só no último ano (2013), foram requeridos e concedidos mais de 8 milhões de seguros na sua modalidade formal, o que representa quase o dobro da quantidade requerida e concedida em 2004, bem como um aumento de magnitude similar nos gastos governamentais com o programa. Esses números não chamariam a atenção se durante esse período a economia brasileira não tivesse atravessado um ciclo de crescimento acompanhado de taxas declinantes de desemprego. Assim, entre os fatores que poderiam explicar essa aparente contradição está a taxa de rotatividade do mercado de trabalho brasileiro. O nível persistentemente elevado da rotatividade dos postos de trabalho no País aparece, em parte da literatura especializada, como um dos principais suspeitos de causar esse fenômeno. Dessa forma...

Modeling Mode Choice Behavior Incorporating Household and Individual Sociodemographics and Travel Attributes Based on Rough Sets Theory

Cheng, Long; Chen, Xuewu; Wei, Ming; Wu, Jingxian; Hou, Xianyao
Fonte: Hindawi Publishing Corporation Publicador: Hindawi Publishing Corporation
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.2%
Most traditional mode choice models are based on the principle of random utility maximization derived from econometric theory. Alternatively, mode choice modeling can be regarded as a pattern recognition problem reflected from the explanatory variables of determining the choices between alternatives. The paper applies the knowledge discovery technique of rough sets theory to model travel mode choices incorporating household and individual sociodemographics and travel information, and to identify the significance of each attribute. The study uses the detailed travel diary survey data of Changxing county which contains information on both household and individual travel behaviors for model estimation and evaluation. The knowledge is presented in the form of easily understood IF-THEN statements or rules which reveal how each attribute influences mode choice behavior. These rules are then used to predict travel mode choices from information held about previously unseen individuals and the classification performance is assessed. The rough sets model shows high robustness and good predictive ability. The most significant condition attributes identified to determine travel mode choices are gender, distance, household annual income, and occupation. Comparative evaluation with the MNL model also proves that the rough sets model gives superior prediction accuracy and coverage on travel mode choice modeling.

Firms, contracts, and trade structure

Antràs, Pol
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 171 p.; 7404492 bytes; 7404299 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
15.9%
This dissertation consists of three essays in the intersection of the theory of international trade and the theory of the firm. The first essay starts by unveiling two systematic patterns in the volume of intrafirm trade. I then show that these patterns can be rationalized in a theoretical framework that combines a Grossman-Hart-Moore view of the firm with a Helpman-Krugman view of international trade. In particular, I develop an incomplete-contracting, property-rights model of the boundaries of the firm, which I then incorporate into a standard trade model with imperfect competition and product differentiation. The model pins down the boundaries of multinational firms as well as the international location of production. Econometric evidence reveals that the model is consistent with other qualitative and quantitative features of the data. In the second essay, I develop a dynamic, general-equilibrium Ricardian model of North-South trade, in which the incomplete nature of contracts governing international transactions leads to the emergence of product cycles. Following the property-rights approach to the theory of the firm, the same force that creates product cycles, i.e. incomplete contracts, opens the door to a parallel analysis of the determinants of the mode of organization. The model is shown to deliver endogenous organizational cycles. I discuss several macroeconomic and microeconomic implications of the model and relate them to the previous literature on the product cycle. The third essay...

Landlocked or Policy Locked? How Services Trade Protection Deepens Economic Isolation

Borchert, Ingo; Gootiiz, Batshur; Grover, Arti; Mattoo, Aaditya
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
16.11%
A new cross-country database on services policy reveals a perverse pattern: many landlocked countries restrict trade in the very services that connect them with the rest of the world. On average, telecommunications and air-transport policies are significantly more restrictive in landlocked countries than elsewhere. The phenomenon is most starkly visible in Sub-Saharan Africa and is associated with lower levels of political accountability. This paper finds evidence that these policies lead to more concentrated market structures and more limited access to services than these countries would otherwise have, even after taking into account the influence of geography and incomes, and the possibility that policy is endogenous. Even moderate liberalization in these sectors could lead to an increase of cellular subscriptions by 7 percentage points and a 20-percent increase in the number of flights. Policies in other countries, industrial and developing alike, also limit competition in international transport services. Hence...

Trade Costs in the Developing World : 1995 - 2010

Arvis, Jean-François; Duval, Yann; Shepherd, Ben; Utoktham, Chorthip
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
15.9%
The authors use newly collected data on trade and production in 178 countries to infer estimates of trade costs in agriculture and manufactured goods for the 1995-2010 period. The data show that trade costs are strongly declining in per capita income. Moreover, the rate of change of trade costs is largely unfavorable to the developing world: trade costs are falling noticeably faster in developed countries than in developing ones, which serves to increase the relative isolation of the latter. In particular, Sub-Saharan African countries and low-income countries remain subject to very high levels of trade costs. In terms of policy implications, the analysis finds that maritime transport connectivity and logistics performance are very important determinants of bilateral trade costs: in some specifications, their combined effect is comparable to that of geographical distance. Traditional and non-traditional trade policies more generally, including market entry barriers and regional integration agreements, play a significant role in shaping the trade costs landscape.

