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International Migration, Economic Development and Policy

Özden, Çağlar; Schiff, Maurice
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank and Palgrave Macmillan Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank and Palgrave Macmillan
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This volume reflects the expansion of the World Bank Research Program on International Migration and Development into new substantive and geographic areas. It presents a new global migration database and includes studies of the determinants and impact of return and circular migration, the impact of the flow of ideas on fertility, host country policies and their impact on immigrants, and the impact of international migration and remittances on poverty and other development indicators. The studies cover countries from Latin America, North Africa, South Asia, the South Pacific, and Western Europe, and show that the impact of migration on education and health tends to benefit girls more than boys, that its impact on labor force participation tends to be stronger for women than men, that return migrants tend to do better than non-migrants, and that fertility has tended to decline in countries whose migration has been to the West and has failed to do so in countries whose migration has been to the Gulf. The purpose of the case studies is to illustrate and clarify many theoretical mechanisms and to advance understanding of the impact of different migration policies...

Immigration Policy and Foreign Population in Switzerland

Gross, Dominique M.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
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With more than 20 percent, Switzerland is one of the countries with the largest foreign population. Since 1970 the government has tried to manage the flows of migrants in the hope of reconciling a chronic excess demand for labor with mounting pressures from nationalistic groups to control the level of foreign population. A policy of quotas on work permits has been effective in controlling the entry of new workers. Nevertheless, the overall dynamic of the system has led to an ever-increasing share of newcomers not covered by quotas. Because of institutional and economic changes, the outflow did not react to economic incentives as the government expected. Hence, at the beginning of the 21st century, the link between the instruments of immigration policy and its goal has become very weak and the level of foreign population is at an all time high. However, a new era has begun with an agreement on free mobility with European Union and European Free Trade Area (EFTA) countries.

Immigration to Switzerland : The Case of the Former Republic of Yugoslavia

Gross, Dominique M.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
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From less than 5 percent in 1980, the share of residents from the former Republic of Yugoslavia in the total foreign population in Switzerland rose to almost 25% in 2000, to become one of the largest foreign communities. The largest increase occurs mostly between 1985 and 1998 and represents a unique development in the composition of immigration to Switzerland, as it coincides with a new policy, which from 1995 gives priority to workers from the European Union for new permits and severely restricts work permits for migrants from the rest of the world. The empirical analysis shows that when there is no discriminatory treatment by immigration policy, immigrant workers from the former Yugoslavia respond to financial and cultural incentives in the same way as their unskilled counterparts from Southern European countries. The restriction on permit availability in the mid-1990s appears to have weakened the financial and cultural attractiveness of Switzerland for immigrants from the former Yugoslavia. This may signal a change in the characteristics of migrants from the region toward higher skill levels.

Demographic Alternatives for Aging Industrial Countries : Increased Total Fertility Rate, Labor Force Participation, or Immigration

Holzmann, Robert
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
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The paper investigates the demographic alternatives for dealing with the projected population aging and low or negative growth of the population and labor force in the North. Without further immigration, the total labor force in Europe and Russia, the high-income countries of East Asia and the Pacific, China, and, to a lesser extent, North America is projected to be reduced by 29 million by 2025 and by 244 million by 2050. In contrast, the labor force in the South is projected to add some 1.55 billion, predominantly in South and Central Asia and in Sub-Saharan Africa. The demographic policy scenarios to deal with the projected shrinking of the labor forth in the North include moving the total fertility rate back to replacement levels, increasing labor force participation of the existing population through a variety of measures, and filling the demographic gaps through enhanced immigration. The estimations indicate that each of these policy scenarios may partially or even fully compensate for the projected labor force gap by 2050. But a review of the policy measures to make these demographic scenarios happen also suggests that governments may not be able to initiate or accommodate the required change.

