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On the behavioural relevance of optional and mandatory impure public goods : results from a laboratory experiment

Engelmann, Dirk; Munro, Alistair; Valente, Marieta
Fonte: Universidade do Minho. NIMA Publicador: Universidade do Minho. NIMA
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento
Publicado em /12/2011 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.91%
Ethical goods are increasingly available in markets for conventional goods giving pro-ethically motivated consumers a convenient option to contribute to public goods. In a previous experiment we explored the behavioural relevance of impure public goods in a within-subject setting and observed reduced aggregate pro-social behavior in the presence of impure goods that favor private consumption at the expense of public good provision. In this experiment, we implement a between-subject design to test the behavioural relevance of impure public goods with only a token contribution to a public good cause. From a theoretical perspective, assuming people demand private and public characteristics regardless of how they are provided, we would expect no behavioural relevance of the presence of impure public goods. However, this experiment establishes that pro-social behaviour defined as contributing to a public good, is negatively affected by impure goods with token contributions, in comparison to when they are absent. Furthermore, if the token impure good is mandatory instead of optional the negative effect on pro-social behaviour seems to be offset. The results from this experiment suggest impure public goods are not behaviourally irrelevant...

Costs of Taxation and Benefits of Public Goods with Multiple Taxes and Goods

Anderson, James E.; Martin, Will
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
96.02%
The recent public economics literature involves an apparent consensus that income effects reduce the costs of raising revenues and hence increase the desirable level of public good provision. Higher taxes can indeed reduce the demand for leisure -- and hence increase the supply of taxed labor -- through income effects. However, the consensus is wrong because the income effects of taxes must be considered symmetrically with those from provision of public goods. This paper uses a model with multiple public goods and taxes to derive consistent measures of the marginal benefits of publicly-provided goods and their marginal social costs. With this model, the authors show that either compensated approaches excluding these income effects or uncompensated approaches including them may be used. If an uncompensated measure of the marginal cost of funds is used, however, the benefits of providing public goods should be adjusted with a simple, benefit multiplier not previously seen in the literature. Once this is done...

The Political Economy of the Middle Class in the Dominican Republic : Individualization of Public Goods, Lack of Institutional Trust and Weak Collective Action

Sánchez, Miguel Eduardo; Senderowitsch, Roby
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
96.07%
This paper tries to uncover some of the hidden factors behind poor public service delivery in the Dominican Republic. By looking at three sector cases, education, health and electricity, it is possible to observe that in this setting of low quality of public services the "middle class" is opting out from the system and adopting private solutions to collective problems. The combination of this opting out behavior with low levels of institutional trust, especially among "middle class" members, fragmented interests and clientelism, among other factors, results in weak collective action and lack of effective demand for improvements in service provision. Some of the tentative policy options to break this sub-optimal equilibrium are i) to build capacity in civil society organizations and help them forming a pro-reform coalition, ii) reduce the gap between the middle class and the poorer by trying to improve the provision of public goods and enlarging the welfare state, and (iii) increase transparency mechanisms and introduce e-government formulas in order to optimize the allocation of public resources.

Decentralization and the Provision of Public Services : Framework and Implementation

Kim, Aehyung
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
75.92%
This paper discusses decentralization (administrative, fiscal and political) of government in public service provision. It aims to facilitate understanding among practitioners, policy makers, and scholars about what decentralization entails in practice compared to theory. A review of the empirical literature and experience of decentralization is presented. The paper highlights issues that policy makers in developing and transitional countries should be aware of when reforming government, considering their unique political and economic environment. The author argues that decentralization produces efficiency gains stemming from inter-jurisdictional competition, enhanced checks and balances over the government through voting at the subnational level, and informational advantages due to proximity to citizens. By contrast, arguments against decentralization include the risk of an increased level of corruption, coordination problems stemming from multiple layers of government, low capacity of subnational government...

Why Governments Should Stop Non-Social Subsidies : Measuring Their Consequences for Rural Latin America

López, Ramón
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.95%
The provision of public goods and the amelioration of market failure are the classical justifications for government intervention in the economy. In reality, (1) governments intervene in markets that are not affected by failure, and (2) a large share of the government resources is spent in private goods, not in public goods. In contrast to issue 1, issue 2 has received little attention in the literature, in spite of the potentially large efficiency and equity losses arising from misguided allocations of public expenditures. López empirically documents the size of (2) in the rural sector and investigates its consequences for rural development for 10 Latin American countries over the 1985-2000 period. The econometric evidence suggests that the structure of public expenditures is an important factor of economic development in the rural sector, much greater than that of the level of public expenditures and of other factors on which the development literature has traditionally focused. Expanding total public expenditure in rural areas while maintaining the existing public expenditure composition prevailing in certain countries does little to promote agricultural income and reduce rural poverty. Spending a significant share of government resources in (non-social) subsidies causes less agriculture income...

