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Increased natural killer activity does not prevent progression of experimental kala-azar

Sartori, Alexandria; Kaneno, Ramon; Baruzzi, Nelson; Peraçoli, Maria Terezinha Serrão
Fonte: Universidade Estadual Paulista Publicador: Universidade Estadual Paulista
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 215-219
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
67.06%
Kala-azar is the visceral form of leishmaniasis and it is caused by intracellular parasites from the complex Leishmania donovani. Golden hamster (Mesocricetus auratus) infected with Leishmania donovani develop a disease very similar to human Kala-azar. There is conspicuous hipergammaglobulinaemia and their T cells do not respond to stimulation with parasite antigens. We used this experimental model to evaluate the natural killer (NK) activity during the initial phase of the disease. Outbred hamsters infected by intravenous route with 5.106 amastigotes of L. donovani 1S showed a concurrent increase in the spleen weight and in the spleen cell number. Using the single cell assay we detected a significant increase in the percentage of NK effector cells on the 4th day of infection. Imprints from spleen and liver showed at days 14 and 28 a significant increase in the parasite burden. These results show that the increased NK activity in the beginning of the infection was not able to restrain the progression of the disease in this experimental model.

Genes that encodes NAGT, MIF1 and MIF2 are not virulence factors for kala-azar caused by Leishmania infantum

Aguiar, Bruno Guedes Alcoforado; Coelho, Daniela Lemos; Costa, Dorcas Lamounier; Drumond, Betânia Paiva; Coelho, Luiz Felipe Leomil; Figueiredo, Lívio Carvalho; Zacarias, Danielle Alves; Silva, Jailthon Carlos Da; Alonso, Diego Peres; Ribolla, Paulo Edu
Fonte: Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical - SBMT Publicador: Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical - SBMT
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 593-598
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
67.28%
Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo (FAPESP); Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq); Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior (CAPES); Introduction Kala-azar is a disease resulting from infection by Leishmania donovani and Leishmania infantum. Most patients with the disease exhibit prolonged fever, wasting, anemia and hepatosplenomegaly without complications. However, some patients develop severe disease with hemorrhagic manifestations, bacterial infections, jaundice, and edema dyspnea, among other symptoms, followed by death. Among the parasite molecules that might influence the disease severity are the macrophage migration inhibitory factor-like proteins (MIF1 and MIF2) and N-acetylglucosamine-1-phosphotransferase (NAGT), which act in the first step of protein N-glycosylation. This study aimed to determine whether MIF1, MIF2 and NAGT are virulence factors for severe kala-azar. Methods To determine the parasite genotype in kala-azar patients from Northeastern Brazil, we sequenced the NAGT genes of L. infantum from 68 patients as well as the MIF1 and MIF2 genes from 76 different subjects with diverse clinical manifestations. After polymerase chain reaction (PCR)...

Plasma levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha in patients with visceral leishmaniasis (Kala-Azar). Association with activity of the disease and clinical remisson following antimonial therapy

Salomão,Reinaldo; Castelo Filho,Adauto; Medeiros,Iara Marques de; Sicolo,Miguel Angel
Fonte: Instituto de Medicina Tropical Publicador: Instituto de Medicina Tropical
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/04/1996 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
67.06%
Evaluation of TNF-alpha in patients with Kala-azar has drawn increasing interest due to its regulatory role on the immune system, in addition to its cachetizing activity. The objective of this study was to examine the association between plasma levels of TNF-alpha, measured by immunore-activity (ELISA) and bioactivity (cytotoxicity assay with L-929 cells), and clinical manifestations of visceral leishmaniasis. Plasma samples from 19 patients with Kala-azar were obtained before, during and at the end of antimonial therapy. TNF-alpha determinations was done by using the cytotoxicity assay (all patients) and the enzyme-linked immunoassay (ELISA - 14 patients). A discrepancy between results obtained by ELISA and cytotoxicity assay was observed. Levels of circulating TNF-alpha, assessed by ELISA, were higher in patients than in healthy controls, and declined significantly with improvement in clinical and laboratory parameters. Plasma levels before treatment were 124.7 ± 93.3 pg/ml (mean ± SD) and were higher than at the end of therapy 13.9 ± 25.1 pg/ml (mean ± SD) (p = 0.001). In contrast, plasma levels of TNF-alpha evaluated by cytotoxicity assay did not follow a predicted course during follow-up. Lysis, in this case...

