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Política energética e desigualdades regionais na economia brasileira; Energy policy and regional inequalities in the Brazilian economy

Santos, Gervásio Ferreira dos
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 26/02/2010 Português
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O objetivo desta tese é avaliar os impactos regionais de longo prazo da política tarifária do setor elétrico brasileiro. As reformas estruturais neste setor determinaram o surgimento de duas diferentes tendências de distribuição espacial das tarifas de energia elétrica entre os estados brasileiros: uma de convergência e outra de dispersão espacial. A disparidade regional das tarifas no período recente vem sendo influenciada pelas características espaciais da economia brasileira, dentre as quais a elevada concentração espacial e distribuição hierárquica de grandes mercados no espaço. Nesse sentido, os diferenciais de preços de energia elétrica tendem a ser causados pelos diferenciais de tamanho de mercado, os quais fornecem diferentes condições para a obtenção de economias de escala pelas companhias de distribuição de energia elétrica. Com base nesses elementos e na evidência de que o produto energia elétrica é um insumo importante no processo produtivo, foi construído um modelo Interregional de Equilíbrio Geral Computável para análise de política energética. As simulações mostraram evidências de que as ligações de insumo-produto, a heterogeneidade espacial da intensidade de energia elétrica e os diferenciais regionais de substituição energética estão entre os principais determinantes dos impactos espaciais da variação no preço da energia elétrica. Por outro lado...

The effectiveness of government initiatives in energy conservation

Boshier, John F.
Fonte: MIT Energy Laboratory Publicador: MIT Energy Laboratory
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento Formato: 3462583 bytes; application/pdf
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Energy policy in the US is characterized by two motivations: to stem the flow of currency to the oil producing nations, and to prevent energy prices rising as much as it is now being feared they will. Conservation has been seized upon as a principal initiative, and the two most important components of present policy are the investment tax credit and energy taxes. The investment tax credit is aimed toward improving the way energy is used without raising the price. It lowers the price of capital relative to energy for applications where there is a tradeoff. But this measure is working against the current of wider taxation measures which stimulate energy growth through lowering the price of capital and raising the price of labor, thus encouraging investment in energy intensive equipment to substitute for labor. The conservation investment tax credit does not reverse this trend. Nor does it have a significant effect in raising the rate of return on an investment in conservation, which is dominated by the energy savings and the expected inflation in energy prices. In summary, it appears that the tax credit will have difficulty achieving the goals set for it. An encouragement of activities that conserve or substitute for energy by promoting employment rather than extra capital investment is necessary. In a society...

Independent assessment of energy policy models : two case studies

Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Model Assessment Group.
Fonte: MIT Energy Laboratory Publicador: MIT Energy Laboratory
Tipo: Relatório Formato: 13822037 bytes; application/pdf
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Energy policy models are playing an increasingly important and visible role in supporting both private and public energy policy research and decision making. As importance has increased so too has the need for model review and assessment to assist in establishing model credibility for users and those affected by model-based policy research. Toward this end EPRI has sponsored the M.I.T. Energy Laboratory in a one-year project to assess two important energy system models, the Baughman-Joskow Regionalized Electricity Model and the Wharton Annual Energy Model, and to identify and analyze organizational and procedural issues in the model assessment process.; Prepared for the Electric Power Research Institute, Palo Alto, CA.

Independent assessment of energy policy models : two case studies

Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Model Assessment Group.
Fonte: MIT Energy Laboratory Publicador: MIT Energy Laboratory
Tipo: Relatório Formato: 13822037 bytes; application/pdf
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
75.96%
Energy policy models are playing an increasingly important and visible role in supporting both private and public energy policy research and decision making. As importance has increased so too has the need for model review and assessment to assist in establishing model credibility for users and those affected by model-based policy research. Toward this end EPRI has sponsored the M.I.T. Energy Laboratory in a one-year project to assess two important energy system models, the Baughman-Joskow Regionalized Electricity Model and the Wharton Annual Energy Model, and to identify and analyze organizational and procedural issues in the model assessment process.; Prepared for the Electric Power Research Institute, Palo Alto, CA.

