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Demanda de energia na indústria brasileira: efeitos da eficiência energética; Energy demand of brazilian industry: effects of energy efficiency

Salazar, Marlon Bruno
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 09/03/2012 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.07%
A conservação de energia, mais precisamente a eficiência energética, vem ganhando importância nos últimos anos no Brasil e no mundo em função dos impactos ambientais que o uso intensivo de energia gera ao meio ambiente e pelo fato de a oferta de energia, principalmente as derivadas de fontes não renováveis, estar se tornando cada vez mais escassa. Estudos que abordam os impactos que os ganhos de eficiência podem gerar em termos de custos e na conservação de energia e, por conseguinte, na diminuição dos efeitos da atividade industrial no meio ambiente vem ganhando importância. Este trabalho teve como motivação principal determinar o impacto da Eficiência Energética na demanda de energia da indústria brasileira. Para isso utilizaram-se duas metodologias complementares para dissertar a respeito do tema. Primeiramente, a intensidade energética foi decomposta em dois efeitos distintos, Efeito Intensidade e Efeito Estrutural. Os resultados encontrados sugerem que o Efeito Intensidade foi o principal responsável pela perda de Eficiência no consumo de energia pela indústria. Como o Efeito Intensidade é uma importante proxy para a Eficiência Energética, buscou-se determinar o impacto desta no consumo de energia pela industria brasileira. Outras variáveis também foram utilizadas para compor a função de demanda de energia...

Final energy demand in Portugal: How persistent it is and why it matters for environmental policy

Belbute, José; Pereira, Alfredo
Fonte: Universidade de Évora Publicador: Universidade de Évora
Tipo: Aula
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.14%
The objective of this paper is to analyze the degree of persistence of final energy demand in Portugal. Our results suggest the presence of a strong level of persistence for aggregate final energy demand. Final demand for gas is the most persistent component of energy demand, while the final demand for coal is the least persistent. In turn, final demand for petroleum and biomass tend to have levels of persistence similar to aggregate final demand. The case of final demand for electricity is inconclusive. These results have the important implication for the design of environmental policies. First, the fact that final energy demand is highly persistent is good news in that environmental policies in Portugal can be implemented in a favorable setting in which their effects will tend to be long lasting. Second, the high persistence of gas and the fact that biomass and petroleum have levels of persistence that are similar suggests that fuel switching policies will be relatively easy to implement in these cases. The case of coal is somewhat different in that switching away from coal may not be easy. In turn, the case of electricity is somewhat ambiguous. While the fact that it is also highly persistent suggests that shocks to its final demand will produce long lasting effects...

Final energy demand in Portugal: How persistent it is and why it matters for environmental policy

Belbute, José; Pereira, Alfredo
Fonte: EAERE, 18th Annual Conference of the European Association of Environmental and Resource Economists Publicador: EAERE, 18th Annual Conference of the European Association of Environmental and Resource Economists
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.14%
The objective of this paper is to analyze the degree of persistence of final energy demand in Portugal. Our results suggest the presence of a strong level of persistence for aggregate final energy demand. Final demand for gas is the most persistent component of energy demand, while the final demand for coal is the least persistent. In turn, final demand for petroleum and biomass tend to have levels of persistence similar to aggregate final demand. The case of final demand for electricity is inconclusive. These results have the important implication for the design of environmental policies. First, the fact that final energy demand is highly persistent is good news in that environmental policies in Portugal can be implemented in a favorable setting in which their effects will tend to be long lasting. Second, the high persistence of gas and the fact that biomass and petroleum have levels of persistence that are similar suggests that fuel switching policies will be relatively easy to implement in these cases. The case of coal is somewhat different in that switching away from coal may not be easy. In turn, the case of electricity is somewhat ambiguous. While the fact that it is also highly persistent suggests that shocks to its final demand will produce long lasting effects...