Increased natural killer activity does not prevent progression of experimental Kala-azar

SARTORI,Alexandrina; KANENO,Ramon; BARUZZI,Nelson; PERAÇOLI,Maria Terezinha Serrão
Fonte: Instituto de Medicina Tropical Publicador: Instituto de Medicina Tropical
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/07/1999 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
67.06%
Kala-azar is the visceral form of leishmaniasis and it is caused by intracellular parasites from the complex Leishmania donovani. Golden hamster (Mesocricetus auratus) infected with Leishmania donovani develop a disease very similar to human Kala-azar. There is conspicuous hipergammaglobulinaemia and their T cells do not respond to stimulation with parasite antigens. We used this experimental model to evaluate the natural killer (NK) activity during the initial phase of the disease. Outbred hamsters infected by intravenous route with 5.106 amastigotes of L. donovani 1S showed a concurrent increase in the spleen weight and in the spleen cell number. Using the single cell assay we detected a significant increase in the percentage of NK effector cells on the 4th day of infection. Imprints from spleen and liver showed at days 14 and 28 a significant increase in the parasite burden . These results show that the increased NK activity in the beginning of the infection was not able to restrain the progression of the disease in this experimental model.

The FML (Fucose Mannose Ligand) of Leishmania donovani: a new tool in diagnosis, prognosis, transfusional control and vaccination against human kala-azar

Sousa,Claris B. Palatnik de; Gomes,Elza M.; Souza,Edilma Paraguai de; Santos,Wania R. dos; Macedo,Sirley R. de; Medeiros,Linnete V. de; Luz,Kleber
Fonte: Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical - SBMT Publicador: Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical - SBMT
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/04/1996 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
67.16%
The Fucose-Mannose Ligand (FML) of Leishmania donovani is a complex glycoproteic fraction. Its potential use as a tool for diagnosis of human visceral leishmaniasis was tested with human sera from Natal, Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil. The FML-ELISA test, showed 100% sensitivity and 96% specificity, identifying patients with overt kala-azar (p < 0.001, when compared to normal sera), and subjects with subclinical infection. More than 20% apparently healthy subjects with positive reaction to FML developed overt kala-azar during the following 10 months. In the screening of human blood donnors, a prevalence of 5% of sororeactive subjects was detected, attaining 17% in a single day. The GP36 glycoprotein of FHL is specifically reconized by human kala-azar sera. The immunoprotective effect of FML on experimental L. donovanii infection was tested in swiss albino mice. The protection scheemes included three weekly doses of FML, supplemented or not with saponin by the subcutaneous or intraperitoneal routes and challenge with 2x 10(7) amastigotes of Leishmania donovani. An enhancement of 80.0 % in antibody response (p<0.001) and reduction of 85.5 % parasite liver burden (p<0.001) was detected in animals immunized with FML saponin, unrespectivety of the immunization route.

Bone marrow fibrosis (pseudo-myelofibrosis) in human kala-azar

Rocha Filho,Francisco Dário; Ferreira,Francisco Valdeci de Almeida; Mendes,Flávia de Oliveira; Ferreira,Fernanda Nogueira Holanda; Karbage,Alexandre; Alencar,Marília Lage; Costa,Danielle
Fonte: Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical - SBMT Publicador: Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical - SBMT
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/08/2000 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
67.06%
Thirty cases of human kala-azar were diagnosed by iliac crest biopsy and myeloculture. Histological analysis of 12 patients showed diffuse thickening of reticulin fibers. To the best of our knowledge, this is the third report describing secondary bone marrow fibrosis (myelofibrosis-like) associated with kala-azar. Patients with positive bone marrow fibrosis (pbmf = 12) were compared to patients without detectable bone marrow fibrosis (wbmf = 18). There were no significant differences in clinical and blood parameters following treatment. All patients showed regression of hepatosplenomegaly.Our findings suggest that associated bone marrow fibrosis is transient and did not interfere in the evolution of treated patients.

