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Moderate physical activity from childhood contributes to metabolic health and reduces hepatic fat accumulation in adult rats

De Moura, Leandro Pereira; Da Silva Sponton, Amanda Christine; De Araújo, Michel Barbosa; Dalia, Rodrigo Augusto; Pauli, José Rodrigo; De Mello, Maria Alice Rostom
Fonte: Universidade Estadual Paulista Publicador: Universidade Estadual Paulista
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.23%
Background: Obesity, oxidative stress and inflammation, by triggering insulin resistance, may contribute to the accumulation of hepatic fat, and this accumulation by lipotoxicity can lead the organ to fail. Because obesity is growing at an alarming rate and, worryingly, in a precocious way, the present study aimed to investigate the effects of moderate physical training performed from childhood to adulthood on liver fat metabolism in rats. Methods. Twenty rats that were 28days old were divided into two groups: control (C) and trained (T). The C Group was kept in cages without exercise, and the T group was submitted to swimming exercise for 1hour/day, 5days/week from 28 to 90days of age (8weeks) at 80% of the anaerobic threshold determined by the lactate minimum test. At the end of the experiment, the body weight gain, insulin sensitivity (glucose disappearance rate during the insulin tolerance test), concentrations of free fatty acids (FFA) and triglycerides (TG) and hepatic lipogenic rate were analyzed. For the statistical analysis, the Student t-test was used with the level of significance preset at 5%. Results: The T group showed lower body weight gain, FFA concentrations, fat accumulation, hepatic lipogenic rate and insulin resistance. Conclusion: The regular practice of moderate physical exercise from childhood can contribute to the reduction of obesity and insulin resistance and help prevent the development of accumulation of hepatic fat in adulthood. © 2013de Moura et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

Effect of erva-mate (Ilex paraguariensis A. St.-Hil., Aquifoliaceae) on serum cholesterol, triacylglycerides and glucose in Wistar rats fed a diet supplemented with fat and sugar

Przygodda,Franciele; Martins,Zenilde N.; Castaldelli,Ana Paula A.; Minella,Thais V.; Vieira,Luciana P.; Cantelli,Kathia; Fronza,Jordana; Padoin,Maristela J.
Fonte: Sociedade Brasileira de Farmacognosia Publicador: Sociedade Brasileira de Farmacognosia
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/12/2010 Português
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Ilex paraguariensis A. St.-Hil., Aquifoliaceae, is a species native to the subtropical and temperate regions of South America, used in beverages prepared by infusion such as teas, chimarrão and tererê. To investigate the physiological effects of I. paraguariensis on the metabolism of fats and sugars in Wistar rats, following the ingestion of erva-mate tea, four experimental groups were constructed: Lipid Control Group (receiving water and high-fat diet); Lipid Tea Group (extract of I. paraguariensis and high-fat diet); the Sugar Control Group (water and high-sugar diet); and Sugar Tea Group (extract of I. paraguariensis and high-sugar diet). The animals received their particular diet for 60 days, and were weighed weekly. After this period, the plasma concentrations of cholesterol, glucose and triacylglycerides were determined, together with the weight of visceral fat. The data were subjected to statistical analysis with a significance level of p<0.05. The results show that the ingestion of erva-mate affected body weight, visceral fat and plasma glucose, cholesterol and triacylglyceride levels.

Caffeine ingestion does not alter carbohydrate or fat metabolism in human skeletal muscle during exercise

Graham, Terry E; Helge, Jorn W; MacLean, David A; Kiens, Bente; Richter, Erik A
Fonte: Blackwell Science Inc Publicador: Blackwell Science Inc
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 15/12/2000 Português
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This study examined the effect of ingesting caffeine (6 mg kg−1) on muscle carbohydrate and fat metabolism during steady-state exercise in humans. Young male subjects (n = 10) performed 1 h of exercise (70 % maximal oxygen consumption (V̇O2,max)) on two occasions (after ingestion of placebo and caffeine) and leg metabolism was quantified by the combination of direct Fick measures and muscle biopsies.Following caffeine ingestion serum fatty acid and glycerol concentration increased (P ≤ 0.05) at rest, suggesting enhanced adipose tissue lipolysis.In addition circulating adrenaline concentration was increased (P ≤ 0.05) at rest following caffeine ingestion and this, as well as leg noradrenaline spillover, was elevated (P ≤ 0.05) above placebo values during exercise.Caffeine resulted in a modest increase (P ≤ 0.05) in leg vascular resistance, but no difference was found in leg blood flow.Arterial lactate and glucose concentrations were increased (P ≤ 0.05) by caffeine, while the rise in plasma potassium was dampened (P ≤ 0.05).There were no differences in respiratory exchange ratio or in leg glucose uptake, net muscle glycogenolysis, leg lactate release or muscle lactate, or glucose 6-phosphate concentration. Similarly there were no differences between treatments in leg fatty acid uptake...

