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Problemática da poluição visual nas grandes metrópoles, Rua 25 de março: antecedentes e perpectivas. Análise histórica e iconográfica sob ótica da poluição e da complexidade das relações sócias, políticas e econômicas da sociedade pós-moderna; The visual pollution problematic in the big metropolis, March, 25th Street: antecedents and perspectives. History and iconography analysis under the visual pollution focus and the complexity of the post modern society social, political and economic relations

Amaral, Juliana Gazza
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 13/05/2009 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.99%
A relação existente entre os habitantes e a cidade em que vivem está intimamente ligada à forma de utilização do espaço urbano. Atualmente, nas grandes metrópoles, estamos assistindo uma situação bastante preocupante, onde esta utilização do espaço urbano vendo sendo traduzida em poluição visual. Neste contexto, a problemática da poluição visual é muito nova e ainda muito vinculada às leis de zoneamento e leis de aplicação da publicidade no espaço urbano, que são específicas para cada localidade e não levam em consideração a complexidade das relações inerentes ao fenômeno. A poluição visual carece até de uma definição precisa. O que é poluição visual? A tônica desta dissertação de mestrado é analisar um ambiente poluído através de seu levantamento histórico e iconográfico. O local utilizado como exemplo será uma rua da capital paulista, a 25 de março, onde encontraremos realidade dinâmica rica em detalhes históricos, culturais, sociais, econômicos e políticos.; The relation between the citizens and the city they live is inner connected with the way they use the urban space. Nowadays, in the big cities, we are experiencing a very worried situation, when the urban space is being translated in visual pollution. In this context...

A armadilha do subdesenvolvimento: uma discussão do período desenvolvimentista brasileiro sob a ótica da abordagem da complexidade; The trap of underdevelopment: a discussion of Brazilian developmentalist period from the perspective of complexity approach

Cardoso, Fernanda Graziella
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 03/05/2012 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.1%
Essa tese apresenta como investigação norteadora porque o Brasil, mesmo tendo avançado em sua matriz industrial e alcançado altas taxas de crescimento no período 1930-1980, não conseguiu escapar da armadilha do subdesenvolvimento econômico. Para tentar vislumbrar alguns caminhos que potencialmente alargariam a discussão e compreensão do tema, recorre-se à perspectiva da Abordagem da Complexidade, combinada com a retomada das discussões teóricas promovidas por alguns dos autores conhecidos como pioneiros do desenvolvimento econômico. Desse modo, a novidade proposta por essa tese reside na perspectiva pela qual se discute o tema, e não ao tema propriamente dito, que foi e vem sendo amplamente discutido pela literatura. O objetivo é a realização de algumas discussões e ilações teóricas relativas à experiência brasileira no período, tendo sempre em mente a Abordagem da Complexidade e sua potencial contribuição para o alargamento do escopo de compreensão do tema.; This thesis presents as main question why Brazil, even having developed its industrial park and having achieved high rates of growth between 1930 and 1980, was unable to escape from the trap of economic underdevelopment. In order to list some ways that could potentially enrich the thinking and the understanding of the question...

Estudo sobre a emergência de padrões de estrutura organizacional em empresas atuantes no Brasil: uma abordagem baseada na teoria da complexidade e do caos; A Brazilian based companies study on the emergence of organizational structure patterns: an approach grounded on complexity and chaos theory

Oliveira, Jefferson Freitas Amancio de
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 27/06/2013 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.99%
A proposta da tese é contribuir para um melhor entendimento das organizações por meio da utilização de conceitos da teoria da Complexidade e Caos. Entendendo a organização como um sistema adaptativo complexo, busca-se, através de aspectos relacionados à conectividade, interdependência e diversidade, a identificação de padrões de estrutura organizacional em empresas brasileiras. Foi realizada uma pesquisa exploratória a partir de bases de dados de 417 empresas, 118 mil de seus funcionários, de 22 setores de atividades diferentes que se candidatam ao prêmio de "Melhores Empresas para se Trabalhar", organizado pela FIA - Fundação Instituto de Administração e Você S/A. Para análise foram utilizadas técnicas diversas de mineração de dados, de escalonamento multidimensional e desenvolvidos algoritmos para o delineamento de formações gráficas da amplitude de controle e rotinas para análise da estrutura de tarefas e da tensão adaptativa entre objetivos individuais e da organização. Os resultados da pesquisa revelaram que foram identificados padrões relacionados à conectividade e interdependência interna. Especificamente, observou-se também que fatores como a amplitude de controle e tensão adaptativa entre objetivos pessoais e organizacionais também manifestaram a emergência de padrões estruturais...

