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The Research Funding Service: a model for expanded library services

Means, Martha L.
Fonte: Medical Library Association Publicador: Medical Library Association
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /04/2000 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.8%
Traditionally, libraries have provided a modest amount of information about grants and funding opportunities to researchers in need of research funding. Ten years ago, the University of Washington (UW) Health Sciences Libraries and Information Center joined in a cooperative effort with the School of Medicine to develop a complete, library-based grant and funding service for health sciences researchers called the Research Funding Service. The library provided space, access to the library collection, equipment, and electronic resources, and the School of Medicine funded staff and operations. The range of services now includes individual consultation appointments, an extensive Web site, classes on funding database searching and writing grant applications, a discussion series that frequently hosts guest speakers, a monthly newsletter with funding opportunities of interest to the six health sciences schools, extensive files on funding sources, and referral services.

Financing North American medical libraries in the nineteenth century*

Belleh, Godfrey S.; Luft, Eric v. d.
Fonte: Medical Library Association Publicador: Medical Library Association
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /10/2001 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.81%
Culture not only justifies the existence of libraries but also determines the level of funding libraries receive for development. Cultural appreciation of the importance of libraries encourages their funding; lack of such appreciation discourages it. Medical library development is driven by culture in general and the culture of physicians in particular. Nineteenth-century North American medical library funding reflected the impact of physician culture in three phases: (1) Before the dawn of anesthesia (1840s) and antisepsis (1860s), when the wisdom of elders contained in books was venerated, libraries were well supported. (2) In the last third of the nineteenth century, as modern medicine grew and as physicians emphasized the practical and the present, rather than books, support for medical libraries declined. (3) By the 1890s, this attitude had changed because physicians had come to realize that, without both old and new medical literature readily available, they could not keep up with rapidly changing current clinical practice or research. Thus, “The Medical Library Movement” heralded the turn of the century.

Funding medical and health-related research in the public interest.

Baird, P A
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 01/08/1996 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.83%
Public funding for medical and health-related research in Canada is declining. At the same time, the pharmaceutical industry is directing increasing amounts of money to publicly funded agencies such as universities and the Medical Research Council of Canada. However, the kinds of research most valuable to commercial firms may not be those most valuable to the Canadian public. There is a danger that research priorities and activities in public institutions may become skewed as a result of increased drug-industry funding. Mechanisms need to be found to ensure an appropriate balance between the research that is most valuable to the public interest and to the long-term advancement of knowledge, and the research that is likely to lead to marketable products. One such mechanism is the direction of a proportion of the money from drug companies to a "no-strings-attached" fund specifically to support types of research that are in the public interest but not likely to lead to marketable products.

Barriers to racial/ethnic minority application and competition for NIH research funding.

Shavers, Vickie L.; Fagan, Pebbles; Lawrence, Deirdre; McCaskill-Stevens, Worta; McDonald, Paige; Browne, Doris; McLinden, Dan; Christian, Michaele; Trimble, Edward
Fonte: National Medical Association Publicador: National Medical Association
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /08/2005 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.73%
BACKGROUND: Despite recognition of the need to increase the pool of racial/ethnic minority investigators, racial/ethnic minority representation among National Institutes of Health (NIH)-funded investigators remains low. Racial/ethnic minority investigators bring unique perspectives and experiences that enhance the potential for understanding factors that underlie racial/ethnic variation in health and health status. Identification of barriers to successful minority competition for NIH funding and suggestions for strategies to overcome them were obtained from a concept mapping project and a meeting of minority investigators and investigators at minority-serving institutions. METHODS: Concept mapping, a mixed-methods planning approach that integrates common data collection processes with multivariate statistical analyses, was used in this exploratory project. The concept mapping approach generated a series of related "concept maps" that were used for data interpretation and meeting discussions. RESULTS: Barriers to minority investigator competition for NIH funding identified by concept mapping participants include: (1) inadequate research infrastructure, training and development; (2) barriers to development as independent researchers; (3) inadequate mentoring; (4) insensitivity...