Human immunodeficiency virus/Leishmania infantum in the first foci of urban American visceral leishmaniasis: clinical presentation from 1994 to 2010

Lima,Iúri Paz; Müller,Marina Costa; Holanda,Thiago Ayres; Harhay,Michael; Costa,Carlos Henrique Nery; Costa,Dorcas Lamounier
Fonte: Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical - SBMT Publicador: Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical - SBMT
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/04/2013 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
47.28%
INTRODUCTION: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) coinfection with Leishmania infantum or Leishmania donovani, the agents of visceral leishmaniasis (or kala-azar), has become a fatal public health problem in the tropics where kala-azar is endemic. METHODS: The clinical presentation of patients with HIV and L. infantum coinfection is described using two unique databases that together produce the largest case series of patients with kala-azar infected with HIV in South America. First, a retrospective study paired the list of all patients with kala-azar from 1994 to 2004 with another of all patients with HIV/AIDS from the reference hospital for both diseases in the City of Teresina, State of Piauí, Brazil. Beginning in 2005 through to 2010 this information was prospectively collected at the moment of hospitalization. RESULTS: During the study, 256 admissions related to 224 patients with HIV/L. infantum coinfection were registered and most of them were males between 20-40 years of age. Most of the 224 patients were males between 20-40 years of age. HIV contraction was principally sexual. The most common symptoms and signs were pallor, fever, asthenia and hepatosplenomegaly. 16.8% of the cohort died. The primary risk factors associated to death were kidney or respiratory failure...

Genes that encodes NAGT, MIF1 and MIF2 are not virulence factors for kala-azar caused by Leishmania infantum

Aguiar,Bruno Guedes Alcoforado; Coelho,Daniela Lemos; Costa,Dorcas Lamounier; Drumond,Betânia Paiva; Coelho,Luiz Felipe Leomil; Figueiredo,Lívio Carvalho; Zacarias,Danielle Alves; Silva,Jailthon Carlos da; Alonso,Diego Peres; Ribolla,Paulo Eduardo Marti
Fonte: Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical - SBMT Publicador: Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical - SBMT
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/10/2014 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
67.28%
Introduction Kala-azar is a disease resulting from infection by Leishmania donovani and Leishmania infantum. Most patients with the disease exhibit prolonged fever, wasting, anemia and hepatosplenomegaly without complications. However, some patients develop severe disease with hemorrhagic manifestations, bacterial infections, jaundice, and edema dyspnea, among other symptoms, followed by death. Among the parasite molecules that might influence the disease severity are the macrophage migration inhibitory factor-like proteins (MIF1 and MIF2) and N-acetylglucosamine-1-phosphotransferase (NAGT), which act in the first step of protein N-glycosylation. This study aimed to determine whether MIF1, MIF2 and NAGT are virulence factors for severe kala-azar. Methods To determine the parasite genotype in kala-azar patients from Northeastern Brazil, we sequenced the NAGT genes of L. infantum from 68 patients as well as the MIF1 and MIF2 genes from 76 different subjects with diverse clinical manifestations. After polymerase chain reaction (PCR), the fragments were sequenced, followed by polymorphism identification. Results The nucleotide sequencing of the 144 amplicons revealed the absence of genetic variability of the NAGT, MIF1 and MIF2 genes between the isolates. The conservation of these genes suggests that the clinical variability of kala-azar does not depend upon these genes. Additionally...

A comparative evaluation of endemic and non-endemic region of visceral leishmaniasis (Kala-azar) in India with ground survey and space technology

Kesari,Shreekant; Bhunia,Gouri Sankar; Kumar,Vijay; Jeyaram,Algarswamy; Ranjan,Alok; Das,Pradeep
Fonte: Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Ministério da Saúde Publicador: Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Ministério da Saúde
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/08/2011 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.91%
In visceral leishmaniasis, phlebotomine vectors are targets for control measures. Understanding the ecosystem of the vectors is a prerequisite for creating these control measures. This study endeavours to delineate the suitable locations of Phlebotomus argentipes with relation to environmental characteristics between endemic and non-endemic districts in India. A cross-sectional survey was conducted on 25 villages in each district. Environmental data were obtained through remote sensing images and vector density was measured using a CDC light trap. Simple linear regression analysis was used to measure the association between climatic parameters and vector density. Using factor analysis, the relationship between land cover classes and P. argentipes density among the villages in both districts was investigated. The results of the regression analysis indicated that indoor temperature and relative humidity are the best predictors for P. argentipes distribution. Factor analysis confirmed breeding preferences for P. argentipes by landscape element. Minimum Normalised Difference Vegetation Index, marshy land and orchard/settlement produced high loading in an endemic region, whereas water bodies and dense forest were preferred in non-endemic sites. Soil properties between the two districts were studied and indicated that soil pH and moisture content is higher in endemic sites compared to non-endemic sites. The present study should be utilised to make critical decisions for vector surveillance and controlling Kala-azar disease vectors.