Assessing Economic Complexity in some OECD countries with Input-Output Based Measures

Lopes, João Carlos; Dias, João; Amaral, João Ferreira do
Fonte: Global Economic Modeling Network Publicador: Global Economic Modeling Network
Tipo: Conferência ou Objeto de Conferência
Publicado em /07/2008 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
76.21%
Economic complexity can be defined as the level of interdependence between the component parts of an economy. In input-output systems intersectoral connectedness is a crucial feature of analysis, and there are many different methods of measuring it. Most of the measures, however, have important drawbacks to be used as a good indicator of economic complexity, because they were not explicitly made with this purpose in mind. In this paper, we present, discuss and compare empirically different indexes of economic complexity as sectoral connectedness, using the inter-industry tables of several OECD countries.

Complexity as Interrelatedness: an Input-Output Approach

Amaral, João Ferreira do; Dias, João; Lopes, João Carlos
Fonte: Global Economic Modeling Network Publicador: Global Economic Modeling Network
Tipo: Conferência ou Objeto de Conferência
Publicado em /09/2004 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.16%
In this paper we make a first attempt to link two subjects with a potentially useful, but as yet not conveniently explored, connection: the study of complexity and the (Leontief) input-output analysis. In this context, we consider economic complexity as interrelatedness between the different parts or sectors of an economy, as represented by an input-output system and one interesting question emerges, namely: should we expect to find a natural move to higher complexity as the economy grows and develops? And a related one: is a larger economy necessarily more complex than a smaller one? In a first attempt to answer these questions we propose a new measure of complexity as interrelatedness that combines a network effect and a dependency effect. In the empirical part of the paper we apply this measure of complexity to the inter-industry tables of several OECD countries, and discuss some interesting findings.

A new interrelatedness indicator to measure economic complexity, with an application to the Portuguese Case

Lopes, João Carlos; Amaral, João Ferreira do; Dias, João
Fonte: International Input-Output Conference Publicador: International Input-Output Conference
Tipo: Conferência ou Objeto de Conferência
Publicado em /07/2005 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.1%
This paper is about economic complexity, treated as interrelatedness between the parts or sectors of an economy, particularly one represented by an input-output system. The complexity indicator proposed capture two relevant features of interrelatedness that can be separately measured: a dependency effect and a network effect. This indicator can be used in two contexts: the direct connections given by the technical coefficient matrix, A and the total (direct plus indirect and induced) effects given by the Leontief inverse, (I-A)-1. The first results of an empirical application to the Portuguese Case are presented, covering the period 1980-1999.

Socioeconomic Complexity and the Sociological Tradition: New wine in Old Bottles

Graça, João Carlos; Lopes, João Carlos
Fonte: ISEG – Departamento de Economia Publicador: ISEG – Departamento de Economia
Tipo: Outros
Publicado em //2008 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.18%
Complexity is a purposeful integrating framework for interdisciplinary dialogue, namely between sociologists and economists. After presenting some properties of complex (social) systems, we consider the crucial role of the economic complexity research agenda in challenging the mainstream economic paradigm. This endeavor, we suggest, can greatly benefit from a neglected but relevant aspect, the concern regarding social complexity implicit in the sociological tradition, particularly the emphasis given by Durkheim to the idea of interdependence, a keystone of complexity studies nowadays. As we underline, instead of assuming interdependence/complexity and autonomy/simplicity in a tradeoff relationship, the French sociologist takes interdependence and autonomy as fundamentally complementary and positively correlated characteristics of modern societies. This fact suggests the convenience to conceptualize complexity as a broad socioeconomic, and not just a strict economic, phenomenon. Such a purpose is certainly more damaged than benefited by the existence of the economics/sociology academic divide.