Final energy demand in Portugal: How persistent it is and why it matters for environmental policy

Pereira, Alfredo Marvão; Belbute, José Manuel
Fonte: Universidade de Évora Publicador: Universidade de Évora
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.14%
The objective of this paper is to analyze the degree of persistence of final energy demand in Portugal. Our results suggest the presence of a strong level of persistence for aggregate final energy demand. Final demand for gas is the most persistent component of energy demand, while the final demand for coal is the least persistent. In turn, final demand for petroleum and biomass tend to have levels of persistence similar to aggregate final demand. The case of final demand for electricity is inconclusive. These results have the important implication for the design of environmental policies. First, the fact that final energy demand is highly persistent is good news in that environmental policies in Portugal can be implemented in a favorable setting in which their effects will tend to be long lasting. Second, the high persistence of gas and the fact that biomass and petroleum have levels of persistence that are similar suggests that fuel switching policies will be relatively easy to implement in these cases. The case of coal is somewhat different in that switching away from coal may not be easy. In turn, the case of electricity is somewhat ambiguous. While the fact that it is also highly persistent suggests that shocks to its final demand will produce long lasting effects...

Final Energy Demand in Portugal: How Persistent it is and Why it Matters for Environmental Policy

Belbute, José; Pereira, Alfredo
Fonte: Universidade de Évora Publicador: Universidade de Évora
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.12%
The objective of this paper is to examine the degree of persistence in final energy demand in Portugal. Our results suggest that when structural breaks are accounted for aggregate energy demand and all of its components are stationary. Accordingly, the response to shocks is not permanent. We find, however, strong levels of persistence. Demand for electricity is the most persistent component of aggregate demand while the levels of persistence for petroleum and gas are similar and close to the aggregate level. In turn, demand for coal and biomass are also similar and the least persistent. These results have important implications for the design of macroeconomic policies. Indeed, high persistent levels mean that temporary energy shocks translate into persistent changes in energy demand and thereby in less transient shocks to the overall economy. These results are also important for the design of environmental policies. The fact that energy demand is highly persistent means that the effects of environmental policies will tend to be long lasting. Also, the relatively high persistence of electricity, gas and petroleum and the fact that their levels of persistence are similar suggests that fuel switching policies involving these fuels will be relatively easy to implement.

A residential energy demand system for Spain

Labandeira Villot, Xavier; Labeaga, José María; Rodriguez, Miguel A.
Fonte: MIT Center for Energy and Environmental Policy Research Publicador: MIT Center for Energy and Environmental Policy Research
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento Formato: 37 p
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.01%
Sharp price fluctuations and increasing environmental and distributional concerns, among other issues, have led to a renewed academic interest in energy demand. In this paper we estimate, for the first time in Spain, an energy demand system with household microdata. In doing so, we tackle several econometric and data problems that are generally recognized to bias parameter estimates. This is obviously relevant, as obtaining correct price and income responses is essential if they may be used for assessing the economic consequences of hypothetical or real changes. With this objective, we combine data sources for a long time period and choose a demand system with flexible income and price responses. We also estimate the model in different sub-samples to capture varying responses to energy price changes by households living in rural, intermediate and urban areas. This constitutes a first attempt in the literature and it proved to be a very successful choice.

Energy Demand Models for Policy Formulation : A Comparative Study of Energy Demand Models

Bhattacharyya, Subhes C.; Timilsina, Govinda R.
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.25%
This paper critically reviews existing energy demand forecasting methodologies highlighting the methodological diversities and developments over the past four decades in order to investigate whether the existing energy demand models are appropriate for capturing the specific features of developing countries. The study finds that two types of approaches, econometric and end-use accounting, are used in the existing energy demand models. Although energy demand models have greatly evolved since the early 1970s, key issues such as the poor-rich and urban-rural divides, traditional energy resources, and differentiation between commercial and non-commercial energy commodities are often poorly reflected in these models. While the end-use energy accounting models with detailed sector representations produce more realistic projections compared with the econometric models, they still suffer from huge data deficiencies especially in developing countries. Development and maintenance of more detailed energy databases...

Modelling Energy Demand of Developing Countries: Are the Specific Features Adequately Captured?