Rictor/TORC2 regulates fat metabolism, feeding, growth, and life span in Caenorhabditis elegans

Soukas, Alexander A.; Kane, Elizabeth A.; Carr, Christopher E.; Melo, Justine A.; Ruvkun, Gary
Fonte: Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press Publicador: Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 15/02/2009 Português
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Rictor is a component of the target of rapamycin complex 2 (TORC2). While TORC2 has been implicated in insulin and other growth factor signaling pathways, the key inputs and outputs of this kinase complex remain unknown. We identified mutations in the Caenorhabditis elegans homolog of rictor in a forward genetic screen for increased body fat. Despite high body fat, rictor mutants are developmentally delayed, small in body size, lay an attenuated brood, and are short-lived, indicating that Rictor plays a critical role in appropriately partitioning calories between long-term energy stores and vital organismal processes. Rictor is also necessary to maintain normal feeding on nutrient-rich food sources. In contrast to wild-type animals, which grow more rapidly on nutrient-rich bacterial strains, rictor mutants display even slower growth, a further reduced body size, decreased energy expenditure, and a dramatically extended life span, apparently through inappropriate, decreased consumption of nutrient-rich food. Rictor acts directly in the intestine to regulate fat mass and whole-animal growth. Further, the high-fat phenotype of rictor mutants is genetically dependent on akt-1, akt-2, and serum and glucocorticoid-induced kinase-1 (sgk-1). Alternatively...

Twist-1 is a PPAR δ-inducible, negative feedback regulator of PGC-1 α in brown fat metabolism

Pan, Dongning; Fujimoto, Masaki; Lopes, Andrea; Wang, Yong-Xu
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 03/04/2009 Português
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Brown fat is specialized in energy expenditure, a process that is principally controlled by the transcriptional co-activator PGC-1α. Here we describe a molecular network important for PGC-1α function and brown fat metabolism. We find that twist-1 is selectively expressed in adipose tissue, interacts with PGC-1α, and is recruited to the promoters of PGC-1α’s target genes to suppress mitochondrial metabolism and uncoupling. In vivo, transgenic mice expressing twist-1 in the adipose tissue are prone to high-fat diet induced obesity, whereas twist-1 heterozygous knockout mice are obesity-resistant. These phenotypes are attributed to their altered mitochondrial metabolism in the brown fat. Interestingly, the nuclear receptor PPARδ not only mediates the actions of PGC-1α, but also regulates twist-1 expression, suggesting a negative feedback regulatory mechanism. These findings reveal an unexpected physiological role for twist-1 in the maintenance of energy homeostasis and have important implications for understanding metabolic control and metabolic diseases.

AMPK Control of Fat Metabolism in Skeletal Muscle

Thomson, David M.; Winder, William W.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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46.18%
AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) has emerged as a key regulator of skeletal muscle fat metabolism. Because abnormalities in skeletal muscle metabolism contribute to a variety of clinical diseases and disorders, understanding AMPK’s role in the muscle is important. It was originally shown to stimulate fatty acid oxidation decades ago, and since then much research has been accomplished describing this role. In this brief review we summarize much of this data, particularly in relation to changes in fatty acid oxidation that occur during skeletal muscle exercise. Potential roles for AMPK exist in regulating fatty acid transport into the mitochondria via interactions with acetyl-CoA carboxylase, malonyl-CoA decarboxylase, and perhaps fatty acid transporter/CD36 (FAT/CD36). Likewise, AMPK may regulate transport of fatty acids into the cell through FAT/CD36. AMPK may also regulate capacity for fatty acid oxidation by phosphorylation of transcription factors such as CREB or coactivators such as PGC-1α.

Fat Metabolism Links Germline Stem Cells and Longevity in C. elegans

Wang, Meng C.; O’Rourke, Eyleen J.; Ruvkun, Gary
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 07/11/2008 Português
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Fat metabolism, reproduction, and aging are intertwined regulatory axes; however, the mechanism by which they are coupled remains poorly understood. We found that germline stem cells (GSCs) actively modulate lipid hydrolysis in Caenorhabditis elegans, which in turn regulates longevity. GSC arrest promotes systemic lipolysis via induction of a specific fat lipase. Subsequently, fat mobilization is promoted and life span is prolonged. Constitutive expression of this lipase in fat storage tissue generates lean and long-lived animals. This lipase is a key factor in the lipid hydrolysis and increased longevity that are induced by decreased insulin signaling. These results suggest a link between C. elegans fat metabolism and longevity.

