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Brazil and the USA : rethinking the future of ethanol for stronger mutual wns

Schnurr, Tatiana Angela Cabral
Fonte: Fundação Getúlio Vargas Publicador: Fundação Getúlio Vargas
Tipo: Dissertação
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.65%
A produção de etanol e a dominação da indústria, historicamente, tem sido uma fonte de discórdia para seus dois principais produtores. Os EUA com seu etanol de milho e o Brasil com sua etanol de cana, são os dois maiores produtores mundiais de etanol (1º EUA; 2º Brasil) e tem competido pela participação de mercado mundial há décadas. A partir de Dezembro de 2011, os EUA levantaram as tarifas e os subsídios que foram instalados para proteger sua indústria de etanol, o que muda o campo de jogo da produção mundial de etanol para o futuro. Atualmente em todo o mundo, o etanol é usado em uma proporção muito menor comparativamente a outros combustíveis. Esta pesquisa analisa o nível potencial de colaboração entre os EUA e o Brasil, facilitando um diálogo entre os stakeholders em etanol. A pesquisa consiste principalmente de conversas e entrevistas, com base em um conjunto de perguntas destinadas a inspirar conversas detalhadas e expansivas sobre os temas de relações Brasil-EUA e etanol. Esta pesquisa mostra que o etanol celulósico, que é também conhecido como etanol de segunda geração, oferece mais oportunidades de parceria entre os EUA e o Brasil, como há mais oportunidades para pesquisa e desenvolvimento em conjunto e transferência de tecnologia nesta área. Enquanto o etanol de cana no Brasil ainda é uma indústria próspera e crescente...

Teaching innovation – a comparison between courses in Europe and in the USA

Oliveira, Manuel Au-Yong
Fonte: Faculdade de Economia, Universidade do Porto Publicador: Faculdade de Economia, Universidade do Porto
Tipo: Conferência ou Objeto de Conferência
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.62%
What role does the formal teaching of innovation management play? Courses in Europe and the USA are reviewed, especially two courses, MIETE, taught at the University of Porto, in Portugal, and the Stanford University and Michigan University model from the USA. As these flagship courses have resulted in real innovations being introduced into the market formal teaching may well play a decisive role in the larger scenario of real innovation management. A literature review was performed and these two aforementioned cases studied in depth – MIETE via repeated contact with its Director and through the analysis of other publicly available information; while the Stanford University and Michigan University model was analysed by way of a comprehensive publication. A model for innovation and entrepreneurship is put forward whereby personal characteristics, the environment, and career experience and formal teaching will all play a part in the output of innovation and entrepreneurship in society.

Arsenic-induced PML targeting onto nuclear bodies: Implications for the treatment of acute promyelocytic leukemia

Zhu, Jun; Koken, Marcel H. M.; Quignon, Frédérique; Chelbi-Alix, Mounira K.; Degos, Laurent; Wang, Zhen Yi; Chen, Zhu; de Thé, Hugues
Fonte: The National Academy of Sciences of the USA Publicador: The National Academy of Sciences of the USA
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 15/04/1997 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.34%
Acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) is associated with the t(15;17) translocation, which generates a PML/RARα fusion protein between PML, a growth suppressor localized on nuclear matrix-associated bodies, and RARα, a nuclear receptor for retinoic acid (RA). PML/RARα was proposed to block myeloid differentiation through inhibition of nuclear receptor response, as does a dominant negative RARα mutant. In addition, in APL cells, PML/RARα displaces PML and other nuclear body (NB) antigens onto nuclear microspeckles, likely resulting in the loss of PML and/or NB functions. RA leads to clinical remissions through induction of terminal differentiation, for which the respective contributions of RARα (or PML/RARα) activation, PML/RARα degradation, and restoration of NB antigens localization are poorly determined. Arsenic trioxide also leads to remissions in APL patients, presumably through induction of apoptosis. We demonstrate that in non-APL cells, arsenic recruits the nucleoplasmic form of several NB antigens onto NB, but induces the degradation of PML only, identifying a powerful tool to approach NB function. In APL cells, arsenic targets PML and PML/RARα onto NB and induces their degradation. Thus, RA and arsenic target RARα and PML...

Trends in national and state-level obesity in the USA after correction for self-report bias: analysis of health surveys

Ezzati, Majid; Martin, Hilarie; Skjold, Suzanne; Hoorn, Stephen Vander; Murray, Christopher J L
Fonte: The Royal Society of Medicine Publicador: The Royal Society of Medicine
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /05/2006 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.5%
Objectives: To quantify population-level bias in self-reported weight and height as a function of age, sex, and the mode of self-report, and to estimate unbiased trends in national and state level obesity in the USA.