Explaining US immigration 1971-1998

Clark, Ximena; Hatton, Timothy J; Williamson, Jeffrey G
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Working/Technical Paper Formato: 394292 bytes; application/pdf
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In this paper we develop and estimate a model to explain the level and source country composition of immigration to the United States since the early 1970s. The model incorporates ratios to the US of source country income and education, and demographic structure, as well as relative inequality as suggested by the Roy model applied to migrant selection. In addition we incorporate the ‘friends and relatives effect’ as reflected in the stock of previous immigrants and a variety of variables representing different dimensions of the immigration quotas set by policy. We estimate our immigration model on a panel of 81 source countries for the years 1971 to 1998. The results strongly support the influence of economic and demographic variables and geographic characteristics as well as policy variables. We use the results to shed light on the factors that influenced the composition of US immigration by source region. And we provide a further check on its plausibility by simulating the effects of the key changes in immigration policy since the late 1970s.; no

Essays on immigration policy

Withers, Glenn
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Working/Technical Paper Formato: 80254 bytes; 351 bytes; text/html; application/octet-stream
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Collection of three papers: * Immigration: the Australian Way. Keynote Address to the National Conference of the Federation of Ethnic Communities Councils of Australia, Brisbane, 20 November, 1998. Higher levels of immigration will increasingly be recognised as good politics and as in the national interest... * Malthus and Australia: the Malthus Sermon. Keynote address to the National Academies’ Forum Malthus and his legacy. National Library of Australia Canberra, 17 September 1998. The problems of population and poverty are those of institutions and distribution, not of resources and technology... * A global Sydney needs migration. Background paper prepared for the Asia-Pacific Cities Summit Brisbane, 28 February-3 March 1999. Sydney is primary port of entry for new arrivals to Australia. It also has significant expansion costs and environmental constraints. For this reason, NSW Premier Carr, alone among State leaders, has supported low immigration for Australia. Mr Carr is mistaken...; no

Making sense of immigration policy : Argentina, 1870-1930

Sánchez-Alonso, Blanca
Fonte: Universidade Carlos III de Madrid Publicador: Universidade Carlos III de Madrid
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento Formato: application/octet-stream; application/octet-stream; application/pdf
Publicado em /11/2010 Português
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The aim of this paper is to disentangle the different forces shaping Argentine immigration policy from 1870 to 1930. Although immigration restrictions increased over time Argentina remained relatively open to mass migration until the 1930s in contrast with the United States. The quantitative evidence presented here suggests that there were economic reasons to restrict immigration prior to the 1930s, namely rising inequality and a declining demand for workers. Labour in Argentina would have been better off with a more restrictive immigration policy since 1900. However, labour interests could not be translated into Parliament in a direct way as in countries with a wide electoral franchise and high political participation like the United States. In Argentina a large share of workers did not have the right to vote simply because they were foreigners. Those negatively affected by massive immigration developed alternative actions: general strikes, labour unrest and violence. Political and social fear finally pushed those who had more to gain from an abundant supply of labour to introduce immigration restrictions.

The Europeanisation of national immigration policies? : liberalising effects of EU membership in a new immigration country

MAVRODI, Georgia
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
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Defense date: 28/05/2010; Examining Board: Andrew Geddes (University of Sheffield), Donatella Della Porta (EUI) (Supervisor), Virginie Guiraudon (CNRS) (Co-supervisor), Anna Triandafyllidou (Democritus University of Thrace); This study examines the impact of European integration in immigration issues on Greek immigration policy. Contrary to widely held claims that immigration policies in Europe become more and more restrictive - the well-known debate on 'Fortress Europe' - Greek legislation on entry, residence and rights of third-country nationals has undergone gradual liberalising developments. This paradox drove my inquiry into the factors, institutions and processes that may explain liberalising immigration policy change for a period of fifteen years (1990 - 2005). Greece, similarly to the rest of southern European 'new' immigration countries, is often charged with the implicit or explicit assumption that its recent turn into a host country for immigrants makes her receptive to the restrictive influence of EU policies on immigration. Is that so? What impact, if any, has cooperation on immigration issues at the EU level had on Greek immigration policy developments and why? What form has it taken, under what conditions, and what mechanisms have been at work? In search for answers...

Reforming the EU blue card as a labour migration policy tool?

KALANTARYAN, Sona; MARTIN, Iván
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Relatório Formato: application/pdf
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One of the four priorities of the European Commission in its preparation for the European Agenda on Migration was to open up 'new legal migration channels, including the revision of the 'Blue Card' Directive'. This comes after only three years of full implementation of this EU immigration policy instrument (and not even that for some Member States). Meanwhile, in its 2014 Communication on the implementation of the Blue Card Directive, the European Commission had decided not to propose any amendment. However, it should not be forgotten that the Blue Card Directive was not designed primarily for the labour market needs of the EU. Rather, it was run to enhance European competitiveness by attracting highly-qualified third-country nationals, and this under quite restrictive conditions of salary and qualifications. As a result there have been only low numbers of beneficiaries to date: 19,000 in 2012 and 2013 for the whole EU. To develop the Blue Card Directive into a true highly-skilled labour-migration management tool able to respond to current and future labour market needs in Europe, would mean changes in scope, conditions and implementation modalities by Member States.; The MPC is co-financed by the European University Institute and the European Union.