The Medical Science Research and Development Supported by the Korea Science and Engineering Foundation

Min, Tae-Sun; Han, Jin; Kim, Seong-Yong; Rhee, Byoung-Doo; Kim, Myung-Suk
Fonte: The Korean Academy of Medical Sciences Publicador: The Korean Academy of Medical Sciences
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.91%
This study examined ways of promoting research in the medical sciences by evaluating trends in research funding, and the present status of research funding by the Korea Science and Engineering Foundation (KOSEF). This study analyzed statistics from KOSEF from 1978 to 2003 to examine support for research. In medical science field, group-based programs receive more funding than do individual-based programs. The proportion of research funds allocated to the medical sciences has increased markedly each year. Researchers in the medical sciences have submitted more articles to Science Citation Index (SCI) journals than to non-SCI journals, relative to other fields. Researchers supported by the Mission-Oriented Basic Grants program have published the majority of these papers, followed by those supported by the Programs for Leading Scientists, Regional Scientists, Leading Women Scientists, Young Scientists, and Promising Women Scientists, in that order. Funding by KOSEF reflects many decades of government support for research and development, the development and maintenance of necessary infrastructure, and the education and training of medical scientists.

Funding Infectious Disease Research: A Systematic Analysis of UK Research Investments by Funders 1997–2010

Fitchett, Joseph R.; Head, Michael G.; Cooke, Mary K.; Wurie, Fatima B.; Atun, Rifat
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.82%
Background: Research investments are essential to address the burden of disease, however allocation of limited resources is poorly documented. We systematically reviewed the investments awarded by funding organisations to UK institutions and their global partners for infectious disease research. Methodology/Principal Findings Public and philanthropic investments for the period 1997 to 2010 were included. We categorised studies by infectious disease, cross-cutting theme, and by research and development value chain, reflecting the type of science. We identified 6165 funded studies, with a total research investment of UK £2.6 billion. Public organisations provided £1.4 billion (54.0%) of investments compared with £1.1 billion (42.4%) by philanthropic organisations. Global health studies represented an investment of £928 million (35.7%). The Wellcome Trust was the leading investor with £688 million (26.5%), closely followed by the UK Medical Research Council (MRC) with £673 million (25.9%). Funding over time was volatile, ranging from ∼£40 million to ∼£160 million per year for philanthropic organisations and ∼£30 million to ∼£230 million for public funders. Conclusions/Significance: Infectious disease research funding requires global coordination and strategic long-term vision. Our analysis demonstrates the diversity and inconsistent patterns in investment...

Ethical issues in funding orphan drug research and development

Gericke, Christian Ansgar Otto; Riesberg, A.; Busse, Reinhard
Fonte: British Medical Journal Publishing Group Publicador: British Medical Journal Publishing Group
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2005 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.85%
This essay outlines the moral dilemma of funding orphan drug research and development. To date, ethical aspects of priority setting for research funding have not been an issue of discussion in the bioethics debate. Conflicting moral obligations of beneficence and distributive justice appear to demand very different levels of funding for orphan drug research. The two types of orphan disease, rare diseases and tropical diseases, however, present very different ethical challenges to questions about allocation of research funds. The dilemma is analysed considering utilitarian and rights based theories of justice and moral obligations of non-abandonment and a professional obligation to advance medical science. The limitations of standard economic evaluation tools and other priority setting tools used to inform health policy decision makers on research funding decisions are outlined.; C A Gericke, A Riesberg, R Busse

Evaluation of NHMRC funded research completed in 1992, 1997 and 2003: gains in knowledge, health and wealth

Kingwell, B.; Anderson, G.; Duckett, S.; Hoole, E.; Jackson-Pulver, L.; Khachigian, L.; Morris, M.; Roder, D.; Rothwell-Short, J.; Wilson, A.
Fonte: Australasian Med Publ Co Ltd Publicador: Australasian Med Publ Co Ltd
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2006 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.71%
Objective: To report on strategies for, and outcomes of, evaluation of knowledge (publications), health and wealth (commercial) gains from medical research funded by the Australian Government through the National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC). Design and methods: End-of-grant reports submitted by researchers within 6 months of completion of NHMRC funded project grants which terminated in 2003 were used to capture self-reported publication number, health and wealth gains. Self-reported gains were also examined in retrospective surveys of grants completed in 1992 and 1997 and awards primarily supporting people (“people awards”) held between 1992 and 2002. Results: The response rate for the 1992 sample was too low for meaningful analysis. The mean number of publications per grant in the basic biomedical, clinical and health services research areas was very similar in 1997 and 2003. The publication output for population health was somewhat higher in the 2003 than in the 1997 analysis. For grants completed in 1997, 24% (31/131) affected clinical practice; 14% (18/131) public health practice; 9% (12/131) health policy; and 41% (54/131) had commercial potential with 20% (26/131) resulting in patents. Most respondents (89%) agreed that NHMRC people awards improved their career prospects. Interpretation is limited by the relatively low response rates (50% or less). Conclusions: A mechanism has been developed for ongoing assessment of NHMRC funded research. This process will improve accountability to the community and to government...