Transcription profiling and regulation of fat metabolism genes in diapausing adults of the mosquito Culex pipiens

Sim, Cheolho; Denlinger, David L.
Fonte: American Physiological Society Publicador: American Physiological Society
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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46.25%
Culex pipiens, the mosquito that vectors West Nile virus in North America, overwinters in an adult diapause (dormancy) that is programmed by the short day length and low temperatures of autumn. In response to these environmental signals, females cease feeding on blood and instead seek sources of nectar used to generate the huge lipid reserves required for winter survival. To identify regulatory networks that regulate fat accumulation and fat consumption during diapause, we compared expression of fat-related genes from nondiapausing females with expression of those same genes in early and late diapause and at diapause termination. Among the 31 genes we examined, 4 were expressed more highly in early diapause than in nondiapause, while 14 genes were downregulated in early diapause. In the transition from early to late diapause, 19 genes related to fat metabolism were upregulated. As reported previously, fatty acid synthase, identified as fas-1 in this study, was upregulated in early diapause. Numerous fat metabolism genes, including multiple kinetic classes and genes involved in β-oxidation, an energy-generation step, were suppressed in early diapause but were highly expressed in late diapause and at diapause termination. RNA interference (RNAi) analysis revealed that the fas-1 gene and others (fas-3 and fabp) have important roles in fat storage during early diapause. When expression of these genes is suppressed...

Exercise improves fat metabolism in muscle but does not increase 24-h fat oxidation

Melanson, Edward L; MacLean, Paul S.; Hill, James O.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /04/2009 Português
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46.17%
Despite decades of research into the effects of exercise on fat metabolism, there is still no clear understanding of how exercise helps to regulate fat mass. Although exercise improves the capacity of muscle to oxidize fat, our studies suggest that moderate duration exercise (≤ 1 hr) has little impact on 24-h fat oxidation.

Novel Functions of Lipid-binding Protein 5 in Caenorhabditis elegans Fat Metabolism*

Xu, Mo; Joo, Hyoe-Jin; Paik, Young-Ki
Fonte: American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Publicador: American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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56.17%
The lipid-binding protein (LBP) family is conserved from Caenorhabditis elegans to mammals and essential for fatty acid homeostasis. RNAi-mediated knockdown of nine C. elegans lbp family members revealed that lbp-5 regulates fat accumulation. C. elegans LBP-5 bound directly to various fatty acids with varying affinities. lbp-5 expression in nhr-49(nr2041) worms was much lower than in N2 worms. Nhr-49 transcriptional activity also decreased with lbp-5 deletion, suggesting that they may work together as functional partners in fat metabolism. In support of this notion, LBP-5 translocated into nuclei, where it appeared to influence C. elegans NHR-49 target genes involved in energy metabolism. Interestingly, LBP-5 is required for stearic acid-induced transcription of NHR-49 target genes. Thus, this knowledge could help identify therapeutic targets to treat obesity and diseases associated with nematode-host interactions.

Ablation of LMO4 in glutamatergic neurons impairs leptin control of fat metabolism

Zhou, Xun; Gomez-Smith, Mariana; Qin, Zhaohong; Duquette, Philippe M.; Cardenas-Blanco, Arturo; Rai, Punarpreet S.; Harper, Mary-Ellen; Tsai, Eve C.; Anisman, Hymie; Chen, Hsiao-Huei
Fonte: SP Birkhäuser Verlag Basel Publicador: SP Birkhäuser Verlag Basel
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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46.18%
The LIM domain only 4 (LMO4) protein is expressed in the hypothalamus, but its function there is not known. Using mice with LMO4 ablated in postnatal glutamatergic neurons, including most neurons of the paraventricular (PVN) and ventromedial (VMH) hypothalamic nuclei where LMO4 is expressed, we asked whether LMO4 is required for metabolic homeostasis. LMO4 mutant mice exhibited early onset adiposity. These mice had reduced energy expenditure and impaired thermogenesis together with reduced sympathetic outflow to adipose tissues. The peptide hormone leptin, produced from adipocytes, activates Jak/Stat3 signaling at the hypothalamus to control food intake, energy expenditure, and fat metabolism. Intracerebroventricular infusion of leptin suppressed feeding similarly in LMO4 mutant and control mice. However, leptin-induced fat loss was impaired and activation of Stat3 in the VMH was blunted in these mice. Thus, our study identifies LMO4 as a novel modulator of leptin function in selective hypothalamic nuclei to regulate fat metabolism.