Estimation of the number of founders of an invasive pest insect population: the fire ant Solenopsis invicta in the USA

Ross, Kenneth G; Shoemaker, D. DeWayne
Fonte: The Royal Society Publicador: The Royal Society
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.68%
Determination of the number of founders responsible for the establishment of invasive populations is important for developing biologically based management practices, predicting the invasive potential of species, and making inferences about ecological and evolutionary processes. The fire ant Solenopsis invicta is a major invasive pest insect first introduced into the USA from its native South American range in the mid-1930s. We use data from diverse genetic markers surveyed in the source population and the USA to estimate the number of founders of this introduced population. Data from different classes of nuclear markers (microsatellites, allozymes, sex-determination locus) and mitochondrial DNA are largely congruent in suggesting that 9–20 unrelated mated queens comprised the initial founder group to colonize the USA at Mobile, Alabama. Estimates of founder group size based on expanded samples from throughout the southern USA were marginally higher than this, consistent with the hypothesis of one or more secondary introductions of the ant into the USA. The rapid spread and massive population build-up of introduced S. invicta occurred despite the loss of substantial genetic variation associated with the relatively small invasive propagule size...

Birth Outcomes of Koreans by Birthplace of Infants and Their Mothers, the United States versus Korea, 1995-2004

Lim, Jae Woo; Lee, Jung Ju; Park, Chang Gi; Sriram, Sudhir; Lee, Kwang-sun
Fonte: The Korean Academy of Medical Sciences Publicador: The Korean Academy of Medical Sciences
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.74%
The acculturation effect of immigrant women on birth outcomes varies by race. We examined birth outcomes of three groups of births for the period 1995-2004, USA births to the USA-born Korean mothers, USA births to the non-USA-born Korean mothers, and births in Korea. In singleton USA births to both Korean parents, average birth weight was 3,294 g for the USA-born Korean mothers and 3,323 g for the non-USA-born Korean mothers. However, this difference was not significant, once controlled for other maternal sociodemographic, obstetric and medical factors. Low birth weight and prematurity prevalence were not different by maternal nativity between these two singleton groups. Average birth weight of all births including multiplets in Korea was 3,270 g, compared to 3,297 g for all USA-born infants including multiplets and births either to both or one Korean parents. This difference might have reflected a significantly lower educational attainment of mothers in Korea compared to Korean mothers in the USA. Low birth weight rate was consistently lower in infants born in Korea compared to the USA-born, but this difference became less, 4.2% and 4.6% respectively by 2004. These observations suggest that in the USA acculturation effect of Korean immigrants on birth outcomes is negligible.

Recent Trends in Neonatal Mortality in Very Low Birth Weight Korean Infants: In Comparison with Japan and the USA

Hahn, Won-Ho; Chang, Ji-Young; Chang, Yun Sil; Shim, Kye Shik; Bae, Chong-Woo
Fonte: The Korean Academy of Medical Sciences Publicador: The Korean Academy of Medical Sciences
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.49%
With regard to the outcome of intensive neonatal care, one of the most important concerns in neonatology is the mortality rate of very low birth weight infants (VLBWI; birth weight < 1,500 g) and extremely low birth weight infants (ELBWI; birth weight < 1,000 g). The present study was conducted to analyze and compare the mortality of VLBWI and ELBWI and neonatal care among Korean, Japanese, and American newborns. In Korea, the survival rates of VLBWI have increased significantly; they were 31.8% in the early 1960s, 65.8% in the early 1990s, 77.5% in 2002, 84.7% in 2007, and 85.7% in 2009. The survival rates of ELBWI have also increased; they were 8.2% in the early 1960s, 37.4% in the early 1990s, 56.1% in 2002, 67.7% in 2007, and 71.8% in 2009. The survival rates of VLBWI and ELBWI have significantly improved over the past 50 yr in Korea. However, the Korean survival rates of VLBWI and ELBWI are still lower than for similar groups in Japan and the USA. To achieve better outcomes that reach the level of these countries, the organization of perinatal care centers, nationwide neonatal perinatal research networks, and regionalization are needed in Korea.