Papers presented at a Conference on Energy Prices, Inflation and Economic Activity, November 7-9, 1979.

MIT Energy Lab
Fonte: MIT Energy Laboratory Publicador: MIT Energy Laboratory
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento Formato: 14701844 bytes; application/pdf
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Sponsored by the M.I.T. Center for Energy Policy Research.

Legal Feasibility of Schengen-like Agreements in European Energy Policy: The Cases of Nuclear Cooperation and Gas Security of Supply

AHNER, Nicole; GLACHANT, Jean-Michel; DE HAUTECLOCQUE, Adrien
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento Formato: application/pdf; digital
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European energy policy is characterized by a complex allocation of authority between the European Union and its Member States which results in an intricate interplay of regulatory competence. Knowing the difficulties European countries face in coordinating and proposing common solutions in the area of energy, there is the urgent need to question the legal foundations underlying the decisionmaking process. Institutional paralysis, low reactivity to events and changes as well as systematic political horse-trading across all questions call for an alternative framework allowing some pioneering Member States to promote ad hoc common policies escaping the formal and procedural requirements of EU law. Our paper assesses the legal feasibility of short-run differentiation by means of partial international agreements inspired by the Schengen regime, namely entirely outside the EU framework. The key challenge from a legal point of view is to assess the substantive compatibility of such agreements in energy with the existing rules of the Union. Short run differentiation in energy cannot indeed be assessed at a high level of generalities. We therefore take two areas where legally-binding coordination at the sub-Union level is often called for: nuclear policy and gas security of supply. The possible substantive content of such cooperation is derived from the economic and political literature before legal feasibility is assessed. Our findings suggest that the scope for such agreements is limited for security of gas supply whereas it could be an improved cooperation device in certain areas of nuclear policy.; Loyola de Palacio Programme on Energy Policy

Toward a Smart EU Energy Policy: Rationale and 22 Recommendations

GLACHANT, Jean-Michel; GRANT, Robert; HAFNER, Manfred; DE JONG, Jacques
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento Formato: application/pdf; digital
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We are in desperate need of an EU Energy Policy. The facts are that, yes, there is indeed an EU Energy Policy. It is a policy based on a vision, a vision with three components. The policy is aiming for “markets, competition and efficiency”, it is equally focussing on “a sustainable energy economy”, and thirdly, it wants to “secure the EU’s energy supply”. Three objectives, three separate action lines. Balancing the three objectives in an integrated approach is challenging and difficult. To what extent is the market approach consistent with the other two policy packages? What impact does a climate package with tradable emission rights and non-tradable targets for green energy have on the market designs for gas and electricity? Are the necessary investments in new pipes and wires for securing our energy supplies sufficiently coming under the prevailing regulatory framework? Or, to put it differently; are we smart enough in the way in which we are making implementing steps in order to meet our stated objectives? Our paper ends with a proposed new vision and a set of 22 recommendations to the new European Commission.

Towards a European energy policy : resources and constraints in EU law

BONAFÉ MARTÍNEZ, Ernesto
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Português
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The European Union (EU) has set the objective to achieve a secure, sustainable and competitive energy. The development of a European energy policy is constantly emphasised in the declarations of EU political leaders. This thesis provides an assessment of the legal feasibility of an EU energy policy in the areas of industrial restructuring, institutional reform and security of supply. The first chapter looks into the Endesa saga, which offers a paradigmatic case concerning the tensions between energy champions and energy markets. Successive national and ‘foreign’ takeover bids for Endesa are examined at national and EU level by different authorities according to different legal regimes, which show the ambivalent contribution of the merger control to the development of an energy policy. The persistence of monopolistic structures despite energy liberalisation requires the reinforcement of the role of regulatory authorities, as analysed in chapter two. However, one cannot expect that national regulatory authorities and the newly created European Agency for the Cooperation of Energy Regulators enjoy the same powers and level of independence as their integration within Member States and the EU operates on the basis of different legal and institutional principles. Chapter three addresses security of energy supply...