Long-Term Fgf23 Deficiency Does Not Influence Aging, Glucose Homeostasis, or Fat Metabolism in Mice with a Nonfunctioning Vitamin D Receptor

Streicher, Carmen; Zeitz, Ute; Andrukhova, Olena; Rupprecht, Anne; Pohl, Elena; Larsson, Tobias E.; Windisch, Wilhelm; Lanske, Beate; Erben, Reinhold G.
Fonte: Endocrine Society Publicador: Endocrine Society
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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46.27%
It is still controversial whether the bone-derived hormone fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF23) has additional physiological functions apart from its well-known suppressive actions on renal phosphate reabsorption and vitamin D hormone synthesis. Here we analyzed premature aging, mineral homeostasis, carbohydrate metabolism, and fat metabolism in 9-month-old male wild-type (WT) mice, vitamin D receptor mutant mice (VDRΔ/Δ) with a nonfunctioning vitamin D receptor, and Fgf23−/−/VDRΔ/Δ compound mutant mice on both a standard rodent chow and a rescue diet enriched with calcium, phosphorus, and lactose. Organ atrophy, lung emphysema, and ectopic tissue or vascular calcifications were absent in compound mutants. In addition, body weight, glucose tolerance, insulin tolerance, insulin secretory capacity, pancreatic beta cell volume, and retroperitoneal and epididymal fat mass as well as serum cholesterol and triglycerides were indistinguishable between vitamin D receptor and compound mutants. In contrast to VDRΔ/Δ and Fgf23−/−/VDRΔ/Δ mice, which stayed lean, WT mice showed obesity-induced insulin resistance. To rule out alopecia and concomitantly elevated energy expenditure present in 9-month-old VDRΔ/Δ and Fgf23−/−/VDRΔ/Δ mice as a confounding factor for the lacking effect of Fgf23 deficiency on fat mass...

Reproduction, Fat Metabolism, and Lifespan – What Is the Connection?

Hansen, Malene; Flatt, Thomas; Aguilaniu, Hugo
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 08/01/2013 Português
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46.22%
Reduced reproduction is associated with increased fat storage and prolonged lifespan in multiple organisms, but the underlying regulatory mechanisms remain poorly understood. Recent studies in several species provide evidence that reproduction, fat metabolism, and longevity are directly coupled. For instance, germline removal in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans promotes longevity in part by modulating lipid metabolism through effects on fatty acid desaturation, lipolysis, and autophagy. Here, we review these recent studies and discuss the mechanisms by which reproduction modulates fat metabolism and lifespan. Elucidating the relationship between these processes could contribute to our understanding of age-related diseases, including metabolic disorders.

New Insights into the Interaction of Carbohydrate and Fat Metabolism During Exercise

Spriet, Lawrence L.
Fonte: Springer International Publishing Publicador: Springer International Publishing
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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46.36%
Fat and carbohydrate are important fuels for aerobic exercise and there can be reciprocal shifts in the proportions of carbohydrate and fat that are oxidized. The interaction between carbohydrate and fatty acid oxidation is dependent on the intracellular and extracellular metabolic environments. The availability of substrate, both from inside and outside of the muscle, and exercise intensity and duration will affect these environments. The ability of increasing fat provision to downregulate carbohydrate metabolism in the heart, diaphragm and peripheral skeletal muscle has been well studied. However, the regulation of fat metabolism in human skeletal muscle during exercise in the face of increasing carbohydrate availability and exercise intensity has not been well studied until recently. Research in the past 10 years has demonstrated that the regulation of fat metabolism is complex and involves many sites of control, including the transport of fat into the muscle cell, the binding and transport of fat in the cytoplasm, the regulation of intramuscular triacylglycerol synthesis and breakdown, and the transport of fat into the mitochondria. The discovery of proteins that assist in transporting fat across the plasma and mitochondrial membranes...

