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O direito à água no direito internacional; The right to water in international law.

Riva, Gabriela Rodrigues Saab
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 15/05/2014 Português
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A presente dissertação tem como tema o direito à água e objetiva compreender como se dá sua inserção no Direito Internacional. Para tanto, pretende-se analisar o tratamento dado pelo Direito Internacional do Meio Ambiente e especialmente pelo Direito Internacional dos Direitos Humanos às questões relativas ao acesso à água, assim como à prioridade na alocação dos recursos hídricos para a satisfação das necessidades humanas. Inicialmente, procede-se a uma investigação analítica das principais discussões a respeito do acesso e da preservação da água, notadamente aquelas realizadas em conferências internacionais de cunho ambiental e explicitadas nas diversas declarações da comunidade internacional. Dedica-se, ainda de forma analítica, a refazer o caminho que levou ao reconhecimento do direito à água no âmbito dos direitos humanos, com o intuito de definir as suas bases normativas e jurisprudenciais. Finalmente, visando fornecer parâmetros doutrinários, normativos e jurisprudenciais para a ampla compreensão da presença e dos contornos do direito à água no Direito Internacional, procede-se à análise de seu conteúdo em termos de direitos e obrigações, das implicações de sua afirmação como um direito humano...

Limites aos direitos de autor sob a perspectiva do direito internacional dos direitos humanos: estudo dos limites aos direitos de autor frente aos direitos de acesso ao conhecimento e à educação nos ordenamentos internacional e interno; Limits to copyright from the perspective of international human rights law: study of copyrights limits considering the rights of access to knowledge and education in the international and national law systems.

Rodrigues, Daniela Oliveira
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 30/05/2014 Português
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106.16%
A presente dissertação se propõe a analisar a interação entre o sistema internacional de direitos humanos e o sistema internacional de propriedade intelectual e as implicações desta relação para o ordenamento jurídico brasileiro, no que concerne especificamente aos direitos de autor e direitos conexos. No ano em que o Acordo TRIPS completará vinte anos, é oportuna a reflexão a respeito da efetividade de suas regras, especialmente quanto à capacidade de interagir com os demais sistemas jurídicos internacionais, especialmente o sistema internacional de direitos humanos. A leitura da seção de princípios e regras gerais (especialmente do artigo 6°, referente à exaustão de direitos) e da seção relativa aos direitos de autor do Acordo TRIPS (especialmente do artigo 13, que estabelece a Regra dos Três Passos) parece indicar para a previsão de limites à exploração destes direitos em vistas dos objetivos de promoção do desenvolvimento e de equilíbrio de interesses entre, de um lado, autores e titulares e, de outro lado, utilizadores das obras artísticas e literárias protegidas. Contudo, tem se verificado que o sistema internacional de propriedade intelectual tem caminhado na via contrária. Com a proliferação...

La conformité de l’obligation contractuelle des travailleurs agricoles de maintenir un lien fixe avec leur employeur avec l’article 46 de la Charte des droits et libertés de la personne du Québec interprétée à la lumière du droit international

Gayet, Anne-Claire
Fonte: Université de Montréal Publicador: Université de Montréal
Tipo: Thèse ou Mémoire numérique / Electronic Thesis or Dissertation
Português
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Le Québec reçoit chaque année un nombre croissant de travailleurs agricoles temporaires, à travers deux programmes : le Programme des travailleurs agricoles saisonniers (principalement Mexicains) et le Programme des travailleurs peu qualifiés (pour l’instant Guatémaltèques). Une de leurs caractéristiques communes est le lien fixe à l’employeur imposé aux travailleurs. Cette recherche analyse la conformité de cette disposition avec l’article 46 de la Charte québécoise qui garantit le droit à des conditions de travail justes et raisonnables. Un examen des effets du lien fixe démontre que celui-ci établit une dépendance forte des travailleurs envers leur employeur, aux niveaux légal (du fait de la possibilité du rapatriement anticipé en cas de problèmes liés au travail ou au comportement), financier (dû à la nomination des travailleurs année après année et au dépôt de sécurité imposé aux travailleurs guatémaltèques) et psychologique (soumission, crainte). L’interprétation de l’article 46 à la lumière du droit international des droits de la personne met en évidence la non conformité du lien fixe avec cette disposition. Or si l’objectif de cette mesure est de retenir la main-d’oeuvre dans le secteur agricole...