Public and Private Roles in Health : Theory and Financing Patterns

Musgrove, Philip
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.97%
The appropriate role of the state in health is complex both in economic theory and in practice. Theory identifies three reasons for state action: (i) public goods or services with large externalities (involving efficiency); (ii) poverty (involving equity); and (iii) failings peculiar to insurance markets for health care (where both inefficiency and inequity arise). The insurance domain presents the most costly and difficult problems, and explains why - in contrast tom other sectors - governments tend to finance an increasing share of health care as incomes rise. Regulation, mandates and provision of information are also crucial public instruments; public provision of care is less important.

Democracy, Public Expenditures, and the Poor : Understanding Political Incentives for Providing Public Services

Keefer, Philip; Khemani, Stuti
Fonte: Oxford University Press on behalf of the World Bank Publicador: Oxford University Press on behalf of the World Bank
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.94%
The incentives of politicians to provide broad public goods and reduce poverty vary across countries. Even in democracies, politicians often have incentives to divert resources to political rents and private transfers that benefit a few citizens at the expense of many. These distortions can be traced to imperfections in political markets that are greater in some countries than in others. This article reviews the theory and evidence on the impact on political incentives of incomplete information for voters, the lack of credibility of political promises, and social polarization. The analysis has implications for policy and for reforms to improve public goods provision and reduce poverty.

Democracy, Public Expenditures, and the Poor

Keefer, Philip; Khemani, Stuti
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
75.85%
Countries vary systematically with respect to the incentives of politicians to provide broad public goods, and to reduce poverty. Even in developing countries that are democracies, politicians often have incentives to divert resources to political rents, and to private transfers that benefit a few citizens at the expense of many. These distortions can be traced to imperfections in political markets, that are greater in some countries than in others. The authors review the theory, and evidence on the impact of incomplete information of voters, the lack of credibility of political promises, and social polarization on political incentives. They argue that the effects of these imperfections are large, but that their implications are insufficiently integrated into the design of policy reforms aimed at improving the provision of public goods, and reducing poverty.

On Financing Global and International Public Goods

Sandler, Todd
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
75.89%
Three dimensions of public goods--nonrivalry of benefits, the possibility of being excluded from benefits, and the technology for aggregating public supply--determine what kinds of institutions and transnational actions are required for their provision and financing. For some public goods--especially for those for which the exclusion of nonpayers is not feasible--these properties are such that a public sector push is needed or the good will not be financed. This push can come from a supranational structure (such as the World Bank, the United Nations, or the European Union) that directly or indirectly collects the requisite fees from its members to underwrite international public goods (IPGs). To understand the role of international institutions in promoting IPGs, one must ascertain the nature of the good and whether it requires a push, a coax, or no assistance from a supranational structure or influential nation(s) and agents (such as charitable foundations). The transnational community should explicitly direct scarce resources only to those global and international public goods that need either a significant push or only a smaller coax by the transnational community. When clubs or markets can finance international public goods...

Public Good Provision in Indian Rural Areas

Casini, Paolo; Vandewalle, Lore; Wahhaj, Zaki
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
75.97%
Self-help groups (SHGs) are the most common form of microfinance in India. The authors provide evidence that SHGs, composed of women only, undertake collective actions for the provision of public goods within village communities. Using a theoretical model, this paper shows that an elected official, whose aim is to maximize re-election chances, exerts higher effort in providing public goods when private citizens undertake collective action and coordinate their voluntary contributions towards the same goods. This effect occurs although government and private contributions are assumed to be substitutes in the technology of providing public goods. Using first-hand data on SHGs in India, the paper tests the prediction of the model and shows that, in response to collective action by SHGs, local authorities tackle a larger variety of public issues, and are more likely to tackle issues of interest to SHGs. The findings highlight how the social behavior of SHGs can influence the governance of rural Indian communities.

Pork Versus Public Goods: An Experimental Study of Public Good Provision Within a Legislative Bargaining Framework

FRÉCHETTE, Guillaume R.; KAGEL, John H.; MORELLI, Massimo
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento Formato: application/pdf; digital
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.99%
We experimentally investigate a legislative bargaining model with both public and particularistic goods. Consistent with the qualitative implications of the model: There is near exclusive public good provision in the pure public good region, in the pure private good region minimum winning coalitions sharing private goods predominate, and in the ‘mixed’ region proposers generally take some particularistic goods for themselves, allocating the remainder to public goods. As in past experiments, proposer ower is not nearly as strong as predicted, resulting in public good provision decreasing in the mixed region as its relative value increases, which is inconsistent with the theory.