Predispositions to discriminatory immigration policies in western Europe: an exploration of political causes

MARTINEZ-HERRERA, Enric; MOUALHI, Djaouida
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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We analyze citizens' predispositions concerning policies of immigrant selection and models of immigrant accommodation as observed by the 2002-3 European Social Survey. We focus on some of the EU's major countries, namely: Germany, Italy, Portugal, Spain, Sweden and the United Kingdom, which were chosen because of their different experiences as migration destinations, as well as for the relevance of their immigration policy models and welfare states. On this basis, we compare citizens' attitudinal inclinations with the policies actually being implemented, and propose interpretations concerning the degree of consistency between both levels. Firstly, we consider attitudes and policies in respect of the discrimination faced by immigrants according to their country of origin and/or economic resources. Secondly, we analyze the attitudes and policies with regard to assimilationist and multicultural integration models. Finally, we examine the recognition of certain rights to migrants.

Moral panic over merit-based immigration policy : talent for citizenship and the American dream

Pottie-Sherman, Yolande
Fonte: Quens University Publicador: Quens University
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 275346 bytes; application/pdf
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This thesis examines a moment in recent U.S. immigration history where an opportunity was created to move towards merit-based immigration, but that proposal was rejected. In addition to the highly publicized proposal for the legalization of undocumented immigrants residing in the United States, the 2007 Immigration Reform Bill proposed a merit-based immigrant selection policy, or “Point System.” The new system would have evaluated potential immigrants according to characteristics deemed to be in the U.S. “national interest.” Critical discourse analysis of policy documents, media coverage in The New York Times and San Diego Union Tribune, and political rhetoric on the floor of the U.S. Senate reveals a distinct moral geography to selection policy. Whereas in Canada, economic immigration is the popularly endorsed mode of immigrant selection, the U.S. “Point System” proposal launched a diatribe by politicians and pundits, who called merit-based immigration “an experiment in social engineering” (Barack Obama 2007), against a “natural” human and “moral imperative” to reunite families (Robert Menendez 2007). This thesis demonstrates the complexity of the relationship between race and class, and how its complexity...

Keeping it in the Family: The (Re-) Production of Conjugal Citizens Through Canadian Immigration Policy and Practice

Gaucher, MEGAN
Fonte: Quens University Publicador: Quens University
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
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This is an examination of how conjugality acts as an access point for Canadian citizenship. The conjugal family unit — married or common-law — continues to be privileged in Canadian law and policy; this is especially evident in immigration policy and practice. Family class immigration continues to be a steady source of immigrants for Canada, spousal/partner sponsorship being the primary type of family reunification. In order to control access, a strict understanding of conjugality is used to distinguish between legitimate and illegitimate families. When it comes to family class immigration, it is not simply a case of individuals sponsoring individuals; it is about the state producing and maintaining the ideal family unit through the provision of citizenship. My analysis proceeds in two main parts. First, I engage with mainstream Canadian citizenship theory — focusing specifically on the work of Will Kymlicka and Rita Dhamoon — and analyze its focus on the individual citizen. Moreover, I examine how the state’s asymmetrical treatment of conjugality has created two versions of the conjugal family — the inside family (families within Canadian borders) and the outside family (families outside Canadian borders). Second, I explore the state’s reliance on conjugal relationships in their assessment of potential immigrants and refugees in three areas of immigration policy — the assessment of sexual minority refugee claimants...