Human Rights and Climate Change : A Review of the International Legal Dimensions

McInerney-Lankford, Siobhan; Darrow, Mac; Rajamani, Lavanya
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
106.21%
The study includes a conceptual overview of the link between climate impacts and human rights, focused on the relevant legal obligations underpinning the international law frameworks governing both human rights and climate change. As such it makes a significant contribution to the global debate on climate change and human rights by offering a comprehensive analysis of the international legal dimensions of this intersection. The study helps advance an understanding of what is meant, in legal and policy terms, by the human rights impacts of climate change through examples of specific substantive rights. It gives a legal and theoretic perspective on the connection between human rights and climate change along three dimensions: first, human rights may affect the enjoyment of human rights. Second, measures to address human rights may impact the realization of rights and third, that human rights have potential relevance to policy and operational responses to climate change, and may promote resilience to climate change...

A proposal for the implementation of human rights treaty obligations in armed conflict.

Hassanli, Samaneh
Fonte: Universidade de Adelaide Publicador: Universidade de Adelaide
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Publicado em //2014 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
106.14%
This thesis proposes a framework for the application of human rights treaty obligations in extraterritorial armed conflict situations. Traditionally it is International Humanitarian Law (‘IHL’) that governs the conduct of States during military operations abroad. However the humanitarian desire to increase the protections afforded by international law to individuals affected by armed conflict has gradually resulted in the recognition that International Human Rights Law (‘IHRL’) applies alongside IHL in armed conflict situations. This development is, however, associated with significant uncertainties as to the scope of the human rights obligations of States conducting military operations abroad and the relationship between IHL and IHRL in such circumstances. The aim of this thesis is to contribute to this debate by proposing a framework for a better understanding of the dual operation of IHL and IHRL when States conduct military operations abroad. The central argument of this thesis is that the scope of a State’s extraterritorial human rights obligations should depend upon the degree of effective control it exercises over the territory in which it is operating. IHRL is generally predicated on the capacity of the State to control territory and individuals within that territory. States frequently...

The crisis of international human rights law in the global market economy

AUGENSTEIN, Daniel
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento Formato: application/pdf; digital
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
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The article argues that the facticity of the human rights impacts of economic globalisation increasingly undermines the normativity of the state-centred conception of international human rights law. The exposure of the international legal order of states to the operations of global business entities leads to a collusion of sovereign state interest and globalised corporate power at the expense of protecting the rights of victims of human rights violations. The article scrutinises two prominent attempts to address this lacuna of protection: transnational tort litigation and the UN Guiding Principles on Business and Human Rights. It is argued that both approaches are not only an expression of the present crisis of international human rights law but also risk contributing to its perpetuation. While the ‘escape into tort’ results in the privatisation of public human rights in the global market economy, the UN Guiding Principles entrench their territorialisation in the state legal order in the face of global economic challenges. The concluding section reflects on the future pathways of international human rights law by positing a choice between, on the one hand, a more radical departure from human rights’ state-centred heritage and...

The Interaction of International Human Rights Law with the Domestic Jurisdictions. Present Problems

Fernández Mateo, Manuel
Fonte: Universidad de Alcalá de Henares. Servicio de Publicaciones Publicador: Universidad de Alcalá de Henares. Servicio de Publicaciones
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/pdf
Português
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I. Introductory. II. Considerations related to the incorporation of international human rights law in domestic jurisdictions: 1. Monists systems v. dualist systems. 2. Capacity to commit a State in the international sphere. Legislative power v. Executive power. 3. Problems connected with the self-executing character of international human rights norms. 4. Hierarchy position of international treaties in domestic jurisdictions. 5. Universal Jurisdiction. III. The development of enforcement mechanisms by the international institutions specialized in human rights. IV. Conclusions. Bibliography.; Los sistemas de incorporación del Derecho internacional en las legislaciones internas, así como la ejecutabilidad de las resoluciones internacionales, constituyen los elementos esenciales que regulan el grado de cumplimiento del Derecho internacional de los derechos humanos. En este sentido, las relaciones internacionales están controlando el funcionamiento de estos mecanismos convirtiendo estas normas en una herramienta de prueba de acciones adoptadas como resultados de consideraciones de política exterior. Esta tendencia puede ser apreciada en diferentes aspectos. Por un lado, las diferencias entre sistemas monistas y dualistas están desapareciendo. Por otro lado...