Assessing Economic Complexity with Input-Output Based Measures

Lopes, João Carlos; Dias, João; Amaral, João Ferreira do
Fonte: ISEG – Departamento de Economia Publicador: ISEG – Departamento de Economia
Tipo: Outros
Publicado em //2008 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.19%
Economic complexity can be defined as the level of interdependence between the component parts of an economy. In input-output systems, intersectoral connectedness is a crucial feature of analysis, and there are many different methods for measuring it. Most of the measures, however, have drawbacks that prevent them from being used as a good indicator of economic complexity, because they were not explicitly made with this purpose in mind. In this paper, we present, discuss and compare empirically different indexes of economic complexity as intersectoral connectedness, using the interindustry tables of several OECD countries.

Measuring the Intangibles: A Metrics for the Economic Complexity of Countries and Products

Cristelli, Matthieu; Gabrielli, Andrea; Tacchella, Andrea; Caldarelli, Guido; Pietronero, Luciano
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 05/08/2013 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.19%
We investigate a recent methodology we have proposed to extract valuable information on the competitiveness of countries and complexity of products from trade data. Standard economic theories predict a high level of specialization of countries in specific industrial sectors. However, a direct analysis of the official databases of exported products by all countries shows that the actual situation is very different. Countries commonly considered as developed ones are extremely diversified, exporting a large variety of products from very simple to very complex. At the same time countries generally considered as less developed export only the products also exported by the majority of countries. This situation calls for the introduction of a non-monetary and non-income-based measure for country economy complexity which uncovers the hidden potential for development and growth. The statistical approach we present here consists of coupled non-linear maps relating the competitiveness/fitness of countries to the complexity of their products. The fixed point of this transformation defines a metrics for the fitness of countries and the complexity of products. We argue that the key point to properly extract the economic information is the non-linearity of the map which is necessary to bound the complexity of products by the fitness of the less competitive countries exporting them. We present a detailed comparison of the results of this approach directly with those of the Method of Reflections by Hidalgo and Hausmann...

The Heterogeneous Dynamics of Economic Complexity

Cristelli, Matthieu; Tacchella, Andrea; Pietronero, Luciano
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 11/02/2015 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.05%
What will be the growth of the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) or the competitiveness of China, United States, and Vietnam in the next 3, 5 or 10 years? Despite this kind of questions has a large societal impact and an extreme value for economic policy making, providing a scientific basis for economic predictability is still a very challenging problem. Recent results of a new branch—Economic Complexity—have set the basis for a framework to approach such a challenge and to provide new perspectives to cast economic prediction into the conceptual scheme of forecasting the evolution of a dynamical system as in the case of weather dynamics. We argue that a recently introduced non-monetary metrics for country competitiveness (fitness) allows for quantifying the hidden growth potential of countries by the means of the comparison of this measure for intangible assets with monetary figures, such as GDP per capita. This comparison defines the fitness-income plane where we observe that country dynamics presents strongly heterogeneous patterns of evolution. The flow in some zones is found to be laminar while in others a chaotic behavior is instead observed. These two regimes correspond to very different predictability features for the evolution of countries: in the former regime...