Ananas comosus L. Leaf Phenols and p-Coumaric Acid Regulate Liver Fat Metabolism by Upregulating CPT-1 Expression

Xie, Weidong; Zhang, Shaobo; Lei, Fan; Ouyang, Xiaoxi; Du, Lijun
Fonte: Hindawi Publishing Corporation Publicador: Hindawi Publishing Corporation
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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46.31%
In this study, we aimed to investigate the effect and action mechanisms of pineapple leaf phenols (PLPs) on liver fat metabolism in high-fat diet-fed mice. Results show that PLP significantly reduced abdominal fat and liver lipid accumulation in high-fat diet-fed mice. The effects of PLP were comparable with those of FB. Furthermore, at the protein level, PLP upregulated the expression of carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1 (CPT-1), whereas FB had no effects on CPT-1 compared with the HFD controls. Regarding mRNA expression, PLP mainly promoted the expression of CPT-1, PGC1a, UCP-1, and AMPK in the mitochondria, whereas FB mostly enhanced the expression of Ech1, Acox1, Acaa1, and Ehhadh in peroxisomes. PLP seemed to enhance fat metabolism in the mitochondria, whereas FB mainly exerted the effect in peroxisomes. In addition, p-coumaric acid (CA), one of the main components from PLP, significantly inhibited fat accumulation in oleic acid-induced HepG2 cells. CA also significantly upregulated CPT-1 mRNA and protein expressions in HepG2 cells. We, firstly, found that PLP enhanced liver fat metabolism by upregulating CPT-1 expression in the mitochondria and might be promising in treatment of fatty liver diseases as alternative natural products. CA may be one of the active components of PLP.

Structure-Function of CD36 and Importance of Fatty Acid Signal Transduction in Fat Metabolism

Pepino, Marta Yanina; Kuda, Ondrej; Samovski, Dmitri; Abumrad, Nada A
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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CD36 is a scavenger receptor that functions in high affinity tissue uptake of long chain fatty acids (FA) and contributes under excessive fat supply to lipid accumulation and metabolic dysfunction. This review describes recent evidence regarding the CD36 FA binding site and a potential mechanism for FA transfer. It also presents the view that CD36 and FA signaling coordinate fat utilization based on newly identified CD36 actions that involve oral fat perception, intestinal fat absorption, secretion of the peptides cholecystokinin and secretin, regulation of hepatic lipoprotein output, activation of beta oxidation by muscle and regulation of the production of the FA derived bioactive eicosanoids. Thus abnormalities of fat metabolism and the associated pathology might involve dysfunction of CD36-mediated signal transduction in addition to the changes of FA uptake.

Biochemical and High Throughput Microscopic Assessment of Fat Mass in Caenorhabditis Elegans

Pino, Elizabeth C.; Webster, Christopher M.; Carr, Christopher E.; Soukas, Alexander A.
Fonte: MyJove Corporation Publicador: MyJove Corporation
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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46.18%
The nematode C. elegans has emerged as an important model for the study of conserved genetic pathways regulating fat metabolism as it relates to human obesity and its associated pathologies. Several previous methodologies developed for the visualization of C. elegans triglyceride-rich fat stores have proven to be erroneous, highlighting cellular compartments other than lipid droplets. Other methods require specialized equipment, are time-consuming, or yield inconsistent results. We introduce a rapid, reproducible, fixative-based Nile red staining method for the accurate and rapid detection of neutral lipid droplets in C. elegans. A short fixation step in 40% isopropanol makes animals completely permeable to Nile red, which is then used to stain animals. Spectral properties of this lipophilic dye allow it to strongly and selectively fluoresce in the yellow-green spectrum only when in a lipid-rich environment, but not in more polar environments. Thus, lipid droplets can be visualized on a fluorescent microscope equipped with simple GFP imaging capability after only a brief Nile red staining step in isopropanol. The speed, affordability, and reproducibility of this protocol make it ideally suited for high throughput screens. We also demonstrate a paired method for the biochemical determination of triglycerides and phospholipids using gas chromatography mass-spectrometry. This more rigorous protocol should be used as confirmation of results obtained from the Nile red microscopic lipid determination. We anticipate that these techniques will become new standards in the field of C. elegans metabolic research.