Appraisal of Phlebotomus argentipes habitat suitability using a remotely sensed index in the kala-azar endemic focus of Bihar, India

Kesari,Shreekant; Bhunia,Gouri Sankar; Chatterjee,Nandini; Kumar,Vijay; Mandal,Rakesh; Das,Pradeep
Fonte: Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Ministério da Saúde Publicador: Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Ministério da Saúde
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/04/2013 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
67.06%
Visceral leishmaniasis, or kala-azar, is recognised as a serious emerging public health problem in India. In this study, environmental parameters, such as land surface temperature (LST) and renormalised difference vegetation indices (RDVI), were used to delineate the association between environmental variables and Phlebotomus argentipes abundance in a representative endemic region of Bihar, India. The adult P. argentipes were collected between September 2009-February 2010 using the hand-held aspirator technique. The distribution of P. argentipes was analysed with the LST and RDVI of the peak and lean seasons. The association between environmental covariates and P. argentipes density was analysed a multivariate linear regression model. The sandfly density at its maximum in September, whereas the minimum density was recorded in January. The regression model indicated that the season, minimum LST, mean LST and mean RDVI were the best environmental covariates for the P. argentipes distribution. The final model indicated that nearly 74% of the variance of sandfly density could be explained by these environmental covariates. This approach might be useful for mapping and predicting the distribution of P. argentipes, which may help the health agencies that are involved in the kala-azar control programme focus on high-risk areas.

Post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis associated with AIDS

Bittencourt,Achiléa; Silva,Nancy; Straatmann,Andréa; Nunes,Victor Luiz Correia; Follador,Ivonise; Badaró,Roberto
Fonte: Brazilian Society of Infectious Diseases Publicador: Brazilian Society of Infectious Diseases
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/12/2002 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.91%
Post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL) is rarely reported in South America. In spite of the fact that there are many reports about the association of visceral leishmaniasis and AIDS, PKDL is very uncommon in HIV-positive patients, and so far only four cases have been documented in the literature. We present another case with unusual clinicopathological aspects. The patient, a 28-year-old male, from Salvador, Bahia (an endemic area) presented with clinical manifestations of visceral leishmaniasis three years after the diagnosis of AIDS. During treatment for visceral leishmaniasis he developed disseminated miliary papules. Microscopically, the skin biopsy showed a "saw-tooth" pattern with a lichenoid mononuclear infiltrate simulating lichen planus. The histopathological diagnosis was achieved through the finding of amastigotes. The authors discuss the clinicopathological aspects of this case based on a review of the specific literature.

Post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis associated with AIDS

Bittencourt,Achiléa; Silva,Nancy; Straatmann,Andréa; Nunes,Victor Luiz Correia; Follador,Ivonise; Badaró,Roberto
Fonte: Brazilian Society of Infectious Diseases Publicador: Brazilian Society of Infectious Diseases
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/06/2003 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.91%
Post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL) is rarely reported in South America. In spite of the fact that there are many reports about the association of visceral leishmaniasis and AIDS, PKDL is very uncommon in HIV-positive patients, and so far only four cases have been documented in the literature. We present another case with unusual clinicopathological aspects. The patient, a 28-year-old male, from Salvador, Bahia (an endemic area) presented with clinical manifestations of visceral leishmaniasis three years after the diagnosis of AIDS. During treatment for visceral leishmaniasis he developed disseminated miliary papules. Microscopically, the skin biopsy showed a "saw-tooth" pattern with a lichenoid mononuclear infiltrate simulating lichen planus. The histopathological diagnosis was achieved through the finding of amastigotes. The authors discuss the clinicopathological aspects of this case based on a review of the specific literature.