Bhattacharyya, Subhes C.; Timilsina, Govinda R.
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.12%
This paper critically reviews existing energy demand forecasting methodologies highlighting the methodological diversities and developments over the past four decades in order to investigate whether the existing energy demand models are appropriate for capturing the specific features of developing countries. The study finds that two types of approaches, econometric and end-use accounting, are commonly used in the existing energy demand models. Although energy demand models have greatly evolved since the early seventies, key issues such as the poor-rich and urban-rural divides, traditional energy resources and differentiation between commercial and non-commercial energy commodities are often poorly reflected in these models. While the end-use energy accounting models with detailed sectoral representations produce more realistic projections as compared to the econometric models, they still suffer from huge data deficiencies especially in developing countries. Development and maintenance of more detailed energy databases, further development of models to better reflect developing country context and institutionalizing the modelling capacity in developing countries are the key requirements for energy demand modelling to deliver richer and more reliable input to policy formulation in developing countries.

Options for a Low Carbon Energy Future in Morocco

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.17%
Morocco s economy is growing rapidly in all its sectors (tourism, agriculture, industry , etc.) Consequently, the energy demand has been increasing steadily in the period 2003-2007 when primary energy demand rose by 5% per annum and electricity demand by 8% per annum. At the request of the World Bank Group, this study was launched having 3 main objectives: An analysis of the current characteristics of energy supply and demand, the assessment of the energy strategy of Morocco for the coming years, and then a development of an alternative energy scenario with low carbon energies. Beicip-Franlab has established a detailed energy balance of Morocco on the basis ofMoroccan and international studies already conducted on the energy sector of Morocco as well as on well known databases like IEA ones.For the period 2009-2030, Morocco has defined an energy strategy which was presented during the first Assises de l Energie organized in March 2009. An assessment of this strategy considering both energy and environmental criteria will be presented in order to be compared with the business as usual scenario.Finally an alternative scenario is proposed. Based on an intensive introduction ofrenewable energy (RE) and energy efficiency (EE)...

Romania : Energy Sector Rapid Assessment

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.16%
The energy sector rapid assessment was conducted by the World Bank for the Government of Romania, as part of an advisory services program on climate change and low carbon green growth. The objective of this assessment is to identify climate change related investment priorities and necessary implementation support for the 2014-2020 operational programs, with a view to achieving the European Union (EU) 2020 targets and laying a foundation for continued de-carbonization of the energy sector. This rapid assessment focuses on climate change mitigation actions in power and heat generation and in energy use in manufacturing, residential, public, and commercial sectors. Energy use and efficiency in the transport sector is studied in a separate transport sector rapid assessment. It includes in-depth investigation of the main energy end-use sectors or subsectors, low-carbon energy supply optimization based on long-term energy demand patterns and trends, and the design and approaches of key energy efficiency intervention programs...

Price Elasticity of Nonresidential Demand for Energy in South Eastern Europe

Iimi, Atsushi
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.23%
Recent volatility in international energy prices has revealed South Eastern Europe as one of the most vulnerable regions to such external shocks. Under the current global economic downturn, in addition, the region s energy-intensive industries are faced with the challenge of the weakening demand for their outputs. This paper casts light on the relationship between the price and the demand for energy. Based on firm level data, it is shown that the price elasticity of industrial energy demand is about -0.4 on average. There are a number of data issues to interpret the results correctly. But Albania and Macedonia are systematically found to have a relatively elastic demand for energy on the order of -0.7 to -0.8. In these countries, therefore, price adjustments would be one of the effective policy options to balance demand with supply during the period of energy crisis. In other countries, the demand response would be much weaker; pricing cannot be the only solution. Other policy measures, such as facilitation of firm energy efficiency and improvements in the quality of infrastructure services...

Residential Energy Demand in Australia: an Application of Dynamic OLS

Akmal, Muhammad; Stern, David I
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Working/Technical Paper Formato: 181328 bytes; application/pdf
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.04%
This paper reports estimates of the long-run elasticities of residential demand for electricity, natural gas and other fuels for Australia. The dynamic OLS (DOLS) framework is used to estimate logarithmic demand equations with previously unpublished national-level quarterly data. Significant substitution possibilities are found between electricity and gas and between electricity and other fuels. However, the cross-price elasticity of gas with respect to the price of residual fuels is negative. Our results are similar to other Australian and North American estimates but are more theoretically consistent than previous Australian estimates. We confirm that Australian residential energy demand is much more price responsive than North American residential energy demand.; no