Estrogen withdrawal and liver fat accumulation : contribution of hepatic VLDL-TG production and effect of exercise training

Barsalani, Razieh
Fonte: Université de Montréal Publicador: Université de Montréal
Tipo: Thèse ou Mémoire numérique / Electronic Thesis or Dissertation
Português
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46.32%
L’accumulation de triglycérides (TG) dans les hépatocytes est caractéristique de la stéatose hépatique non-alcoolique (SHNA). Cette dernière se produit dans diverses conditions dont le facteur commun est le métabolisme anormal des lipides. Le processus conduisant à l'accumulation des lipides dans le foie n’a pas encore été totalement élucidé. Toutefois, des lipides s'accumulent dans le foie lorsque les mécanismes qui favorisent leur exportation (oxydation et sécrétion) sont insuffisants par rapport aux mécanismes qui favorisent leur importation ou leur biosynthèse. De nos jours il est admis que la carence en œstrogènes est associée au développement de la stéatose hépatique. Bien que les résultats des études récentes révèlent l'implication des hormones ovariennes dans l'accumulation de lipides dans le foie, les mécanismes qui sous-tendent ce phénomène doivent encore être étudiés. En conséquence, les trois études présentées dans cette thèse ont été menées sur des rates ovariectomizées (Ovx), comme modèle animal de femmes post-ménopausées, pour étudier les effets du retrait des œstrogènes sur le métabolisme des lipides dans le foie, en considérant l'entraînement physique comme étant un élément positif pouvant contrecarrer ces effets. Il a été démontré que l'entraînement physique peut réduire l'accumulation de graisses dans le foie chez les rates Ovx. Dans la première étude...

Metabolismo de gordura durante o exercício físico: mecanismos de regulação; Fat metabolism during exercise: mechanisms of regulation

Lima-Silva, Adriano Eduardo; UDESC; Adami, Fernando; Laboratório de Pesquisa Morfo – Funcional. Centro de Educação Física e Des; Nakamura, Fábio Yuzo; Grupo de Estudo e Pesquisa em Metabolismo, Nutrição e Exercício. Centro de Ed; de-Oliveira, Fe
Fonte: Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina. Florianópolis, SC. Brasil Publicador: Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina. Florianópolis, SC. Brasil
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; "Avaliado por Pares","Artigo Solicitado"; "Avaliado por Pares", "Artigo Solicitado"; Bibliográfica Formato: application/pdf; application/pdf
Publicado em 19/12/2006 Português
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Os lipídios são considerados importantes fontes energéticas para a realização de exercícios físicos. Entretanto, os mecanismos de regulação do consumo desse substrato durante o exercício não estão totalmente esclarecidos. O objetivo principal da presente revisão foi abordar mecanismos fisiológicos de controle da mobilização, transporte e utilização de gordura durante o exercício. Os trabalhos indexados no banco de dados Pubmed e Lilacs sobre metabolismo de gordura, foram analisados e os clássicos e recentes foram preferencialmente utilizados. A partir dos dados recentes da literatura, especula-se que o transporte de ácidos graxos do meio extracelular para o meio intracelular pode constituir um dos principais mecanismos limitantes no consumo desse substrato. Estudos sobre o consumo de lipídios durante o exercício devem ser focados sobre esse mecanismo. Em exercício intenso, o menor fl uxo de sangue para o tecido adiposo e a maior taxa de reesterifi cação dos ácidos graxos causa um menor consumo de lipídios durante o exercício. Suplementação de TG tem sido utilizada, mas a quantidade ideal e as formas de evitar desconfortos gastrintestinais não foram determinadas. Os estoques de TG intramuscular podem ser mais efi cientes do ponto de vista biológico...

Effects of dietary dihydropyridine on laying performance and lipid metabolism of broiler breeder hens

Niu,Z.Y.; Min,Y.N.; Wang,H.Y.; Zhang,J.; Li,W.C.; Li,L.; Liu,F.Z.
Fonte: South African Journal of Animal Science Publicador: South African Journal of Animal Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2011 Português
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46.23%
The experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of dihydropyridine supplementation on the laying performance and lipid metabolism of broiler breeder hens. A total of 720 forty-five week old broiler breeder hens were randomly divided into four experimental groups, each group consisting of six replicates of 30 birds. For 10 weeks the birds were fed a maize-soybean meal diet containing 0, 100, 200, 300 mg dihydropyridine/kg, in the respective treatment groups. The daily egg weight and daily feed intake were not affected by dihydropyridine supplementation, but the laying rate and feed efficiency were significantly increased. The percentage of abdominal fat and percentage of liver fat were significantly decreased by dietary dihydropyridine. A level of 100 mg dihydropyridine/kg had no effect on the hormone-sensitive triglyceride lipase (HSL) activity in the liver or abdominal fat, though higher levels of dietary dihydropyridine (200 mg/kg or 300 mg/kg) increased HSL activity in the liver and abdominal fat. The concentration of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) and superoxide dismutase activity were significantly increased by dihydropyridine, but the malondialdehyde content decreased. The apolipoprotein B concentration was increased at levels of 100 and 200 mg dihydropyridine/kg...