Germany's energy demand and supply until 2020 : implications for Germany's foreign energy policy

Stellmann, Lars
Fonte: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: xii, 59 p. : col. ill., col. map ;
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Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited; The purpose of this thesis is to provide an overview of Germany's energy supply options until 2020, the political implications and the respective consequences for Germany's foreign energy policy. The oil and gas supply situation for Germany will become more complex in the upcoming decade. Since oil imports from the UK and Syria are expected to cease after 2005, 18% of the current oil supply will have to be substituted within this decade. Russia may not be available to provide the amount necessary. The gas situation is somewhat less urgent, as a supply shift will have to take place only after 2010, when the Norwegian and Dutch gas reserves cease to satisfy the export demand. The only regions that will be able to provide oil and gas on a global level to meet the growing world demand will be the Middle East, Russia and other Caspian Sea neighbors. Germany's welfare is directly dependent on its economical success. As a highly industrialized country, Germany should take a tremendous interest not only in the future development of the international energy market, but also in attempting to influence the development immediately following that of its domestic needs.; Lieutenant Commander...

How the European Union is preparing the "Third Industrial Revolution" with an innovative energy policy

PIEBALGS, Andris
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento Formato: application/pdf
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It is clear that we are at the beginning of what has correctly been called the "third industrial revolution" - the rapid development of an entirely new energy system. We can expect a massive shift towards a carbon-free electricity system, huge pressure to reduce energy consumption and transport on the basis of renewable electricity. To make this shift in a manner that maintains, and in fact increases the EU's competitiveness, means that stimulating rapid technological development in these areas has to be a central part of the EU's energy policy. Indeed, this is at the heart of the question: how can the EU turn the challenges of climate change and energy security into an opportunity?

The Time-Inconsistency of Alternative Energy Policy

D'ARTIGUES, Agnès; PERCEBOIS, Jacques; VIGNOLO, Thierry
Fonte: European University Institute Publicador: European University Institute
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento Formato: application/pdf
Português
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Time-inconsistency can arise when a government attempts to convince private sector to use a particular alternative energy (gas, green electricity...) rather than petroleum products. By introducing taxes and feed-in prices, a government would encourage firms and households to switch to an alternative energy rather than use petroleum products. However, even if a government is in favor of increasing alternative energy consumption, it can benefit from considerable financial resources resulting from petroleum product consumption. As a result of these conflicting issues, the private sector may not find the alternative energy policy credible, which prevents the government to implement a socially efficient policy

A numerical comparison of international light water reactor performance, 1975-1984

Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Center for Energy Policy Research, Energy Laboratory Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Center for Energy Policy Research, Energy Laboratory
Formato: 345 p.; 11134787 bytes; application/pdf
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by Christopher T. Wilson.; Thesis (M.S.)--Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Dept. of Nuclear Engineering, 1986.; Series from publisher's list.; Includes bibliographical references.; Funding provided by the Westinghouse Electric Corporation, the United States Department of Energy, the Massachusetts Institute of Technology Center for Energy Policy Research, and the Kraftwerk Union AG.

The effects of regulation on the performance of nuclear power in the United States and the Federal Republic of Germany

Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Center for Energy Policy Research, Energy Laboratory Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Center for Energy Policy Research, Energy Laboratory
Formato: ix, 101 p.; 4796048 bytes; application/pdf
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by Seth David Hulkower.; Thesis (M.S.)--Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Technology and Policy Program, 1986.; Series from publisher's list.; Includes bibliographical references.; Supported by the US Department of Energy, the Westinghouse Electric Corporation, Kraftwerk Union AG, and the Center for Energy Policy Research at MIT.