Public Infrastructure Trends and Gaps in Pakistan

Loayza, Norman; Wada, Tomoko
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
15.9%
This paper analyzes the public infrastructure trends and gaps in Pakistan, especially by placing the Pakistani experience in an international context. It examines the major sectors of public infrastructure, including (a) transportation, (b) telecommunication, (c) electricity generation and (d) water, sanitation and irrigation. Public infrastructure in Pakistan has made some progress over the last five decades. However, compared to other similar countries, the rate of improvement in Pakistan has been among the slowest for the majority of public infrastructure sectors. This has matched the relatively weak economic growth performance of the country in recent decades, which has remained at or below the median country in the world. Moreover the infrastructure improvement has been insufficient to ameliorate substantially the infrastructure conditions of Pakistani citizens.

The Impact of Urban Spatial Structure on Travel Demand in the United States

Bento, Antonio M.; Cropper, Maureen L.; Mobarak, Ahmed Mushfiq; Vinha, Katja
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.23%
The authors combine measures of urban form and public transit supply for 114 urbanized areas with the 1990 Nationwide Personal Transportation Survey to address two questions: (1) How do measures of urban form, including city shape, road density, the spatial distribution of population, and jobs-housing balance affect the annual miles driven and commute mode choices of U.S. households? (2) How does the supply of public transportation (annual route miles supplied and availability of transit stops) affect miles driven and commute mode choice? The authors find that jobs-housing balance, population centrality, and rail miles supplied significantly reduce the probability of driving to work in cities with some rail transit. Population centrality and jobs-housing balance have a significant impact on annual household vehicle miles traveled (VMT), as do city shape, road density, and (in rail cities) annual rail route miles supplied. The elasticity of VMT with respect to each variable is small, on the order of 0.10-0.20 in absolute value. However...

Logistics, Transport and Food Prices in LAC : Policy Guidance for Improving Efficiency and Reducing Costs

Schwartz, Jordan; Guasch, Jose Luis; Wilmsmeier, Gordon; Stokenberga, Aiga
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
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This introductory section explains the rationale for the guidance note, reflecting on the relevance of food prices in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC), their impact on the poor and the effect that logistics and transport costs have on those prices. Based upon that framework, the note provides an overview of the logistics and transport hurdles faced by importers and consumers in the region as food products move through the logistics chain. The final section of the report provides some policy guidance that could improve the efficiency of logistics systems in LAC and reduce the price of delivered foods.

Guatemala : Elements of a Transport and Logistics Strategy

Dumitrescu, Anca C.; Smith, Graham; Osborne, Theresa K.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
15.9%
This document has been produced by the World Bank to support the Government of Guatemala as it improves its transport and logistics sector management in pursuit of enhanced country competitiveness. It identifies and defines elements of a National Transport and Logistics Strategy (NTLS) through the development of a methodology which analyzes bottlenecks and related costs along the main logistics corridors. It does so with a view to (a) mobilizing support in the trading community (essentially private sector) for logistic service improvements, (b) identifying the need for broader public-sector reforms in transport which indirectly impact logistics performance, and (c) helping the Government to set sector priorities and hence to prioritize public investment. At the same time, it points out where improved data and monitoring of performance are needed in order to better quantify economic costs, diagnose key logistics issues, and track improved performance. It thereby proposes, as part of the set of recommended activities...

Algunas explicaciones para el grado de penetración de la banda ancha

Rubio Martín, Juan; Sánchez Pérez, César
Fonte: Ministerio de Industria, Comercio y Turismo Publicador: Ministerio de Industria, Comercio y Turismo
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; info:eu-repo/semantics/article Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em //2011 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
15.9%
Los últimos años han estado marcados, en los mercados de las telecomunicaciones, y en particu lar en la banda ancha, por el debate entre dos grandes políticas regulatorias y, en consonancia con esto, dos enfoques regulatorios en cuanto a modelos de competencia: uno con especial hincapié en la promoción de la competencia entre infraestructuras (modelo de competencia plena en redes y servi cios) y otro con énfasis en la promoción de la competencia dentro de una misma infraestructura (mode lo de competencia restringida a los servicios). En este contexto, el presente artículo muestra la evi dencia empírica de los beneficios del primer modelo para el desarrollo y penetración de la banda ancha, utilizando como herramientas el análisis econométrico y el análisis envolvente de datos (DEA, Data Envelopment Analysis).; In recent years telecommunication market, particulary the broanband market, have been marked by debate over the two important regulatory policies, and as such, two focus on competition models: one with special emphasis in promoting competition among infrastructures (full competition model in networks and services, and another with emphasis in promoting competition within the same infrastructure (competition model restricted to services). It is within this context that our article presents empirical evidence on the benefits of the first model for the development and penetration of the broadband...