Epidemiological game-theory dynamics of chickenpox vaccination in the USA and Israel

Liu, Jingzhou; Kochin, Beth F.; Tekle, Yonas I.; Galvani, Alison P.
Fonte: The Royal Society Publicador: The Royal Society
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.57%
The general consensus from epidemiological game-theory studies is that vaccination coverage driven by self-interest (Nash vaccination) is generally lower than group-optimal coverage (utilitarian vaccination). However, diseases that become more severe with age, such as chickenpox, pose an exception to this general consensus. An individual choice to be vaccinated against chickenpox has the potential to harm those not vaccinated by increasing the average age at infection and thus the severity of infection as well as those already vaccinated by increasing the probability of breakthrough infection. To investigate the effects of these externalities on the relationship between Nash and utilitarian vaccination coverages for chickenpox, we developed a game-theory epidemic model that we apply to the USA and Israel, which has different vaccination programmes, vaccination and treatment costs, as well as vaccination coverage levels. We find that the increase in chickenpox severity with age can reverse the typical relationship between utilitarian and Nash vaccination coverages in both the USA and Israel. Our model suggests that to obtain herd immunity of chickenpox vaccination, subsidies or external regulation should be used if vaccination costs are high. By contrast...

Endovascular Training of Vascular Surgeons in the USA

Assi, Roland; Dardik, Alan
Fonte: The Editorial Committee of Annals of Vascular Diseases Publicador: The Editorial Committee of Annals of Vascular Diseases
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.57%
Current trends in vascular surgery in the USA are driven by increased demand for endovascular procedures. Traditionally-trained vascular surgeons have adapted to these trends by acquiring endovascular skills; vascular surgery fellowships were standardized to 2-years to incorporate endovascular training. However, the traditional “5 + 2” training paradigm appears to be less appealing to the current generation of surgical students, resulting in fellowship positions going unfilled, and potentially predicting a shortage of vascular surgeons. Recognition of this trend has led to the adoption of alternative training pathways, in particular the integrated “0 + 5” pathway, to supplement the traditional “5 + 2” independent pathway. The integrated pathway has several perceived advantages for vascular surgery trainees including early teaching of endovascular skills. However, it has challenges that include maintaining open operative skills and changing strategies to attract candidates from among the pool of medical students instead of the pool of general surgery residents. Simulators, both open and endovascular, are playing an increasingly important role in training programs as well as for outreach programs to medical students. Recruitment strategies for future generations of vascular surgeons in the USA may need to consider residents’ lifestyle preferences as well as outreach to traditionally underrepresented groups such as women and minorities.

The impact of EU enlargement on external relations, notably with the US and Russia

Noe, Willem
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Working/Technical Paper Formato: 47616 bytes; 348 bytes; application/pdf; application/octet-stream
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.34%
Conclusion: In summary, enlargement will prove a positive for bilateral relations between the US and the EU but will also make them more complicated. The US supports enlargement as next big step toward European integration and securing the gains of the post Cold War. There are also considerable economic opportunities. On the other hand, the possibility of a larger, more competitive and more assertive EU may threaten US interests. Deepening EU relations with Russia will herald an opportunity for the US to secure a more prosperous, stable Russia. Russia appears to consider enlargement an opportunity to drive a wedge between the EU and the US. All the more reason, then, for collaboration between the European Union and America to avert this possibility.; no

Multikultureller Rundfunk - ein Vergleich zwischen Deutschland und den USA; Multicultural broadcasting - a comparison between Germany and the USA

Dürr, Heide
Fonte: Universidade de Tubinga Publicador: Universidade de Tubinga
Tipo: Dissertação
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.7%
Gegenstand der vorliegenden Arbeit ist die Untersuchung multikultureller, das heißt fremdsprachiger und/oder ausländischer Einflüsse auf die Rundfunklandschaften in Deutschland und den USA, sowie deren Eingliederung in die herrschende Rechtsordnung. Es soll gezeigt werden, wie die beiden Rechtsordnungen hiermit umgehen und ob und gegebenenfalls wie sie multikulturelle Einflüsse zulassen oder integrieren. Ausgangspunkt der Untersuchung sind die jeweiligen verfassungsrechtlichen Grundlagen und die darauf aufbauenden Rundfunksysteme. Dabei soll zunächst ermittelt werden, ob das jeweilige Rundfunksystem die Produktion und Ausstrahlung fremdsprachiger Sendungen zulässt oder sogar fordert. Weiter wird untersucht, ob ausländische Sender die Möglichkeit haben, Teil der jeweiligen Rundfunklandschaft zu werden. Angesprochen wird ebenfalls die Problematik des grenzüberschreitenden Rundfunks, wobei im deutschen Teil auch auf die Besonderheit der Einbettung in ein europäisches Gefüge eingegangen wird. Ferner wird geprüft, ob der Empfang multikulturellen Rundfunks in Form von ausländischen Sendern geschützt ist und wie die jeweilige Rechtsordnung diese Frage löst. Gesondert eingegangen wird dabei auf die Frage nach der Zulässigkeit der Installation von Parabolantennen zum Empfang ausländischer Rundfunksendungen.; The present study shall analize how multicultural influence affects the braodcasting systems of Germany and the USA. It will be surveyed if and how multicultural influence is integrated into the respective legal system. Multcultural influence hereby means the influence of foreign languages and and of foreign countries in general. Point of origin of the analysis are the constitutions and the broadcasting systems of Germany and the USA which will be presented at the beginning of the work. The study then examins if the respective broadcasting system allows the production and broadcasting of foreign language programs. After that the question is answered if foreign broadcasting stations may get part of the national broadcasting environment. Part of the analisation is also the problem of transnational broadcasting...