Costes de transacción vs costes de jerarquía en la provisión de bienes: Una interpretación smithiana

Trincado Aznar, Estrella
Fonte: Universidad Carlos III de Madrid. Instituto Laureano Figuerola Publicador: Universidad Carlos III de Madrid. Instituto Laureano Figuerola
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; info:eu-repo/semantics/article Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em //2007 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
75.96%
En la teoría de Adam Smith, las jerarquías económicas nunca pueden reducir los costes de transacción del mercado. Para demostrarlo, el artículo estudia la definición de libertad Smithiana, que lleva a que cualquier imposición sobre la actividad independiente y creativa sea «costosa». También explica el tratamiento del tema de la provisión de bienes privados y públicos en la Riqueza de las Naciones. Por tanto, por un lado se describe la naturaleza de la empresa, que provee bienes privados, y por otro la provisión de bienes públicos, es decir, en el caso de la teoría de Smith, las instituciones que facilitan el comercio en general y las que facilitan la instrucción del pueblo.; In Adam’s Smith theory, economic hierarchies cannot reduce market transaction costs. To demonstrate this thesis, the article studies the definition of Smithian freedom, which makes any imposition on the independent and creative activity «costly». It also explains how Adam Smith treats the topic of the provision of private and public goods in the Wealth of the Nations. Therefore, on the one hand, the nature of the firm, which supplies private goods, is described; on the other hand, it studies the provision of public goods, that is to say, in the case of Smith’s theory...

Leapfrogging? India's Information Technology Industry and the Internet

Miller, Robert R.
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank and the International Finance Corporation Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank and the International Finance Corporation
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
75.8%
The Internet has been seen by numerous observers, as a set of technologies that might enable developing countries to "leapfrog" over the development path, taken by industrial countries, enabling poorer countries to increase their rates of growth, and "catch up" sooner. Using India as a case study, this paper reviews the degree to which that promise might be realized. The paper concludes that while internet development in India is still at a very early stage in terms of numbers of connections, and overall use, the promise it offers for increased productivity, and economic growth, is likely to be significant. Most benefits are likely to come from business use of the internet for both internal control, and for dealing with business customers, not from customer use. In particular, global connections will be much enhanced by India's liberalized access to international internet gateways, and to privately-provided undersea cable access. This access alone could offer Indian companies, business opportunities that otherwise would flow to other...

Too Global to Fail : The World Bank at the Intersection of National and Global Public Policy in 2025

Evans, J. Warren; Davies, Robin
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.92%
This report is about global public goods (GPGs), particularly those related to the environment, in the context of the global development process. This concerns the long-term sustainability of development, as the distinction between developing and developed countries is expected to continue for the foreseeable future. This report contends that global sustainability depends (indeed, consists of) the provision of certain GPGs, and that the prevailing approach to development assistance does not sufficiently recognize this fact. A key question is whether the country-ownership model is even compatible with global sustainability. A second key question is whether the political will exists to make the provision of GPGs an explicit and central objective of official development assistance, especially in the face of objections from those who believe aid should be solely concerned with the eradication of poverty through national or community-level interventions. A third key question concerns the mobilization and use of resources for the World Bank's work to support the provision of GPGs. The Bank is a major player on many regional and global issues...

Excluding the Rural Population : The Impact of Public Expenditure on Child Malnutrition in Peru

Gajate-Garrido, Gissele
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
75.8%
Why is the urban-rural gap in child malnutrition increasing in Peru despite government efforts to improve the provision of public services? To answer this question, the impact of regional public expenditure in Peru on young children's nutritional outcomes is examined. To account for policy endogeneity, public expenditures are instrumented using unanticipated regional mining revenues. Even after accounting for changes in expenditure composition due to increases in mining revenues, public spending has a significant and positive impact on children's outcomes only in urban areas. However, even in urban areas, barriers exist that diminish the effectiveness of public expenditure, so indigenous and frailer children in these areas do not benefit from public spending. These children face constraints that limit their ability to use public services. This result reveals the paramount importance of initial conditions. In rural areas, possibly because of the lower quantity and quality of public services, there is no positive effect for any children.

Regulation of the private provision of public water-related services

Jouravlev, Andrei; Lee, Terence R.
Fonte: ECLAC Publicador: ECLAC
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.95%
Includes bibliography; Abstract Since the 1970's, the governments of the region have been transferring, in one form or another, public companies and other state institutions to the private sector. Privatization has now extended to all sectors of the economy, including water-related public utilities. Private sector involvement in the provision of water-related goods and services offers potentially significant efficiency gains. It will not, in itself, guarantee lasting welfare improvement unless there is a competitive market. If not, results will depend on the regime of regulation in which the industries operate. The effectiveness of this regime is determined by the ability of governments to find and create adequate institutional and regulatory conditions that oblige supplies of water-related goods and services to be efficient and responsive to the needs of their customers. Monopoly regulation includes structure regulation, which determines which organizations or types of organizations can engage in which activities, and conduct or behavioral regulation, which concerns the permitted behaviour of organizations in their chosen activities. This paper outlines the principles believed to be essential in formulating an adequate regulatory framework for the water sector. Its focus is on the issues to be confronted in developing a regulatory structure for water-related public utilities. It reviews a vast body of recent literature on economic regulation and private sector participation in the provision of water-related goods and services as well as the experience of the countries where privatization and regulatory reforms have advanced most. Emphasis is given to the regulation of prices...