The scope, funding and publication of musculoskeletal clinical trials performed in Australia

Bourne, A.M.; Whittle, S.L.; Richards, B.L.; Maher, C.G.; Buchbinder, R.
Fonte: MJA Group Australia Publicador: MJA Group Australia
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2014 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.83%
Musculoskeletal conditions are the leading contributors to disability burden globally and account for 27.4% of total disability burden in Australia. Timely research that addresses important questions relevant to consumers, clinicians and policymakers is critical for reducing the burden associated with these conditions. Clinical trials are particularly important for providing information about whether interventions are effective and safe. They are also needed to test strategies for reducing the sizeable delays in translating evidence into practice. A review of the current scope of musculoskeletal clinical trials in Australia found that National Health and Medical Research Council funding is disproportionally low compared with the burden of these conditions (averaging 5.8 new trials per year through the project grant scheme over the past 5 years, representing 0.8% of all project grants and funding, and 5% of NHMRC clinical trial funding). In the past 2 years, 128 Australian-initiated trials were registered in a trial registry, while about one in 20 randomised trials published in 37 leading general medical and musculoskeletal-specific journals was initiated in Australia. None were implementation trials. Relative to the burden of musculoskeletal conditions in Australia...

Medical research in Portugal: the geniuses and the structures, the myths and common sense.; Investigação médica em Portugal: os génios e as estruturas, os mitos e o bom senso.

Ferreira, H G; Laboratório de Fisiologia, Instituto Gulbenkian de Ciência, Oeiras.
Fonte: Ordem dos Médicos Publicador: Ordem dos Médicos
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; article; article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 30/01/1993 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.81%
There was recently a growth in the funds allocated directly to scientific programs and projects and in particular to infrastructures (buildings and large pieces of equipment). It is very likely that this investment will continue to grow as a result of the development policies of the EEC applied to its less developed members. The recent experience with the Science Program, the main factor in this evolution, has demonstrated that the bottleneck in our scientific development is at the level of the allocation of funds (management). Hence, the nonrealistic Regulations of the Program, the allocation of funds to ghost institutions and the inability to distribute the funds allocated to the Program. The Program was conceived based on problem oriented and not on research oriented strategies. In the case of medical research this choice is not supported by the recent history of research in this area or by the experience of countries such as the UK or the USA. Funding of medical research in this country should be based on the identification of a talented scientist with a good research program and on an inventory of the productivity, potentialities and needs of existing institutions. We should seek the support of foreign scientists and of Portuguese scientists living abroad for the technical evaluation of projects but they should not be asked to provide global strategies of investment in Portuguese science.; There was recently a growth in the funds allocated directly to scientific programs and projects and in particular to infrastructures (buildings and large pieces of equipment). It is very likely that this investment will continue to grow as a result of the development policies of the EEC applied to its less developed members. The recent experience with the Science Program...

Competition in health research: the experience of the John Curtin School of Medical Research

Whitworth, Judith A
Fonte: BioMed Central Publicador: BioMed Central
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.89%
BACKGROUND: In 2002 the Australian National Competitive Grants System was opened to the Institute of Advanced Studies at the Australian National University as part of a commitment to transparency, competitiveness, and collaboration in national research funding. RESULTS: The block grant to the John Curtin School of Medical Research had progressively eroded over many years. Access to the National Competitive Grants Schemes and associated infrastructure (through an agreed 'buy-in' price of 20% of block funding) has succeeded in its aims and in reversing this progressive effective decrease in funding. CONCLUSION: Access to the National Competitive Grant Scheme has allowed the John Curtin School of Medical Research to contribute more broadly to Australia's health and medical research effort through increased collaboration, in a transparent and competitive funding environment.

Competition in health research: the experience of the John Curtin School of Medical Research

Whitworth, Judith
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 3 pages
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.87%
BACKGROUND: In 2002 the Australian National Competitive Grants System was opened to the Institute of Advanced Studies at the Australian National University as part of a commitment to transparency, competitiveness, and collaboration in national research funding. RESULTS: The block grant to the John Curtin School of Medical Research had progressively eroded over many years. Access to the National Competitive Grants Schemes and associated infrastructure (through an agreed 'buy-in' price of 20% of block funding) has succeeded in its aims and in reversing this progressive effective decrease in funding. CONCLUSION: Access to the National Competitive Grant Scheme has allowed the John Curtin School of Medical Research to contribute more broadly to Australia's health and medical research effort through increased collaboration, in a transparent and competitive funding environment.