Human Rights Violations by Private Persons and Entities: The Case-Law of International Human Rights Courts and Monitoring Bodies

ZIEMELE, Ineta
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento Formato: application/pdf
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
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The article sums up the state of international human rights law as concerns the issue of responsibility for human rights violations allegedly carried out by private persons and entities. It employs four main legal concepts: imputability of private actions to a State, positive obligations of States, duties of private persons and entities, and 'horizontal' effect of human rights. The attempt is made to see how these concepts appear in the case-law of international monitoring bodies and regional courts. The article also attempts to indicate pending questions as concerns the responsibility of private persons and entities for human rights violations and to introduce possible approaches that an international or regional judicial or legislative process could undertake to remedy the gaps, in particular in the narrower context of private military companies. One of the obvious conclusions that emerges from the study is that international actors have preferred the development of the scope of positive obligations that States ought to undertake within various human rights treaties. It is through these obligations that international human rights standards have come to circumscribe private actions. The scope of positive obligations for States typically involve the following measures: adoption of appropriate legislation...

The Pro Homine Framework and the Roman Law Spirit of International Human Rights Law

Rocha Ferraz Ribeiro, Dilton
Fonte: Quens University Publicador: Quens University
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
106.18%
The Romans were the first civilization that envisaged an international legal system rooted in the human person and for all humankind. The innovation of this concept was precisely its universality centered on the human conscience, which, different from past approaches to international law, was not theoretically limited to a group of people or a religion. Although still deprived of universal de facto application, the Roman concept of the law of nations or jus gentium guided, to a greater or lesser extent, all subsequent writings on the subject until its complete limitation to a law between states and its current revival within the theoretical framework of international human rights law. The general framework of human rights is the Roman notion that international law flows from an universal reason of all humankind and is equally observed by all peoples and used as law by all peoples or nations. It is this definition, looked through the perspective of modern times, which forms the pro homine framework. Both the European and Inter-American human rights courts unconsciously follow the precepts of the Roman jus gentium. They contribute to the reaffirmation that international human rights is indeed centered on the human person as the end and source of law. This individual-centric and Roman-based conception guide the transformation...

The International security assistance force for the Afghan security: Juridical aspects of its practical implementation.; La Fuerza Internacional de Asistencia para la Seguridad en Afganistán: Aspectos jurídicos de su implementación práctica

Manrique de Luna-Barrios, Antonio; Universidad de Osnabrück
Fonte: Universidade La Sabana Publicador: Universidade La Sabana
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
95.96%
The members of the peacekeeping operations should respect the provisions of the international human rights law and the international humanitarian law, since they are a fundamental basis to consolidate the role of the regional organizations in the area of peace and international security. However, some of the actions that have been carried out by the members of the peacekeeping operation that was led by the North Atlantic Treaty Organization in Afghanistan have violated both rights since certain activities were undertaken that resulted in causing deaths among the civil population. Especially to avoid that incidents like these, committed by members of the peacekeeping operations can be utilized by Taliban groups in order to incite the civil population against the members of these operations, it is fundamental to investigate, sanction and give compensations for such acts to the victims or to the families in case that the victims may have died.; Los miembros de las operaciones de mantenimiento de la paz deben respetar las disposiciones del derecho internacional de los derechos humanos y del derecho internacional humanitario, ya que ello constituye un pilar fundamental para consolidar el rol de las organizaciones regionales en el ámbito de la paz y la seguridad internacional. No obstante ello...

The Right to be Free from the Harm of Hate Speech in International Human Rights Law

Elbahtimy, Mona
Fonte: Centre of Governance and Human Rights Publicador: Centre of Governance and Human Rights
Tipo: Working Paper; not applicable
Português
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105.96%
The current challenges posed by hate speech across the globe have prompted the need to better understand the evolution of the right to be free from the harm of hate speech as codified within Article 20(2) of the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights. This paper examines the right?s evolution within international human rights law (IHRL). Its purpose is to understand the core difficulties that have faced efforts geared to the development, strengthening and expansion of international standards that provide protection from the harm of hate speech. To elaborate upon such difficulties, the paper identifies four internal features of the right to be free from the harm of hate speech, representing the challenges facing its interpretation and implementation. These four features are the right?s ?emotional? component; the complexities in proving the proscribed incitement; the tensions between the listeners? and speakers? rights to liberty and equality; and the right?s group-identity component, which creates tensions between individual and group rights. The paper argues that these four internal features of the right have a strong and direct influence on understanding the difficult path the right has taken in its evolution within IHRL.