Epidemiological aspects of visceral leishmaniasis (kala-azar) in Ceará in the period 2007 to 2011

Cavalcante,Ítalo José Mesquita; Vale,Marcus Raimundo
Fonte: Associação Brasileira de Saúde Coletiva Publicador: Associação Brasileira de Saúde Coletiva
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/12/2014 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.91%
INTRODUCTION: Visceral leishmaniasis (VL; kala-azar) is a serious zoonosis that can be lethal, especially in untreated patients. Due to the fact that the State of Ceará is still an important area of transmission of VL, and based on the constant reports of the urbanization process of the disease in the country, it was necessary to monitor the occurrence of cases of leishmaniasis through epidemiological surveillance. OBJECTIVES: To describe the epidemiology of leishmaniasis cases in Ceará, Brazil. METHODS: We conducted an epidemiological survey of secondary data provided by SINAN/MS from January 2007 to December 2011. RESULTS: VL is an endemic disease in the State of Ceará, with cases notified in approximately 88% of the municipalities, with an average of 596.8 ± 29.6 cases, an incidence of 6.1 cases/100,000 inhabitants and prevalence of 7.1 cases/100,000 inhabitants. The Metropolitan Region of Fortaleza is the microregion with the largest number of cases reported in state (51.9% of cases), with the capital, Fortaleza, being the municipality with the highest number of cases in the country. Traditionally, the main age group affected by the disease are children; however, a reversal has been observed in the profile from 2008...

Imported and autochthonous kala-azar in France.

Jeannel, D; Tuppin, P; Brucker, G; Danis, M; Gentilini, M
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 10/08/1991 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
47.28%
OBJECTIVE--To study the epidemiological, clinical, and biological features of imported and autochthonous kala-azar in France. DESIGN--Prospective survey of all patients in France with kala-azar diagnosed over the two years 1986-7. Information was obtained from parasitology laboratories in regional hospitals and all hospital laboratories and haematology departments capable of diagnosing leishmaniasis in the south of France. SETTING--107 public hospitals in France. PATIENTS--89 patients with kala-azar. INTERVENTIONS--All patients were treated with drugs. In the first instance meglumine antimonate was given to all but two patients. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Prevalence of the various clinical and biological features of kala-azar; proportion of patients with HIV infection. RESULTS--Half (44) of the patients were children under 8 years old. Seventy patients acquired the disease in France. Imported kala-azar was acquired mainly in Mediterranean countries (9/18 cases). Only 46 (52%) of the patients had all three of the classic associated clinical features of fever, splenomegaly, and hepatomegaly. Anaemia was the commonest biological sign, and the association of the four usual biological signs--anaemia, leucopenia, thrombocytopenia, and hypergammaglobulinaemia--was present in only 14 (33%) of the children under 8 and 26 (60%) adults. Fourteen of the patients over 8 years old were infected with HIV. CONCLUSION--Doctors must be aware of kala-azar in Mediterranean areas...

Clinical and Immunological Aspects of Post–Kala-Azar Dermal Leishmaniasis in Bangladesh

Islam, Shamim; Kenah, Eben; Bhuiyan, Mohammed Ashraful Alam; Rahman, Kazi Mizanur; Goodhew, Brook; Ghalib, Chowdhury Mohammad; Zahid, M. M.; Ozaki, Masayo; Rahman, M. W.; Haque, Rashidul; Luby, Stephen P.; Maguire, James H.; Martin, Diana; Bern, Caryn
Fonte: The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene Publicador: The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 07/08/2013 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
47.36%
We conducted active surveillance for kala-azar and post–kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL) in a population of 24,814 individuals. Between 2002 and 2010, 1,002 kala-azar and 185 PKDL cases occurred. Median PKDL patient age was 12 years; 9% had no antecedent kala-azar. Cases per 10,000 person-years peaked at 90 for kala-azar (2005) and 28 for PKDL (2007). Cumulative PKDL incidence among kala-azar patients was 17% by 5 years. Kala-azar patients younger than 15 years were more likely than older patients to develop PKDL; no other risk factors were identified. The most common lesions were hypopigmented macules. Of 98 untreated PKDL patients, 48 (49%) patients had resolution, with median time of 19 months. Kala-azar patients showed elevated interferon-γ (IFNγ), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα), and interleukin 10 (IL-10). Matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP9) and MMP9/tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP1) ratio were significantly higher in PKDL patients than in other groups. PKDL is frequent in Bangladesh and poses a challenge to the current visceral leishmaniasis elimination initiative in the Indian subcontinent.