Economic complexity, regime transition and sectoral forces: the impact of trade unions on democratization in Zimbabwe, South Africa and Zambia

McCorley, Ciara
Fonte: University of Limerick Publicador: University of Limerick
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/doctoralThesis; all_ul_research; ul_published_reviewed; ul_theses_dissertations
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.37%
peer-reviewed; This thesis interrogates uncertainty in transitional politics in South Africa, Zambia, and Zimbabwe. It questions why some countries transition to democracy and some stagnate or revert to authoritarianism. To address the dual nature of political contingency and structural formations in transitional politics, it adopts a conceptual framework based on economic complexity, to ascertain the relationship between economic structures and the results of regime transition. This study engages with the extensive literature linking economic development and democracy throughout the world, to see if it can be applied to the recent and on-going transitional events across Africa. It identified trade union confederations as economically important actors whose political contingency was directly affected by the sectoral composition of each country’s economy. In other world regions, trade unions have been of import in determining transitional outcomes, and this thesis interrogated whether the same was true in three African countries. The concept of economic complexity was developed to offer a conceptual framework through which to understand transitional politics. It was argued that the more complex the economy, the more likely democracy was to emerge following transition because there would be more factors in play in the political-economic arena that could erode a regime’s relative power and thus bestow power onto other actors who could utilize it for regime change. In terms of indicators...

Complexity in Financial Markets: Modeling Psychological Behavior in Agent-Based Models and Order Book Models

CRISTELLI, MATTHIEU
Fonte: La Sapienza Universidade de Roma Publicador: La Sapienza Universidade de Roma
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.13%
The fundamental idea developed throughout this work is the introduction of new metrics in Social Sciences (Economics, Finance, opinion dynamics, etc). The concept of metric, that is the concept of measure, is usually neglected by mainstream theories of Economics and Finance. Financial Markets are the natural starting point of such an approach to Social Sciences because a systematic approach can be undertaken and the methods of Physics has shown to be very effective. In fact since a decade there exists a very huge amount of high frequency data from stock exchanges which permit to perform experimental procedures as in Natural Sciences. Financial markets appear as a perfect playground where models can be tested and where repeatability of empirical evidences are well-established features differently from, for instance, Macro-Economy and Micro-Economy. Thus Finance has been the first point of contact for the interdisciplinary application of methods and tools deriving from Physics and it has been also the starting point of this work. We investigated the origin of the so-called Stylized Facts of financial markets (i.e. the statistical properties of financial time series) in the framework of agent-based models. We found that Stylized Facts can be interpreted as a finite size effect in terms of the number of effectively independent agents (i.e. strategy) which results to be a key variable to understand the self-organization of financial markets. As a second issue we focused our attention on the order book dynamics both from a theoretical and a data oriented point of view. We developed a zero intelligence model in order to investigate the role of vanishing liquidity in the price response to incoming orders. Within the framework of this model we have analyzed the effect of the introduction of strategies pointing out that simple strategic behaviors can explain bursts of intermittency and long memory effects. On the other hand we quantitatively showed that there exists a feedback effect in markets called self-fulfilling prophecy which is the mechanism through which technical trading can exist and work. This feature is a very interesting quantitative evidence of a self-reinforcement of agents’ belief. Last but not least nowadays we live in a computerized and networked society where many of our actions leave a digital trace and affect other people’s actions. This has lead to the emergence of a new data-driven research field. In this work we highlighted how non financial data can be used to track financial activity...

Economic Networks: What Do We Know and What Do We Need to Know?

SCHWEITZER, Frank; FAGIOLO, Giorgio; SORNETTE, Didier; VEGA-REDONDO, Fernando; WHITE, Douglas R.
Fonte: World Scientific Publ Co Pte Ltd Publicador: World Scientific Publ Co Pte Ltd
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.07%
We examine the emergent field of economic networks and explore its ability to shed light on the global and volatile economy where credit, ownership, innovation, investment, and virtually every other economic activity is carried at a scale and scope that respects no geographical, organizational, or political boundaries. In this context, the study of economic networks and their dynamics must reflect the vast complexity of the interaction patterns and integrate it with a realistic account of the incentives and information that govern agents' behavior. The interplay of both has been shown to produce metastabilities, system crashes, and emergent structures in ways that are yet only poorly understood. Meeting this exciting scientific challenge requires a combination of time-series analysis, complexity theory, and simulation with the analytical tools that have been developed by game theory, as well as graph and matrix theories. We argue that this will help achieving a better integration of theory and data models and provide a better understanding of the potentials and risks of modern economic systems.