Derogating from International Human Rights Obligations in the War Against Terrorism? - A British-Australian Perspective

Michaelsen, Christopher
Fonte: Taylor & Francis Group Publicador: Taylor & Francis Group
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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This article examines the United Kingdom's Anti-terrorism, Crime and Security Act 2001 and the Australian Security Intelligence Organisation Legislation Amendment (Terrorism) Act 2002 (Cth) from an international human rights law perspective. It argues that both pieces of legislation raise serious concerns in relation to international legal obligations under the European Convention on Human Rights and the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights. Both international treaties allow for 'derogation from certain provisions in times of 'public emergency. While the United Kingdom has officially derogated from some of its treaty obligations, Australia has yet to submit a similar notification. This article argues, however, that the United Kingdom's derogation is unlawful. Likewise, current circumstances in Australia would not permit lawful derogation from the ICCPR.

Health, human rights and Australia's foreign policies

Reid, Elizabeth
Fonte: Australasian Medical Association Publicador: Australasian Medical Association
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
95.94%
■ International human rights law affirms that everyone has a right to the enjoyment of the highest attainable standard of physical and mental health. ■ States that are parties to human rights treaties are obliged under international law to observe the

Why should it matter that others have more? Poverty, inequality and the potential of international Human Rights Law

Salomon, Margot E.
Fonte: Department of Law, London School of Economics and Political Science Publicador: Department of Law, London School of Economics and Political Science
Tipo: Monograph; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em //2010 Português
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106.07%
A concern with ensuring minimum standards of dignity for all and a doctrine based on the need to secure for everyone basic levels of rights have traditionally shaped the way in which international human rights law addresses poverty. Whether this minimalist, non-relational approach befits international law objectives in the area of world poverty begs consideration. This paper offers three justifications as to why global material inequality – and not just poverty – should matter to international human rights law. The paper then situates requirements regarding the improvement of living conditions, a system of equitable distribution in the case of hunger, and in particular obligations of international cooperation within the post-1945 international effort at people-centred development. The contextual consideration of relevant tenets serves to demonstrate that positive international human rights law can be applied beyond efforts at poverty alleviation to accommodate a doctrine of fair global distribution.

International human rights law and foreign case law in interpreting Constitutional rights: The Supreme Court of Uganda and the death penalty question

Mujuzi,Jamil Ddamulira
Fonte: African Human Rights Law Journal Publicador: African Human Rights Law Journal
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2009 Português
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On 21 January 2009, the Supreme Court of Uganda handed down a judgment in which it held that the death penalty was constitutional, that a mandatory death sentence was unconstitutional, that hanging as a mode of execution was not cruel and inhuman, and that the death row phenomenon is cruel and inhuman and therefore unconstitutional. Although the Constitution of Uganda does not empower or require the Court to refer to international law or foreign case law in interpreting the Constitution, the Court relied heavily on international human rights treaties and jurisprudence in arriving at its decision. This article has three purposes: one, to show how the Ugandan Court used international law and foreign case law in its judgment; two, to analyse the Court's orders; and third to recommend that the Constitution of Uganda be amended to empower or require courts to refer to international law and foreign case law in interpreting the country's Constitution.

Marriage under African customary law in the face of the Bill of Rights and international human rights standards in Malawi

Mwambene,Lea
Fonte: African Human Rights Law Journal Publicador: African Human Rights Law Journal
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2010 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
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Contracting a marriage under African customary law in Malawi poses difficulties and challenges in the light of the Bill of Rights and international human rights standards. There are bound to be conflicts which, seen from a human rights perspective, amount to violations of women's human rights. The article explores the nature of the conflict between human rights and a plethora of principles, rules and practices pertaining to marriage under African customary law in Malawi. The article also shows strong support from both men and women for cultural practices that conflict with women's human rights. It is therefore argued that efforts to eradicate these cultural practices, however well-intended, must be undertaken with a very high level of cultural sensitivity. It is suggested that, instead of a formal approach to the realisation of human rights, a substantive approach which is inclusive of the reasons behind the support for cultural beliefs and values, be adopted in order to address those aspects of a particular cultural practice that violate human rights.