Enhancing Northern Australia's tropical health and medical research capacity -a role for foreign aid

Liu, Peter
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Relatório
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
86.06%
The purpose of this report is to examine the viability of funding an increase in Northern Australia's tropical health and medical research capacity through a foreign aid budget allocation. The report reviewed the scope for increasing medical research funding and improving aid effectiveness. It also entailed a case study of the Australian Centre of International Agricultural Research (ACIAR) that could form a model for supporting an increased medical research capability. Further, the report analysed the existing foreign aid budget allocation and the proposed future increases. Australian Centre of International Agricultural Research (ACIAR) pose a significant public health challenge to Northern Australia. These challenges are primarily attributable to Northern Australia's geographical location, climate, rapid population growth, and tropical health threats from the neighbouring countries with underdeveloped health capacity. To mitigate these health threats, Australian governments should consider providing more funding support to increase the tropical health and medical research capacity in Northern Australia. Australia's foreign aid budget could be an important funding source. In the context of a relatively large and rapidly increasing aid budget...

Should research in communicable disease be collaborative?

Zanetti, Renata
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Relatório
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.85%
Collaboration occurs in many fields and is used as a 'buzz word' that can contextually mean different things. Research collaboration occurs primarily in the form of 'researchers working together on a common research problem or activity' (Rand, 1998: 11). Collaborative research continues to be an increasing phenomenon and there are higher levels of collaboration in the area of health and basic research. Research into communicable diseases is important because they are the second leading cause of death worldwide and have global impact. HIV/AIDS, Tuberculosis (TB) and malaria are the 'killer three' communicable diseases, together resulting in about 6 million deaths each year. Without further research these figures are likely to continue to increase. Identifying 'best practice' for research in this area is also important if Millennium Development Goal 6 'to combat HIV/AIDS, malaria and other diseases' is to be met. Research in communicable disease can be conducted either collaboratively, such as with joint resources or shared data, or non-collaboratively. As such, evaluating the nature and outcomes of research collaboration, and the form in which research is conducted in communicable disease, is important. This study identifies seven benefits and five costs of formal research collaboration . Benefits include to (1) increase access to data...

Budgetary impact analysis on funding smoking-cessation drugs in patients with COPD in Spain

Jiménez-Ruiz, Carlos A; Solano-Reina, Segismundo; Signes-Costa, Jaime; de Higes-Martinez, Eva; Granda-Orive, José I; Lorza-Blasco, José J; Riesco-Miranda, Juan A; Altet-Gomez, Neus; Barrueco, Miguel; Oyagüez, Itziar; Rejas, Javier
Fonte: Dove Medical Press Publicador: Dove Medical Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 24/09/2015 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.81%
The aim of the study was to assess the budgetary impact of funding smoking-cessation drugs in COPD patients in Spain. A hybrid model (cohort and Markov) was developed for a 5-year time horizon. Only approved cessation drugs (varenicline, bupropion, and nicotine replacement therapy) were considered. Irrespective of the drug, the model allowed for an initial cessation attempt, and up to three additional attempts in case of failure or smoking relapse during a 5-year period. Drug effectiveness was based on controlled clinical trials. National Health System perspective was applied; therefore, only medical resources were included. The pharmaceutical costs for smoking-cessation drugs, extra medical follow-up as a consequence of public reimbursement, and annual savings for health costs avoided due to stopping smoking were considered. The model estimated that 17,756 COPD patients would stop smoking if public funding was available, compared with 1,303 without reimbursement. In the reimbursement scenario, the savings accounted for a total of €48.0 million, compensating for expenditures on drugs and medical visits (€40.4 million). Accumulated total additional savings in 5 years (€4.3 million) compared with the scenario without reimbursement was shown. Sensitivity analyses supported the results robustness. Funding smoking-cessation drugs in COPD patients seems to be an efficient option and a National Health System drug reimbursement scheme would represent a cost-saving policy in Spain.

Prescriptions for medical research. I--Management within the Medical Research Council.