The Structure of Australian Residential Energy Demand

Akmal, Muhammad; Stern, David I
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Working/Technical Paper Formato: 110738 bytes; application/pdf
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.99%
This paper presents the first national-level econometric estimates of the residential energy demand system for Australia. We estimate an Almost Ideal (AI) demand system for electricity, gas, and other miscellaneous fuels (mainly oil and wood) using quarterly data for both the country as a whole and for a panel of the five most populous States. The national data set covers the period from 1969 Q3 to 1998 Q2, while the state level data is only available from 1984 Q3 onwards. According to the national-level data, the pairs of electricity and miscellaneous fuels and gas and miscellaneous fuels are significant substitutes, whereas electricity and gas - the two main fuels - may be complements. The panel model, in contrast, finds significant substitution possibilities between gas and miscellaneous fuels only. The cross-price elasticities between electricity and gas are positive but not significant. The gas own-price elasticity is zero in the national model and unit elastic in the panel model. A national model estimated over the same shorter time period still shows complementarity between electricity and natural gas but most results are insignificant. Both large time-series and cross-sectional dimensions are valuable in estimating elasticities. Compared to North American estimates...

Energy and Emissions : Local and Global Effects of the Rise of China and India

Shalizi, Zmarak
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.2%
Part 1 of the paper reviews recent trends in fossil fuel use and associated externalities. It also argues that the recent run-up in international oil prices reflects growing concerns about supply constraints associated with declining spare capacity in OPEC, refining bottlenecks, and geopolitical uncertainties rather than growing incremental use of oil by China and India. Part 2 compares two business as usual scenarios with a set of alternate scenarios based on policy interventions on the demand for or supply of energy and different assumptions about rigidities in domestic and international energy markets. The results suggest that energy externalities are likely to worsen significantly if there is no shift in China's and India's energy strategies. High energy demand from China and India could constrain some developing countries' growth through higher prices on international energy markets, but for others the "growth retarding" effects of higher energy prices are partially or fully offset by the "growth stimulating" effects of the larger markets in China and India. Given that there are many inefficiencies in the energy system in both China and India...

Public Procurement of Energy Efficient Products Lessons from Around the World

Singh, Jas; Culver, Alicia; Bitlis, Melis
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: ESMAP Paper; Publications & Research
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.18%
This report assesses global experiences with Energy Efficient Purchasing (EEP) as a tool to help governments improve the efficiency of their facilities and public services. In many developed countries, EEP is increasingly becoming subsumed within broader Green Public Procurement (GPP) or sustainable procurement policies, where EE is only one indicator among many others. Global energy needs are increasing at a steady pace. Rapid industrial development and growing populations have led to an exponential growth in worldwide energy consumption. According to the international energy agency, demand for energy is projected to grow steadily from 2010 to 2035, representing a 40 percent increase. About 90 percent of this increase will come from developing countries. As these countries continue to urbanize, develop their industrial infrastructure, and provide universal access to basic services, strains on the existing energy infrastructure and resources will intensify. This, coupled with a substantial rise in the middle class in many of the emerging economies...

Demand-Side Management in China's Restructured Power Industry : How Regulation and Policy Can Deliver Demand-Side Management Benefits to a Growing Economy and a Changing Power System

Hu, Zhaoguang; Moskovitz, David; Zhao, Jianping
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: ESMAP Paper; Publications & Research
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.19%
China expects its gross domestic product in 2020 to be four times that of 2000. Limits on energy resources and China's environmental needs require that electricity use grow at a much lower rate than the economy. Demand-side management (DSM) is a critical component of China's sustainable development. It is a set of tools and practices taken by utilities to influence the amount and/or timing of customers' energy demand in order to utilize scarce electric supply resources most efficiently. DSM is a proven method of meeting economic goals in an environmentally sustainable way, and it is also a fast and effective way to address power shortages. This report reviews China's experience with DSM, explores the barriers to and the potential for new demand-side investment, and examines successful DSM strategies in other countries. It suggests the near-and long-term regulatory and government policies needed to support substantial new investment in comprehensive, cost-effective programs for end-use efficiency and load management.