The protection against discrimination based on sexual orientation under the African human rights system

Rudman,Annika
Fonte: African Human Rights Law Journal Publicador: African Human Rights Law Journal
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2015 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
105.99%
Recent legislation proposed or passed in Nigeria, Uganda and The Gambia has put the spotlight on the plights of homosexual persons living in sub-Saharan Africa. In Nigeria, discriminatory laws prohibit same-sex marriages and ban gay clubs and organisations. In Uganda, the Prohibition of the Promotion of Unnatural Sexual Practices Bill of 2014, with contents similar to the notorious Anti-Homosexuality Act, is being considered after a ruling by the Ugandan Constitutional Court rendering the Anti-Homosexuality Act unconstitutional. In The Gambia, the Penal Code has been amended recently to add the crime of 'aggravated homosexuality' with a lifetime prison sentence for any person found guilty. The rights to dignity and equality are protected under the African Charter on Human and Peoples' Rights; however, competing local and global values are arguably growing in Africa, challenging this right. This article explores two main problems: first, how the rights to dignity, equality and non-discrimination should generally be interpreted and applied under the regional African human rights system when related to sexual orientation. In this regard I draw on the interpretation of these rights under international human rights law as well as the jurisprudence of the European Court of Human Rights and its Inter-American counterpart. Second...

Combating sexual violence in schools in sub-Saharan Africa: Legal strategies under regional and international human rights law

Beninger,Christina
Fonte: African Human Rights Law Journal Publicador: African Human Rights Law Journal
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/20/2013 Português
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Although schools are generally regarded as a 'safe haven' for children, the reality for many girls is that schools can be a place of sexual discrimination, harassment and violence, perpetrated by fellow male students and teachers alike. The widespread problem of sexual and gender-based violence, particularly sexual violence, in schools has been well-documented in a range of studies and reports in sub-Saharan Africa. Sexual and gender-based violence in schools not only violates girls' fundamental rights to dignity and equality, and their rights to be free from violence, but it also undermines their rights to education, particularly when, as is often the case, states fail to take measures to protect girls. Although there is a growing body of empirical research documenting the nature and extent of this problem, particularly in various sub-Saharan African countries, how regional and international human rights law applies to protect girls in this situation appears to have received limited consideration. This article attempts to fill this gap in the literature, by providing an analysis of the problem of sexual and gender-based violence in schools within the framework of regional and international human rights law. The article's objective is to identify and discuss rights-based legal strategies to combat this pervasive human rights violation...

The Model Law on HIV in Southern Africa: Third World Approaches to International Law insights into a human rights-based approach

Johnson,Robert
Fonte: African Human Rights Law Journal Publicador: African Human Rights Law Journal
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2009 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
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Legislating in response to the HIV epidemic is a core element of the global HIV strategy. A human rights-based approach is essential in order to comply with international law as well as to ensure effectiveness. This stands in contrast to punitive measures and criminalisation provisions within HIV legislation. Third World states are entitled to be cautious about a purportedly human rights-based approach and an explicit conformity with international law that have their institutional origins in advancing Western hegemonic interests. The insights of Third World Approaches to International Law (TWAIL) are important in harnessing international human rights law as a necessarily transformative framework that is effective in meeting its globally equitable and social justice character. This is especially so for the Southern African model law on HIV. TWAIL provide critical guidance relating to context and strategy for Southern African states in this regard and the model law, in turn, offers important opportunities in advancing TWAIL objectives in its counter-hegemonic struggle for global equity and justice. The Southern African model law on HIV is strongly compliant with international human rights principles and obligations and relevant to effectively address the nature of the HIV epidemic in the region. The domestic adoption of the model law across Southern African states has the potential to fulfil a strategically crucial transformative role in advancing Third World resistance.

The protection of participants in clinical research in Africa: Does domestic human rights law have a role to play?

Nienaber,Annelize
Fonte: African Human Rights Law Journal Publicador: African Human Rights Law Journal
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2008 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
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This article investigates the protection of clinical research participants in sub-Saharan Africa by domestic human rights instruments. It assesses the weaknesses in the existing regulatory framework in the form of international and national ethical guidelines, and surveys domestic human rights law in selected African countries to ascertain whether domestic human rights law may be used to augment and enhance the existing system of protection. It concludes that domestic human rights law has an important (if hitherto unutilised) role to play in the protection of clinical research participants in sub-Saharan Africa.