Le rôle de l’évaluation économique dans la pratique des médecins de famille = The role of economic evaluation in the practice of family physicians

Lessard, Chantale
Fonte: Université de Montréal Publicador: Université de Montréal
Tipo: Thèse ou Mémoire numérique / Electronic Thesis or Dissertation
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.2%
L’évaluation économique en santé consiste en l’analyse comparative d’alternatives de services en regard à la fois de leurs coûts et de leurs conséquences. Elle est un outil d’aide à la décision. La grande majorité des décisions concernant l’allocation des ressources sont prises en clinique; particulièrement au niveau des soins primaires. Puisque chaque décision est associée à un coût d’opportunité, la non-prise en compte des considérations économiques dans les pratiques des médecins de famille peut avoir un impact important sur l’efficience du système de santé. Il existe peu de connaissances quant à l’influence des évaluations économiques sur la pratique clinique. L’objet de la thèse est de comprendre le rôle de l’évaluation économique dans la pratique des médecins de famille. Ses contributions font l’objet de quatre articles originaux (philosophique, théorique, méthodologique et empirique). L’article philosophique suggère l’importance des questions de complexité et de réflexivité en évaluation économique. La complexité est la perspective philosophique, (approche générale épistémologique) qui sous-tend la thèse. Cette vision du monde met l’attention sur l’explication et la compréhension et sur les relations et les interactions (causalité interactive). Cet accent sur le contexte et le processus de production des données souligne l’importance de la réflexivité dans le processus de recherche. L’article théorique développe une conception nouvelle et différente du problème de recherche. L’originalité de la thèse réside également dans son approche qui s’appuie sur la perspective de la théorie sociologique de Pierre Bourdieu; une approche théorique cohérente avec la complexité. Opposé aux modèles individualistes de l’action rationnelle...

The building blocks of economic complexity

Hidalgo, César A.; Hausmann, Ricardo
Fonte: National Academy of Sciences Publicador: National Academy of Sciences
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.16%
For Adam Smith, wealth was related to the division of labor. As people and firms specialize in different activities, economic efficiency increases, suggesting that development is associated with an increase in the number of individual activities and with the complexity that emerges from the interactions between them. Here we develop a view of economic growth and development that gives a central role to the complexity of a country's economy by interpreting trade data as a bipartite network in which countries are connected to the products they export, and show that it is possible to quantify the complexity of a country's economy by characterizing the structure of this network. Furthermore, we show that the measures of complexity we derive are correlated with a country's level of income, and that deviations from this relationship are predictive of future growth. This suggests that countries tend to converge to the level of income dictated by the complexity of their productive structures, indicating that development efforts should focus on generating the conditions that would allow complexity to emerge to generate sustained growth and prosperity.

A New Metrics for Countries' Fitness and Products' Complexity

Tacchella, Andrea; Cristelli, Matthieu; Caldarelli, Guido; Gabrielli, Andrea; Pietronero, Luciano
Fonte: Nature Publishing Group Publicador: Nature Publishing Group
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 10/10/2012 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.03%
Classical economic theories prescribe specialization of countries industrial production. Inspection of the country databases of exported products shows that this is not the case: successful countries are extremely diversified, in analogy with biosystems evolving in a competitive dynamical environment. The challenge is assessing quantitatively the non-monetary competitive advantage of diversification which represents the hidden potential for development and growth. Here we develop a new statistical approach based on coupled non-linear maps, whose fixed point defines a new metrics for the country Fitness and product Complexity. We show that a non-linear iteration is necessary to bound the complexity of products by the fitness of the less competitive countries exporting them. We show that, given the paradigm of economic complexity, the correct and simplest approach to measure the competitiveness of countries is the one presented in this work. Furthermore our metrics appears to be economically well-grounded.

Measuring economic complexity of countries and products: which metric to use?