Local energy policy and managing low carbon transition: The case of Leicester, UK

Lemon, M.; Pollitt, M.; Steer, S.
Fonte: Elsevier Publicador: Elsevier
Tipo: Article; published version
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This is the final version of the article. It first appeared from Elsevier via http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.esr.2015.02.001; National and local energy policies are implemented within a complex energy landscape that makes any evaluation of their impacts far from straightforward. Drawing upon a case study of Leicester this paper argues that the ability of local authorities to deliver significant energy savings within this landscape is questionable, albeit with other additional benefits being realised (e.g. job creation, community engagement). It examines existing domestic energy demand and multiple deprivation data for Leicester and neighbouring cities and combines this with a qualitative description of the transition process. The paper identifies the need for a more systematic analysis of how national energy policy translates to the local level and concludes that it is problematic even for a leading, pro-active and innovative local authority to have a statistically meaningful energy policy. Even where energy policies are favourable, carbon reduction is less easy to realise than other ? more local - co-benefits and that in the light of significant financial and co-ordination constraints more attention needs to be given to how local communities can be more effectively supported in their desire to meet (or exceed) national targets.; We wish to thank Laura Platchkov for her research assistance on this paper. We acknowledge the financial assistance of the EPSRC Flexnet award (EP/E0411X/1) and all of the Leicester based contributors to the project...

Local Energy Policy and Managing the Low Carbon Transition: The Case of Leicester

Lemon, Mark; Pollitt, Michael G.; Steer, Steven J.
Fonte: Faculty of Economics, University of Cambridge Publicador: Faculty of Economics, University of Cambridge
Tipo: Working Paper; not applicable
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This paper seeks to provide insights into the links between the local and national energy policy. Leicester City Council has sought to take a leadership role on implementing innovative energy policies within their city. consequently, this paper investigates the impact of national and local energy policy in Leicester. It examines the consumption of energy within city, the network of players within energy policy and two flagship aspects of the policy - the district heating scheme and the use of smart metering. The paper concludes that energy policy looks very different at local and national levels.

Nuclear energy policy in the united states 1990-2010: A federal or state responsibility?

Heffron, Raphael J.
Fonte: Universidade de Cambridge Publicador: Universidade de Cambridge
Tipo: Working Paper; not applicable
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This paper examines from a policy perspective nuclear energy policy in the United States (US) from 1990 to 2010 and questions whether it is or has become a Federal or State responsibility. The present study, as befits policy research, engages with many disciplines (for example, in particular, law and politics) and hence the contributions move beyond that of nuclear energy policy literature and in particular to that on nuclear new build and other assessments of large infrastructure projects. Several examples at the Federal level are identified that demonstrate that the nuclear industry has evolved to a stage where it requires a focus on the power of actions at a more localised (state) level in order to re-ignite the industry. The research concludes that there remains a misunderstanding of the issue of project management for complex construction projects, and it is highly arguable whether many of its issues have been resolved. Further, the research asserts that the economics of nuclear energy are not the most nfluential reason for no nuclear new build in the US.

An investigation of U.S. national energy policy supportng the biofuel industry including a case study of illinois soy oil and biodiesel production

Ramadan, Allyce Marie
Fonte: University of Delaware Publicador: University of Delaware
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
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Ritter, William F.; This thesis reviews U.S. national energy policy and the Renewable Fuel Standards (RFS) to project the future of soybean oil for food and biodiesel use in local industry. The research issues include whether the food and fuel industries are in balance locally and nationally and if the U.S. blenders' tax credit has increased foreign imports and if so, could an increase in import tariffs better control the domestic biodiesel market if local producers are in jeopardy due to the increase in imports. Linear programming is used for optimization by location analysis of soybean processing and refining in the state of Illinois. A model is developed that found at the Illinois boundaries, processors are exporting soy oil outside the state whether for food and/or biodiesel as Illinois is able to meet their local demand for biodiesel. One significant implication of this study is the proven Energy Title programs which support the biodiesel production for a reduction in greenhouse gases to meet the RFS with 1.2 billion gallons of biodiesel by 2022. This thesis explores the need for consistent and long-term collaboration such as the Energy Title, increased import tariffs and the biodiesel blenders' tax credit to show true congressional support to supply economic growth...