The Role of Behavioural Economics in Energy and Climate Policy

Pollitt, Michael G.; Shaorshadze, Irina
Fonte: Faculty of Economics Publicador: Faculty of Economics
Tipo: Working Paper; not applicable
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
115.76%
This article explores how behavioural economics can be applied to energy and climate policy. We present an overview of main concepts of behavioural economics and discuss how they differ from the assumptions of neoclassical economics. Next, we discuss how behavioural economics applies to three areas of energy policy: (1) consumption and habits, (2) investment in energy efficiency, and (3) provision of public goods and support for pro-environmental behaviour. We conclude that behavioural economics seems unlikely to provide the magic bullet to reduce energy consumption by the magnitude required by the International Energy Agency's ?450? climate policy scenario. However it offers new suggestions as to where to start looking for potentially sustainable changes in energy consumption. We believe that the most useful role within climate policy is in addressing issues of public perception of the affordability of climate policy and in facilitating the creation of a more responsive energy demand, better capable of responding to weather-induced changes in renewable electricity supply.

Hospital Ownership Conversions: Defining the Appropriate Public Oversight Role

Sloan, Frank
Fonte: Forum for Health Economics & Policy Publicador: Forum for Health Economics & Policy
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 392568 bytes; application/pdf
Publicado em //2002 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
95.78%
This paper reviews recent empirical evidence on the effects of hospital ownership conversions on quality of care and provision of public goods, such as uncompensated care, and presents new results on these topics based on hospital discharge data from the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project’s (HCUP) Nationwide Inpatient Sample. My analysis of these data reveals that conversion from government or private nonprofit to for-profit ownership has no effect on in-hospital mortality, but rates of pneumonia complications increased following conversion to for-profit status. Other research, discussed in the paper, found increased mortality rates following discharge from the hospital for patients admitted to hospitals that had converted to for-profit ownership. There was no effect of such conversions on the propensity to admit uninsured or Medicaid patients. Clearly, there is considerable heterogeneity in outcomes attributable to conversions. Overall, the evidence suggests a role for public scrutiny of hospital ownership conversions.

Public authority and the provision of public goods in conflict-affected and transitioning regions

Hoffman, Kasper; Kirk, Thomas
Fonte: Justice and Security Research Programme, International Development Department, London School of Economics and Political Science Publicador: Justice and Security Research Programme, International Development Department, London School of Economics and Political Science
Tipo: Monograph; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em /08/2013 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
105.88%
This paper uses a systematic literature review to suggest that three emerging critical approaches to the production of public authority are identifiable within the contemporary literature on conflict-affected and transitioning regions. The authors term these approaches the ‘public authority from below perspective’, the ‘hybrid political orders lens’, and ‘political settlements analysis’. Although hailing from diverse disciplinary backgrounds, the paper argues that these approaches share important traits. First, they suggest that to understand better the nature of public authority in transitioning and conflict-affected regions it is necessary to uncover how public authority actually works rather than departing from a theory of the state. This includes accounting for how power is legitimated and practiced within each context, and how claims to public authority are connected to the provision of public goods such as security and justice. Second, they view competition, conflict and contestation as enduring features of public authority in such contexts, and call for empirical examinations of these processes to inform understandings of social change. Third, these approaches argue that public authority is an emergent property...

Public-private partnership for the provision of public goods : theory and an application to NGOs

Besley, Timothy; Ghatak, Maitreesh
Fonte: Suntory and Toyota International Centres for Economics and Related Disciplines, London School of Economics and Political Science Publicador: Suntory and Toyota International Centres for Economics and Related Disciplines, London School of Economics and Political Science
Tipo: Monograph; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em /08/1999 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
105.95%
This paper analyzes the role of public and private responsibility in the provision of public goods. We emphasize that a typical public good will require many different inputs which raises the possibility of partnerships to exploit comparative advantages of different parties. But hold-up problems due to contractual incompleteness in specifying tasks discourage separation of ownership and management. We extend our analysis to examine the role of project design or “ideology” as a separate non-contractible input, and the possibility of crowding out in the form of a less caring government being elected because of the presence of private providers. The main application developed here is to NGOs in developing countries which, in the last two decades, have been increasingly involved in various capacities in the provision of a wide range of public goods and services.