Mariani, Manuel Sebastian; Vidmer, Alexandre; Medo, Matus; Zhang, Yi-Cheng
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 04/09/2015 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.15%
Evaluating the economies of countries and their relations with products in the global market is a central problem in economics, with far-reaching implications to our theoretical understanding of the international trade as well as to practical applications, such as policy making and financial investment planning. The recent Economic Complexity approach aims to quantify the competitiveness of countries and the quality of the exported products based on the empirical observation that the most competitive countries have diversified exports, whereas developing countries only export few low quality products -- typically those exported by many other countries. Two different metrics, Fitness-Complexity and the Method of Reflections, have been proposed to measure country and product score in the Economic Complexity framework. We use international trade data and a recent ranking evaluation measure to quantitatively compare the ability of the two metrics to rank countries and products according to their importance in the network. The results show that the Fitness-Complexity metric outperforms the Method of Reflections in both the ranking of products and the ranking of countries. We also investigate a Generalization of the Fitness-Complexity metric and show that it can produce improved rankings provided that the input data are reliable.

The Building Blocks of Economic Complexity

Hidalgo, Cesar A.; Hausmann, Ricardo
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 21/09/2009 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.16%
For Adam Smith, wealth was related to the division of labor. As people and firms specialize in different activities, economic efficiency increases, suggesting that development is associated with an increase in the number of individual activities and with the complexity that emerges from the interactions between them. Here we develop a view of economic growth and development that gives a central role to the complexity of a country's economy by interpreting trade data as a bipartite network in which countries are connected to the products they export, and show that it is possible to quantify the complexity of a country's economy by characterizing the structure of this network. Furthermore, we show that the measures of complexity we derive are correlated with a country's level of income, and that deviations from this relationship are predictive of future growth. This suggests that countries tend to converge to the level of income dictated by the complexity of their productive structures, indicating that development efforts should focus on generating the conditions that would allow complexity to emerge in order to generate sustained growth and prosperity.; Comment: 20 Pages (double space), 4 figures

Linking Economic Complexity, Institutions and Income Inequality

Hartmann, D.; Guevara, M. R.; Jara-Figueroa, C.; Aristarán, M.; Hidalgo, C. A.
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.09%
A country's mix of products predicts its subsequent pattern of diversification and economic growth. But does this product mix also predict income inequality? Here we combine methods from econometrics and network science to show that countries exporting complex products have less income inequality than countries exporting simpler products and that increases in economic complexity are accompanied by decreases in income inequality. The connection between economic complexity and income inequality is robust to controlling for measures of income, institutions, and human capital. Additionally, we measure the level of income inequality of the countries exporting a product and use this measure together with the network of related products (or product space) to illustrate how changes in a country's productive structure translate into changes in income inequality. These findings suggest that social policies alone might lack the strength required to fully modify income inequality in absence of changes to a country's productive structure.

Economic complexity, regime transition and sectoral forces: the impact of trade unions on democratization in Zimbabwe, South Africa and Zambia

McCorley, Ciara
Fonte: University of Limerick Publicador: University of Limerick
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/doctoralThesis; all_ul_research; ul_published_reviewed; ul_theses_dissertations
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.37%
peer-reviewed; This thesis interrogates uncertainty in transitional politics in South Africa, Zambia, and Zimbabwe. It questions why some countries transition to democracy and some stagnate or revert to authoritarianism. To address the dual nature of political contingency and structural formations in transitional politics, it adopts a conceptual framework based on economic complexity, to ascertain the relationship between economic structures and the results of regime transition. This study engages with the extensive literature linking economic development and democracy throughout the world, to see if it can be applied to the recent and on-going transitional events across Africa. It identified trade union confederations as economically important actors whose political contingency was directly affected by the sectoral composition of each country’s economy. In other world regions, trade unions have been of import in determining transitional outcomes, and this thesis interrogated whether the same was true in three African countries. The concept of economic complexity was developed to offer a conceptual framework through which to understand transitional politics. It was argued that the more complex the economy, the more likely democracy was to emerge following transition because there would be more factors in play in the political-economic arena that could erode a regime’s relative power and thus bestow power onto other actors who could utilize it for regime change. In terms of indicators...