Performance of kala-azar surveillance in Gaffargaon subdistrict of Mymensingh, Bangladesh

Rahman, Kazi Mizanur; Samarawickrema, Indira V. M.; Harley, David; Olsen, Anna; Butler, Colin D.; Sumon, Shariful Amin; Biswas, Subrata Kumar; Luby, Stephen P.; Sleigh, Adrian C.
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 9 pages
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
67.39%
INTRODUCTION Elimination of kala-azar is planned for South Asia requiring good surveillance along with other strategies. We assessed surveillance in Gaffargaon upazila (a subdistrict of 13 unions) of Mymensingh district, Bangladesh highly endemic for kala-azar. METHODS In 4703 randomly sampled households, within nine randomly sampled villages, drawn from three randomly sampled unions, we actively searched for kala-azar cases that had occurred between January 2010 and December 2011. We then searched for medical records of these cases in the patient registers of Gaffargaon upazila health complex (UHC). We investigated factors associated with the medical recording by interviewing the cases and their families. We also did a general observation of UHC recording systems and interviewed health staff responsible for the monthly reports of kala-azar cases. RESULTS Our active case finding detected 58 cases, but 29 were not recorded in the Gaffargaon UHC. Thus, only 50% (95% CI: 37%-63%) of kala-azar cases were reported via the government passive surveillance system. Interviews with health staff based in the study UHC revealed the heavy reporting burden for multiple diseases, variation in staff experience, high demands on the staff time and considerable complexity in the recording system. After adjusting for kala-azar treatment drug...

Alterações cutâneas do cão no Kala-Azar sul-americano

Torres,C. Magarinos
Fonte: Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Ministério da Saúde Publicador: Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Ministério da Saúde
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/1941 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
47.45%
According to E. Chagas (1938), South-American Kala Azar is a widespread disease from the jungle, several cases being reported from North Brazil (Estado do Pará: Marajó Island, Tocantins and Gurupi river valleys; Estados do Piauí and Ceará: coast and hinterland). Other cases were found in Northeast Brazil (Estados de Pernambuco, Alagôas and Sergipe: coast and hinterland; Estado da Bahia: hinterland). A few cases were described from Estado de Mato-Grosso (Brazil), Provincia de Salta and Território do Chaco (Argentine), and Zona contestada do Chaco (Paraguai-Bolívia). A well defined secondary anemia associated with enlargement of the liver and spleen are the chief symptoms. Death usually occurs in cachexia and with symptoms of heart failure. Half the patients were children aged less than ten years (CHAGAS, CASTRO & FERREIRA, 1937). Quite exhaustive epidemiological researches performed by CHAGAS, FERREIRA, DEANE, DEANE & GUIMARÃES (1938) in Municipio de Abaeté (Estado do Pará, Brazil) gave the incidence of 1.48% for the natural infection in human, 4.49% in dogs, and 2.63% in cats. The infection was arcribed (CUNHA & CHAGAS, 1937) to a new species of Leishmania (L. chagasi). Latter CUNHA (1938) state, that it is identical to L. infantum. ADLER (1940) found that so far it has been impossible to distinguish L. chagasi from L. infantum by any laboratory test but a final judgment must be reserved until further experiments with different species of sandflies have been carried out. Skin changes in canine Kala Azar were signaled by many workers...

Delimitation of kala-azar risk areas in the district of Vaishali in Bihar (India) using a geo-environmental approach

Bhunia,Gouri Sankar; Chatterjee,Nandini; Kumar,Vijay; Siddiqui,Niyamat Ali; Mandal,Rakesh; Das,Pradeep; Kesari,Shreekant
Fonte: Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Ministério da Saúde Publicador: Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Ministério da Saúde
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/08/2012 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
67.23%
Remote sensing and geographical information technologies were used to discriminate areas of high and low risk for contracting kala-azar or visceral leishmaniasis. Satellite data were digitally processed to generate maps of land cover and spectral indices, such as the normalised difference vegetation index and wetness index. To map estimated vector abundance and indoor climate data, local polynomial interpolations were used based on the weightage values. Attribute layers were prepared based on illiteracy and the unemployed proportion of the population and associated with village boundaries. Pearson's correlation coefficient was used to estimate the relationship between environmental variables and disease incidence across the study area. The cell values for each input raster in the analysis were assigned values from the evaluation scale. Simple weighting/ratings based on the degree of favourable conditions for kala-azar transmission were used for all the variables, leading to geo-environmental risk model. Variables such as, land use/land cover, vegetation conditions, surface dampness, the indoor climate, illiteracy rates and the size of the unemployed population were considered for inclusion in the geo-environmental kala-azar risk model. The risk model was stratified into areas of "risk"and "non-risk"for the disease...