Immigration et identité face aux enjeux de la Guerre Froide : une étude du débat sur la politique d'immigration dans la sphère publique américaine (1952-1965)

Neamtan-Lapalme, Louis
Fonte: Université de Montréal Publicador: Université de Montréal
Tipo: Thèse ou Mémoire numérique / Electronic Thesis or Dissertation
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Résumé: Au lendemain de la Seconde Guerre Mondiale, la nécessité de moderniser la politique d’immigration américaine fait l’unanimité, la principale loi régissant l’immigration datant de 1924. Cependant, la question des paramètres de la réforme fait naître un débat fortement polarisé. Les défenseurs du statu quo, qui souhaitent maintenir le système des quotas nationaux faisant de l’origine nationale le premier critère d’admission, auront initialement le dessus, comme en fait foi le passage du McCarran-Walter Act en 1952. D’autre part, les partisans d’une libéralisation affirment que cette loi restrictive et discriminatoire va à l’encontre des objectifs de la politique étrangère américaine, particulièrement dans un conflit aussi idéologiquement chargé que la Guerre Froide. Au courant des années cinquante et au début des années soixante, les réformateurs libéraux auront progressivement le dessus dans le débat, si bien qu’une nouvelle loi sera adoptée en 1965. Ce mémoire propose d’aborder cette période de réforme sous l’angle de l’opinion publique. À partir, des sources permettant de prendre le pouls de la société américaine au sujet de la politique d’immigration, il a été possible d’observer une libéralisation progressive de l’opinion publique durant la période. Dans le cadre de ce mémoire...

Policy legacies and the politics of labour immigration selection and control: the processes and dynamics shaping national-level policy decisions during the recent wave of international migration

Wright, Christopher F
Fonte: University of Cambridge; Department of Politics and International Studies; Darwin College Publicador: University of Cambridge; Department of Politics and International Studies; Darwin College
Tipo: Thesis; doctoral; PhD
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The two decades preceding the global financial crisis of 2008 saw an increase in international migration flows. This development was accompanied by the relaxation of immigration entry controls for select categories of foreign workers across the developed world. The scale of labour immigration, and the categories of foreign workers granted entry, varied considerably across states. To some extent, these developments transcended the traditional classifications of comparative immigration politics. This thesis examines the reform process in two states with contrasting policy legacies that adopted liberal labour immigration selection and control policies during the abovementioned period. The instrumental role that immigration has played in the process of nation-building in Australia has led it to be classified as a ?traditional destination state? with a positive immigration policy legacy. By contrast, immigration has not been significant in the formation of national identity in the United Kingdom. It has a more negative immigration policy legacy and is generally regarded as a ?reluctant state?. Examining the reasons for liberal shifts in labour immigration policy in two states with different immigration politics allows insights to be gained into the processes of policy-making and the dynamics that underpin it. In Australia...

North Carolina and Immigration Reform: Policy Options To Address Omnibus Immigration Legislation in the North Carolina General Assembly

Miller, R. Jason
Fonte: Universidade Duke Publicador: Universidade Duke
Tipo: Masters' project
Publicado em 10/04/2012 Português
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Despite no significant movement toward comprehensive federal immigration reform since 2007, stakeholders from virtually all points on the political spectrum continue to call for an overhaul. In the meantime, states have increasingly come to participate in enforcing federal immigration law. One program advancing this trend is 287(g), under which state and local law-enforcement authorities—including several in North Carolina—partner with U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement in order to help enforce federal immigration law. Another is E-Verify, a federally administered program that allows employers to use certain identifying documents to verify the residency status of employees; many states—including North Carolina—have made use of the E-Verify program mandatory for public employers, private employers, or both. Many state legislatures have recently gone one step further in the direction of enforcing immigration law by enacting a wave of major state immigration laws. Arizona led the charge with its 2010 Support Our Law Enforcement and Safe Neighborhoods Act (popularly known as “SB 1070”); Utah, Georgia, Indiana, Alabama, and South Carolina soon followed suit. These laws have proven controversial, and challenges in the federal court system have so far met mixed results. The major common provisions require law-enforcement officers to determine the immigration status of anyone involved in a lawful stop...

The labor market effects of immigration: evidence from the Canadian experience

Cummer, Jared
Fonte: University of Delaware Publicador: University of Delaware
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
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Robinson, Breck L.; In an effort to improve the economic outcomes of immigrants, starting in the mid-1990s the Canadian government introduced regulatory amendments and new legislation that altered the skill composition of new cohorts entering the country. At the same time, the government significantly increased the level of immigration through expanding the Temporary Foreign Worker (TFW) program and landed immigrant entry streams. These policy changes focused on admitting applicants with the skills needed to adjust with long-run shifts in the labor market, while addressing short-term demand. By altering the Canadian immigration system, the government significantly altered the composition of the country's labor force. Immigrant cohorts entering under the new policy regime had a different composition of skills in comparison to earlier cohorts. By focusing on improving immigrant human capital, the Canadian government altered the skill distribution of the labor force. At the same time, increasing landed and temporary immigration levels shifted the short and long-run supply of labor. As a result, changing the composition and number of immigrants entering Canada influences the general labor market equilibrium of the country. This dissertation contributes to the immigration literature by examining the impact that changes to Canadian immigration policy between the mid-1990s and early 2000s had on immigrant and native-born employment outcomes. This research concentrates on the supply-side effects immigration has on labor market outcomes in Canada. In the first empirical chapter...