Zwangsglobalisierung. Die USA, die Araber und die Muslime vor und nach den Ereignissen des September 2001; Globalization by Force. The USA, the Arabs and the Muslims before and after the Events of September 2001

Amin, Galal
Fonte: Universidade de Tubinga Publicador: Universidade de Tubinga
Tipo: Buch (Monographie)
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.69%
Prof. Galal Amins Buch „Zwangsglobalisierung. Die USA, die Araber und die Muslime vor und nach den Ereignissen des September 2001“ wurde, wie der Titel schon anzeigt, vor dem 11. September begonnen und nahm dann zwangsläufig die weltweite Erschütterung durch die Anschläge von New York und Washington in das Thema der Globalisierung mit auf. Prof. Amin bietet als ägyptischer Ökonom eine stark globalisierungskritische Perspektive aus Kairo, Hauptstadt Ägyptens und größter Metropole der arabischen Welt. Amin verteidigt in Anlehnung an Keynes staatliche Eingriffe in die Wirtschaft für eine geplante Entwicklungspolitik und legt energischen Widerspruch gegen wirtschaftsliberale Entwicklungsversprechungen ein. In der hegemonialen Stellung der USA im Mittleren Osten sieht er neokoloniale Herrschaftsformen, zu deren Durchsetzung – aus seiner Sicht – der Staat Israel dient. Israels Politik gegenüber den Palästinensern delegitimiert in seinen Augen den westlich dominierten Menschenrechtsdiskurs, indem er ihn zu einem einseitigen Herrschaftsinstrument degradiert. Hinter ideologischen oder Kulturkonflikten stehe letztlich nur wirtschaftliche Interessenpolitik. Dies sei die eigentliche Triebfeder der amerikanischen Mittelostpolitik und müsse deshalb auch als Erklärungsmaßstab herangezogen werden. Die Übersetzung dieser globalisierungskritischen Stimme von den Ufern des Nil möchte dem deutschsprachigen Leser einen direkten Zugang zu einheimischen Reaktionen auf die Globalisierung bieten. Sicherlich ist Amins Perspektive nur eine von vielen arabischen Positionen und ließen sich auch noch viele andere Stimmen vom südlichen Mittelmeerraum anführen – dies sei späteren Übersetzungsprojekten vorbehalten. Die Themen...

Europa in der Weltpolitik : Juniorpartner der USA oder antihegemoniale Alternative?; Europe in world politics : Junior partner of the U.S.A. or anti-hegemonic alternative?

Rittberger, Volker; Zelli, Fariborz
Fonte: Universität Tübingen Publicador: Universität Tübingen
Tipo: ResearchPaper
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.68%
Es wird die Frage untersucht, ob die Europäische Union als aussenpolitischer Akteur bezeichnet werden kann. In einem ersten Teil werden mögliche Modelle für die EU als aussenpolitischem Akteur diskutiert: Zunächst in der Perspektive des Vökerrechts, dann in der Perspektive der Internationalen Beziehungen. Bei letzterem wird das "Principal Agent"-Modell, institutionelle und substanzielle Modelle und die Zivilmachtsrhetorik vorgestellt. In einer Bestandsaufnahme der Transatlantischen Beziehungen werden die gegenwärtige Rolle der USA in der Weltpolitik, zunehmende Spannungen im transatlantischen Verhältnis und Spannungen innerhalb EU-Europas dargestellt. Ein letzter Teil gibt dann "Empfehlungen" in Form von Handlungsoptionen einer europäischen Außenpolitik gegenüber den USA. Diskutiert werden hier die Konzepte eines Kollektiven Balancing, eines Kollektiven Bandwagoning und eines Leitbildes der Zivilmacht.; The research paper deals with the questions, if the European Union could be indicated as an actor in international relations. In the first part are several possible models discussed: At first in the perspective of the international law, then in the perspective of the international relations. In the latter case, three models are presented: the "principal agent" model...