Plasma levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha in patients with visceral leishmaniasis (Kala-Azar). Association with activity of the disease and clinical remisson following antimonial therapy; Níveis plasmáticos do fator de necrose tumoral-alfa (TNF-alfa) em pacientes com leishmaniose visceral (Calazar). Associação com atividade da doença e remissão clínica com terapia antimonial

Salomão, Reinaldo; Castelo Filho, Adauto; Medeiros, Iara Marques de; Sicolo, Miguel Angel
Fonte: Universidade de São Paulo. Instituto de Medicina Tropical de São Paulo Publicador: Universidade de São Paulo. Instituto de Medicina Tropical de São Paulo
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; ; ; ; ; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 01/04/1996 Português
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Avaliação de TNF-alfa em pacientes com calazar tem despertado grande interesse devido ao seu papel no sistema imunológico e à sua atividade caquetizante. O objetivo deste estudo foi examinar a associação entre os níveis plasmáticos de TNF-alfa, medidos através de sua imunorreatividade (ELISA) e bioatividade (ensaio citotóxico sobre as células L-929), e as manifestações clínicas da leishmaniose visceral. Amostras de 19 pacientes foram obtidas para determinação do TNF-alfa antes, durante e após a terapia antimonial, utilizando o ensaio de citotoxicidade (todos os pacientes) e o ELISA (14 pacientes). Resultados discrepantes entre os ensaios de citotoxicidade e o ELISA foram observados. Níveis circulantes de TNF-alfa, medidos pelo ELISA, foram mais altos nos pacientes que nos controles e declinaram significantemente com a melhora clínica e laboratorial. Níveis plasmáticos antes do tratamento (média = 124,7 pg/ml; DP = 93,3) foram mais elevados que ao final da terapêutica (13,9 pg/ml; DP = 25,1; p = 0,001). Por outro lado, níveis plasmáticos de TNF-alfa, avaliados pela citotoxicidade, não seguiram um curso previsível durante a evolução. Esta discrepância pode ser devida à presença de fatores no plasma que podem influenciar a liberação e atividade do TNF-alfa. Ainda...

Epidemiological aspects of visceral leishmaniasis (kala-azar) in Ceará in the period 2007 to 2011

Cavalcante,Ítalo José Mesquita; Vale,Marcus Raimundo
Fonte: Associação Brasileira de Pós -Graduação em Saúde Coletiva Publicador: Associação Brasileira de Pós -Graduação em Saúde Coletiva
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/12/2014 Português
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INTRODUCTION: Visceral leishmaniasis (VL; kala-azar) is a serious zoonosis that can be lethal, especially in untreated patients. Due to the fact that the State of Ceará is still an important area of transmission of VL, and based on the constant reports of the urbanization process of the disease in the country, it was necessary to monitor the occurrence of cases of leishmaniasis through epidemiological surveillance. OBJECTIVES: To describe the epidemiology of leishmaniasis cases in Ceará, Brazil. METHODS: We conducted an epidemiological survey of secondary data provided by SINAN/MS from January 2007 to December 2011. RESULTS: VL is an endemic disease in the State of Ceará, with cases notified in approximately 88% of the municipalities, with an average of 596.8 ± 29.6 cases, an incidence of 6.1 cases/100,000 inhabitants and prevalence of 7.1 cases/100,000 inhabitants. The Metropolitan Region of Fortaleza is the microregion with the largest number of cases reported in state (51.9% of cases), with the capital, Fortaleza, being the municipality with the highest number of cases in the country. Traditionally, the main age group affected by the disease are children; however, a reversal has been observed in the profile from 2008...