The dilemma of attribution: methods of evaluating the development effectiveness of country stategies

Kremer, Isabelle
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Relatório
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.11%
In the context of an increased focus on aid effectiveness, on higher-level development goals and on Country Strategies, attention necessarily turns to Country Strategy Evaluation. Governments and Boards demand evidence that the rising aid allocations are achieving results, and the current ethos of results management requires information on performance in order to improve management and decision-making. As such, development organisations must develop feasible and credible methods of evaluation at the country level. At the core of this issue is the question of attribution: How might development outcomes in a partner country be linked to the activities of the given aid agency? This is particularly difficult given the focus on higher-level objectives. Previously, the quality of inputs and outputs were assessed, which is, relatively speaking, within the control of the agency. However the focus on higher-level outcomes lies 'embedded in complex social systems', influenced by a host of external and internal factors, and is seldom attributable to a single agency's activities. There are three broad approaches to evaluation at the country level. Firstly, 'results framework' approaches centre on a pre-determined framework with a multiplicity of set indicators. This involves the collection of a substantial amount of data...

What Drives the High Price of Road Freight Transport in Central America?

Osborne, Theresa; Pachon, Maria Claudia; Araya, Gonzalo Enrique
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Other Infrastructure Study
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.09%
In Central America, like many other developing regions, high transport costs are cited as an important impediment to trade and economic growth. Prices for road freight transport, a key mode of transport comprising a significant share of total transport costs for both intra, and extra, regional trade, are particularly high. Averaging 17 US cents per ton-kilometer on main trading routes, these rates stand out even relative to other inefficient developing country markets (e.g., central and west Africa). However, the policy and other factors associated with increased prices have not been well understood. Using data from a survey of trucking companies operating on the region's main trade corridors, this paper analyzes the primary drivers affecting firms' cost of providing service, as well as the effect of market structure and competition on markups and prices. We find that whereas improved cost efficiencies could reduce prices by 3 cents per ton?kilometer, increased competition on national routes, those entirely within a nation's borders...

Foreign Bank Entry : Experience, Implications for Developing Countries, and Agenda for Further Research

Clarke, George; Cull, Robert; Martinez Peria, Maria Soledad; Sanchez, Susana M.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
25.9%
In recent years, foreign bank participation has increased tremendously in several developing countries. In Argentina, Chile, the Czech Republic, Hungary and Poland, for example, more than fifty percent of banking assets are now in foreign-controlled banks. In Asia, Africa, The Middle East, and the former Soviet Union, the rate of entry by foreign banks has been slower, but the trend is similar. Although the number of countries welcoming foreign banks is growing, many questions about foreign bank entry are still being debated, including: 1) What draws foreign banks to a country? 2) Which banks expand abroad? 3) What do foreign banks do once they arrive? 4) How does the mode of a bank's entry - for example, as a branch of its parent, or as an independent subsidiary company - affect its behavior? The authors summarize current knowledge on these issues. In addition, since the existing literature focuses heavily on industrial countries, they put forth an agenda for further study of the effects of foreign bank entry in developing countries.

São Paulo - Inputs for a Sustainable Competitive City Strategy : Volume 1. Main Report

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Other Infrastructure Study; Economic & Sector Work
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
25.9%
Through an analysis of selected topics, this study aims to offer inputs for a successful recovery strategy for the city and the metropolitan region of Sao Paulo (MSRP) in Brazil. The study first presents an analysis of the underlying factors of the economic transition in the MRSP, highlighting the factors behind the recent performance of the MRSP in terms of job creation and growth. Then, four inputs that would lead to a 'recovery strategy' for the MRSP are discussed in detail: The key area in the recovery strategy is 'Improving Fiscal Performance and Creditworthiness.' This is discussed in Chapter 2 and it provides an assessment of the current fiscal situation, revising the fiscal scenario, and the links between economic performance and fiscal spending. A second area of focus within the recovery strategy is 'Improving Competitiveness and the Investment Climate.' Chapter 3 assesses this issue along with the business environment in the MRSP, using both direct surveys and econometric models. A third area of focus under the MRSP recovery strategy is 'Improving Institutional Partnerships.' Chapter 4 explains this issue as confusing institutional framework; overlapping responsibilities...

What Drives the High Price of Road Freight Transport in Central America?