Mexican immigration to the United States

Schwalbe, Kaleigh
Fonte: University of Delaware Publicador: University of Delaware
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
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Mark Miller; Mexican immigration to the United States is a controversial issue in today???s political realm. Though it is the longest running labor movement in history, many Americans are under the impression that this is a current issue. In fact, there are many interesting assumptions about this movement, that many times prove to false. It is only by analyzing this issue through the context of historical and current trends, as well as through both the United States and Mexican perspectives that the issue can be fully understood. This paper will examine the immigration movement and US policy responses to it. It will critique these policy decisions based on the success of their intended purposes, and will find that many times these policies were misdirected. Many of the shortfalls of these policies come from a lack of understanding the depth of the Mexican immigrants??? incentives to immigrate to the United States. This paper addresses these motivational gaps by reexamining the push and pull theory, and how the United States has misused this in their policy decisions. The United States is currently focusing too much on the pull motivations of immigration and not enough on the push motivations of immigration. In addition, the pull motivation side policies are being mishandled...

Testing the Boundaries of White Australia: Domestic Servants and Immigration Policy, 1901-45

Higman, Barry
Fonte: Taylor & Francis Group Publicador: Taylor & Francis Group
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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In the period 1901-45 Australian governments sought to increase the nation's domestic service workforce through immigration while confining that immigration to British sources. Implementation of the White Australia policy resulted in an active deportation of household workers, particularly in the tropical north. In spite of broad acceptance of race-based immigration restrictions as a national ideal, calls came from the tropical and pastoral margins for a relaxation specific to domestic service in order to encourage white women to settle in remote areas. Proponents of non-British immigration argued that such servants would enable the long-term achievement of White Australia but they met firm resistance.

Turning the immigration policy paradox upside down? Populist liberalism and discursive gaps in South America

Acosta Arcarazo, Diego; Freier, Luisa Feline
Fonte: Wiley on behalf of the Center for Migration Studies Publicador: Wiley on behalf of the Center for Migration Studies
Tipo: Article; PeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em //2015 Português
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A paradox of officially rejecting but covertly accepting irregular migrants has long been identified in the immigration policies of Western immigrant receiving states. In South America, on the other hand, a liberal discourse of universally welcoming all immigrants, irrespective of their origin and migratory status, has replaced the formally restrictive, securitized and not seldomly ethnically selective immigration rhetoric. This discursive liberalization has found partial translation into immigration laws and policies, but contrary to the universality of rights claimed in their discourses, governments reject recently increasing irregular south–south migration from Africa, Asia, and the Caribbean to varying degrees. This paper applies a mixed methodological approach of discourse and legal analysis and process tracing to explore in how far recent immigration policies in South America constitute a liberal turn, or rather a reverse immigration policy paradox of officially welcoming but covertly rejecting irregular migrants. Based on the comparative analysis of Argentina, Brazil and Ecuador, the study identifies and explains South American “populist liberalism” in the sphere of migration. We highlight important implications for migration theory...

U.S. Immigration Policy and the Mobility of Mexicans (1882-2005)

Alarcón,Rafael
Fonte: El Colegio de la Frontera Norte Publicador: El Colegio de la Frontera Norte
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/06/2011 Português
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Mexicans constitute the largest immigrant group in the United States. This article reviews history to examine the impact of U.S. immigration policy on the development of migration patterns from Mexico between 1882 and 2005. Despite the large number of Mexicans who have been admitted as immigrants, for several decades U.S. immigration policy sought to construct the Mexican immigrant as a temporary worker; however, recent legislation has established a more permanent migration pattern, currently involving seven million undocumented persons. The burden of more than a hundred years of U.S. immigration policy should grant undocumented Mexican immigrants special access to legal permanent residency.