Gillett, R; Harrow, J
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 19/06/1993 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.68%
In their submission to the government in advance of the white paper on science policy in the United Kingdom the Medical Research Council commends the MRC's own approach to managing directly funded research. But a series of semi-structured interviews with the directors of some of the MRC's units suggests a gap between the MRC's model of managed research and the reality. Although such units are theoretically managed from MRC head office (and units are charged an overhead for this), in practice each unit runs its own affairs. Between major reviews average contact time with the head office contact person is seven hours a year. The first paper argues that a purchaser-provider split would recognise the benefits of decentralisation and allow units to bid for research funds from several sources, the successful ones guaranteeing their survival through a rolling series of research programmes. The second paper criticises the MRC's cumbersome peer review system. Reliance on outside experts atrophies the scientific skills of head office staff and builds delays into decision making. A purchaser-provider model would allow the head office scientific staff to act like commercial research and development managers, commissioning research, and using the outcome...

The returns from Cardiovascular Research: The Impact of the National Heart Foundation of Australia's Investment

Clay, Moira A; Donovan, Claire; Butler, Linda; Oldenburg, Brian F
Fonte: Australasian Medical Association Publicador: Australasian Medical Association
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.67%
Objective: To evaluate the outcomes of the research investment of the National Heart Foundation of Australia (NHF). Design and setting: The NHF Research Evaluation Working Group was established in 2002 to oversee evaluation of research funding and outcome

Using the Medical Research Council framework for the development and evaluation of complex interventions in a theory-based infant feeding intervention to prevent childhood obesity: The Baby Milk intervention and trial?

Lakshman, Rajalakshmi; Griffin, Simon; Hardeman, Wendy; Schiff, Annie; Kinmonth, Ann Louise; Ong, Ken
Fonte: Universidade de Cambridge Publicador: Universidade de Cambridge
Tipo: Article; published version
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.82%
This is the final published version. It is also available from Hindawi at http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jobe/2014/646504/.; Introduction - We describe our experience of using the Medical Research Council framework on complex interventions to guide the development and evaluation of an intervention to prevent obesity by modifying infant feeding behaviours. Methods - We reviewed the epidemiological evidence on early life risk factors for obesity and interventions to prevent obesity in this age group. The review suggested prevention of excess weight gain in bottle-fed babies and appropriate weaning as intervention targets, hence we undertook systematic reviews to further our understanding of these behaviours. We chose theory and behaviour change techniques that demonstrated evidence of effectiveness in altering dietary behaviours. We subsequently developed intervention materials and evaluation tools and conducted qualitative studies with mothers (intervention recipients) and healthcare professionals (intervention deliverers) to refine these. We developed a questionnaire to assess maternal attitudes and feeding practices to understand the mechanism of any intervention effects. Conclusions - In addition to informing development of our specific intervention and evaluation materials...

Can we track the impact of Australian mental health research?

Hickie, Ian B; Christensen, Helen; Davenport, Tracey; Luscombe, Georgina
Fonte: SAGE Publications Publicador: SAGE Publications
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.65%
Objective: Arguments are being made to increase research and development funding for mental health research in Australia. Consequently, the methods used to measure the results of increased investment require review. This study aimed to describe the status of Australian mental health research and to propose potential methods for tracking changes in research output. Specifically, we describe the research output of nations, Australian states, Australian and New Zealand institutions and Australian and New Zealand researchers using citation rates. Method: Information on research output was sourced from two international databases (Institute for scientific information [ISI] Essential Science Indicators and ISI Web of Science) and the ISI list of Highly Cited Researchers. Results: In an international setting, Australia does not perform as well as other comparable countries such as New Zealand or Canada in terms of research output. Within Australia, the scientific performance of institutions apparently relates to the strength of some individual researchers or consolidated research groups. Highly cited papers are evident in the fields of syndrome definition, epidemiology and epidemiological methods, cognitive science and prognostic or longitudinal studies. Conclusions: Australian researchers need to consider the success of New Zealand and Canadian researchers...

Evaluation of Research: Outputs, Outcomes and Impact

Viney, Ian
Fonte: euroCRIS Publicador: euroCRIS
Tipo: Conferência ou Objeto de Conferência
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.65%
24 slides.-- Presentation delivered at Session 2: "Research Information Landscape and Metadata Requirements".; A perspective on research funding, reporting and assessment is provided from the UK Medical Research Council (MRC), with an emphasis on indicators and the modeling (and increasing) of research impact. The present Researchfish research information management system used by MRC is described together with its application to research reporting and compilation of case studies for providing evidence for research impact.