The CEDSS model of direct domestic energy demand

Gotts, Nicholas Mark; Polhill, J. Gary
Fonte: Universidade Autônoma de Barcelona Publicador: Universidade Autônoma de Barcelona
Tipo: Conferência ou Objeto de Conferência Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em //2014 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.02%
This paper describes the design, implementation and testing of the CEDSS model of direct domestic energy demand, and the first results of its use to produce estimates of future demand under a range of scenarios. CEDSS simulates direct domestic energy demand at within communities of approximately 200 households. The scenarios explored differ in the economic conditions assumed, and policy measures adopted at national level.

The Economics of Energy (and Electricity) Demand

Platchkov, Laura M.; Pollitt, Michael G.
Fonte: Faculty of Economics Publicador: Faculty of Economics
Tipo: Working Paper; not applicable
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.16%
Economic drivers, technologies and demand side management are keys in understanding the long-term trends of both energy and more specifically electricity consumption. This paper discusses some of the important economics foundations of energy demand in general, and electricity in particular. First, we look at the macro-economic context of energy. This reveals how energy and electricity consumption are subject to the same drivers - income and price - over long periods. However, energy demand (and carbon emissions) falls and energy prices rises in one country may have little effect at the world level. Next, we examine the features of energy service expenditures. Despite similarities over time, specific sectors are distinct from one another in terms of consumption profiles, and new sources of electricity demand may substantially change total demand and the way it is consumed. This leads us to a closer look at the micro-economic context of energy demand, and the tension between technically possible energy savings one one side, and the economics and behavioural dimensions on the other side. We conclude by highlighting the various unknowns and uncertainties that characterise the future of energy demand.

Energy demand projections and relevance of income dynamics in Gauteng's residential sector

Senatla,Mamahloko
Fonte: Journal of Energy in Southern Africa Publicador: Journal of Energy in Southern Africa
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2011 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
76.2%
Energy modelling serves as a crucial tool for informing both energy policy and strategy development. But the modelling process is faced with both sectoral energy data and structural challenges. Among all the sectors, the residential sector usually presents a huge challenge to the modelling profession due to the dynamic nature of the sector. The challenge is brought by the fact that each an every household in a region may have different energy consumption characteristics and the computing power of the available models cannot incorporate all the details of individual household characteristics. Even if there was enough computing power within the models, energy consumption is collected through surveys and as a result only a sample of a region is captured. These challenges have forced energy modellers to categorise households that have similar characteristics. Different researchers choose different methods for categorising the households. Some researchers choose to categorise households by location and climate, others choose housing types while others choose quintiles. Currently, there is no consensus on which categorisation method takes precedence over others. In these myriad ways of categorising households, the determining factor employed in each method is what is assumed to be the driver of energy demand in that particular area of study. Many researchers acknowledge that households' income...

Energy supply in Malawi: Options and issues

Taulo,John L; Gondwe,Kenneth Joseph; Sebitosi,Adoniya Ben
Fonte: Journal of Energy in Southern Africa Publicador: Journal of Energy in Southern Africa
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/05/2015 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.15%
Inadequate energy supply is one of the major problems confronting Malawi and limiting its social, economic and industrial development. This paper reviews the current status of energy supply and demand in Malawi; examines the major sources of energy, current exploitation status and their potential contribution to the electricity supply of the country; discusses key issues facing the energy sector; and identifies broad strategies to be implemented to tackle the energy supply challenges. Using secondary data for its critical analysis, the paper also presents modelling of long-term energy demand forecast in the economic sectors of Malawi using the Model for Analysis of Energy Demand (MAED) for a study period from 2008-2030. Three scenarios namely reference (REF), moderate growth (MGS) and accelerated growth (AGS) were formulated to simulate possible future long-term energy demand based on socio-economic and technological development with the base year of 2008. Results from all scenarios suggest an increased energy demand in consuming sectors with biomass being a dominant energy form in household and industry sectors in the study period. Forecast results reveal that energy demand will increase at an annual growth rate of 1.2% and reach 5160 ktoe in 2030 under REF scenario. The growth rates for MGS and AGS are projected at 1.5% each reaching 4639 ktoe and 5974 ktoe in 2030...