Underlying Motivations for Delaware Public Participation in Support of Offshore Wind: Implications for State Energy Policy

Piero, Jacqueline D.
Fonte: University of Delaware Publicador: University of Delaware
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
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Kempton, Willett M.; In Spring 2006, Standard Offer Service customers of Delmarva Power & Light faced an average 59% increase in electric rates. In response, the Delaware state legislature passed the Electric Utility Retail Customer Supply Act of 2006. In compliance with the Act, Delmarva Power & Light issued an all-source Request For Proposals for a new 200 MW power purchase agreement. Three bids were submitted to the Delaware Public Service Commission (PSC) for review: 600 MW offshore wind, 600 MW integrated gasification combined cycle coal, and 177 MW natural gas. The PSC reported unprecedented levels of public participation in related hearings and receipt of thousands of letters addressing the topic. Members of the public who participated in the process overwhelmingly favored offshore wind. Though one clause of the bill specifically required new environmentally responsible technologies, the primary emphasis explicit in the bill was stabilization of electricity rates. This analysis of public input in the Delaware Public Service Commission’s decision indicates that price stability is not the primary priority of Delaware residents. This thesis employs both qualitative and statistical methods to identify concerns expressed by supporters of offshore wind in order to determine the nature and origins of related advocacy. Analysis will demonstrate the importance of risk perception as a motivator for environmental advocacy...

The use of language and its impact on energy policy discourse: a case study of the hydrogen economy and the news media during the G.W. Bush administration

Waegel, Alexander Francis
Fonte: University of Delaware Publicador: University of Delaware
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
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Byrne, John; The development of policy is subject to many different influences. The subjects are often complex and citizens must rely on information provided by third parties in order to participate in the discussion. The news media has traditionally been the primary provider of such information and are counted upon to publish unbiased accounts of events. However, the news media gets information from its own sources and this offers an opportunity for powerful, well-organized groups to influence the presentation of these topics. This is done through the creation and dissemination of constructed narratives, which remove the contexts from facts to present different conclusions (Barthes, 1957). Sourcing discusses how the news media may be influenced by powerful organizations providing free, easily published material (Herman, 1988). The 24 hour news cycle, the demand for ratings, and the impossibility of funding independent research journalism for every topic requires them to seek information from sources viewed as reliable and authoritative, such as the government or major corporations. The wealthier and more powerful organizations are better able to provide this large quantity of information in a readily publishable format and thus have the potential to influence the presentation to reflect positively on their positions. As a technologically and politically complex subject...

The role of international sustainable development law principles in enabling effective renewable energy policy - A South African perspective

Barnard,M
Fonte: PER: Potchefstroomse Elektroniese Regsblad Publicador: PER: Potchefstroomse Elektroniese Regsblad
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/08/2012 Português
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It is universally accepted that renewable energy is an important contributing factor towards the promotion of sustainable development. The implementation of renewable energy needs to be regulated in an effective manner which in turn necessitates the formulation of law and policy geared towards sustainable development. Recent policy developments in South Africa propose to facilitate the promotion of sustainable development through the implementation of renewable energy, among others. In terms of existing energy policy in South-Africa, the interconnectivity of renewable energy and sustainable development is evident. Most notably, the White Paper on Renewable Energy of 2003 promotes increased access to affordable renewable energy in order to contribute to sustainable development. Moreover, the 2008 first review of the National Energy Efficiency Strategy of the Republic of South-Africa of 2005 states that in order for the country's renewable energy policy to be considered sustainable, it needs to facilitate development in the social, economic and environmental spheres. Notwithstanding, attaining the goal of sustainable development depends on whether all its effecting principles are catered for in the policy developments. Accordingly, in order to ascertain whether South-African law and policy can successfully facilitate/enable sustainable development via the implementation of renewable energy...