Osborne, Theresa; Pachon, Maria Claudia; Araya, Gonzalo Enrique
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.09%
In Central America, like many other developing regions, high transport costs are cited as an impediment to trade and economic growth. Prices for road freight transport -- a key mode of transport comprising a significant share of total transport costs for intra- and extra-regional trade, are particularly high. Averaging 17 cents per ton-kilometer on main trading routes, these rates stand out even relative to other inefficient developing country markets (e.g., central and west Africa). However, the policy and other factors associated with increased prices have not been well understood. This paper uses data from a survey of trucking companies operating on the region's main trade corridors to analyze the determinants of firms' costs of providing service, as well as the effect of market structure and competition on prices. The analysis finds that whereas improved cost efficiencies could reduce prices by 3 cents per ton-kilometer, increased competition on national routes -- those entirely within a nation's borders -- would reduce prices by significantly more. Although there are many trucking companies...

What causes violent crime?

Loayza, Norman, 1964-
Fonte: Escola de Pós-Graduação em Economia da FGV Publicador: Escola de Pós-Graduação em Economia da FGV
Tipo: Relatório
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.02%
This study uses a new data set of crime ratesfor a large sample of countriesfor the period 1970- 1994, based on information from the United Nations World Crime Surveys, to ana/yze the determinants ofnational homicide and robbery rates. A simple model of the incentives to commit crimes is proposed, which explicit/y considers possible causes of the persistence of crime over time (criminal inertia). Several econometric mode/s are estimated, attempting to capture the . determinonts of crime rates across countries and over time. The empirical mode/s are first run for cross-sections and then applie'd to panel data. The former focus on erplanatory variables that do not change markedly over time, while the panel data techniques consider both the eflect of the business cyc1e (i.e., GDP growth rate) on the crime rate and criminal inertia (accountedfor by the inclusion of the /agged crime rate as an explanatory variable). The panel data techniques a/so consider country-specific eflects, the joint endogeneity of some of the erplanatory variables, and lhe existence of some types of measurement e"ors aJjlicting the crime data. The results showthat increases in income inequality raise crime rates, dete"ence eflects are significant, crime tends to be counter-cyclical...

Corruption and MNCs' entry mode. An empirical econometric study of Portuguese firms internationalizing to PALOPs.

Grande, Marlene Vidal
Fonte: Faculdade de Economia da Universidade do Porto; FEP Publicador: Faculdade de Economia da Universidade do Porto; FEP
Tipo: Dissertação Formato: application/pdf
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
15.9%
Economia e Gestão Internacional; Master in International Business

Econometric calibration of the joint time assignment-mode choice model

Greeven, Paulina; Jara Díaz, Sergio Rodolfo; Bhat, Chandra; Munizaga, Marcela
Fonte: INFORMS Publicador: INFORMS
Tipo: Artículo de revista
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.46%
This paper describes the derivation and the econometric calibration of a joint time assignment-mode choice model with a microeconomic foundation, to be applied to the TASTI (time assignment travel and income) database. The econometric procedure is a full information maximum likelihood with three nonlinear continuous equations and one discrete choice. We use Lee's transformation [Lee, L. F. 1983. Generalized econometric models with selectivity. Econometrica 51 507-512] to include correlations between the continuous and discrete equations. This allows us to estimate (a) the value of time as a resource or value of assigning time to a pleasurable activity, (b) the value of assigning time to work, and (c) the value of assigning time to travel. We apply the method and obtain reasonable results. Finally, we identify some econometric challenges for further research.

Análisis de Redes Sociales aplicado al estudio de los procesos de innovación agrícola

Monge Pérez, Mario; Hartwich, Frank
Fonte: Universidade Autônoma de Barcelona Publicador: Universidade Autônoma de Barcelona
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/pdf; text/html
Publicado em //2008 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
25.9%
Desde los años 70, los estudios sobre adopción de innovaciones agrícolas han estado dominados por una perspectiva según la cual la decisión de adoptar es un asunto individual, centrado en la utilidad percibida por el productor. En años recientes ha crecido el interés por comprender el papel de la interacción social en estos procesos. Poco a poco, conceptos como capital o aprendizaje social han ganado terreno entre los analistas. Sin embargo, casi ningún estudio ha utilizado el Análisis de Redes Sociales. Con base en un conjunto de datos sobre las interacciones existentes entre productores y otros actores relevantes para la innovación en 12 micro regiones de Bolivia, se analizaron los efectos de dichas interacciones sobre la intensidad de la adopción de innovaciones, apoyándose en las herramientas provistas por los paquetes de software UCINET y NetDraw. A nivel de micro regiones, se halló un efecto positivo y significativo de la densidad de las redes y del prestigio del promotor de las innovaciones. A nivel individual, se dio una adopción más intensa entre quienes mostraron mayor frecuencia de contacto con la agencia promotora de las innovaciones y con otros productores, mayor centralidad de grado en la red, y mayor grado de vínculos simmelianos o cohesivos (embedded ties). Además...