Comparing Innovation Performance in the EU and the USA: Lessons from Three ICT Sub-Sectors

FORGE Simon; BLACKMAN Colin; GOLDBERG Itzhak; BIAGI FEDERICO
Fonte: Publications Office of the European Union Publicador: Publications Office of the European Union
Tipo: EUR - Scientific and Technical Research Reports Formato: Online
Português
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55.57%
The objective of the study is to document the existence of innovation gaps between the EU and its main competitors in specific ICT sub-sectors – namely web services, industrial robotics and display technologies –and to explore the role of government policies in Europe’s future needs for innovation in information and communication technologies (ICT) through a comparison with the USA and Asian countries. Our analysis shows that rather than there being a simple innovation gap with the EU lagging behind the USA, a more nuanced picture emerges in which firms in different countries have strengths in different sub-sectors and in different parts of the value chain. A key lesson from the analysis of the three subsectors is the critical importance of higher education, particularly elite university research, and of local networks as generated by clusters. Governments can also encourage innovation through appropriate intellectual property and competition laws and, more generally, through the development of a business environment conducive to innovation. Finally, Governments can have a very important role through the funding of early-stage innovation; JRC.J.3-Information Society

Comparing UK, USA and Australian values for EQ-5D as a health utility measure of oral health

Brennan, D.S.; Teusner, D.N.
Fonte: Dennis Barber Publicador: Dennis Barber
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2015 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.71%
Objectives: Using generic measures to examine outcomes of oral disorders can add additional information relating to health utility. However, different algorithms are available to generate health states. The aim was to assess UK-, US- and Australian-based algorithms for the EuroQol (EQ-5D) in relation to their discriminative and convergent validity. Methods: Data were collected from adults in Australia aged 30-61 years by mailed survey in 2009-10, including the EQ-5D and a range of self-reported oral health variables, and self-rated oral and general health. Results: Responses were collected from n=1,093 persons (response rate 39.1%). UK-based EQ-5D estimates were lower (0.85) than the USA and Australian estimates (0.91). EQ-5D was associated (p<0.01) with all seven oral health variables, with differences in utility scores ranging from 0.03 to 0.06 for the UK, from 0.04 to 0.07 for the USA, and from 0.05 to 0.08 for the Australian-based estimates. The effect sizes (ESs) of the associations with all seven oral health variables were similar for the UK (ES=0.26 to 0.49), USA (ES=0.31 to 0.48) and Australian-based (ES=0.31 to 0.46) estimates. EQ-5D was correlated with global dental health for the UK (rho=0.29), USA (rho=0.30) and Australian-based estimates (rho=0.30)...

A Comparative Analysis of Brazil's Foreign Policy Drivers Towards the USA: Comment on Amorim Neto (2011)

Mourón,Fernando; Urdinez,Francisco
Fonte: Associação Brasileira de Ciência Política Publicador: Associação Brasileira de Ciência Política
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/09/2014 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.62%
This paper looks at the main finding by Amorim Neto (2011), namely that Brazil's power explains why it distanced itself from the country that had once been its great ally in the first half of the last century. We propose an alternative explanation grounded on the realist literature in IR. Ultimately, we seek to determine whether the variable has behaved in the same way for other South American countries, searching for independent variables that could help us explain a visible pattern in the region: the increasing distancing from the United States (USA) at the United Nations General Assembly. We want to contribute to the debate initiated by Amorim Neto (2011) and Schenoni (2012) for future research in the recent field of quantitative analysis of Brazilian Foreign Policy. Using Panel Corrected Standard Error analysis in ten South American countries from 1970 to 2007 we empirically prove that the lower the power gap between a South American country and the U.S., the lower its alignment with the USA in the UN General Assembly voting.

Religion as heritage, religion as belief: Shifting frontiers of secularism in Europe, the USA and Brazil

Lehmann, David
Fonte: Sage Publishing Publicador: Sage Publishing
Tipo: Article; accepted version
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.57%
This is the accepted version of the article. The original publication of the Version of Record was in International Sociology November 2013 vol. 28 no. 6 645-662 and is available online at http://iss.sagepub.com/content/28/6/645.; This article draws a distinction between religion as heritage and as belief, and also shows the complications which arise in predominantly Christian countries when ?new arrivals? and evangelical, Pentecostal, or conversion-led, movements claim the recognition which has historically been afforded to hegemonic churches. Using evidence from Europe, the USA and Brazil it reveals the uncertain implementation of the state?religion boundary in the law, in taxation and in politics, and shows how even the most secular states allow religious institutions special exemptions, albeit in different ways. It asks whether religion is not producing demands amounting to a separate citizenship and why religious expression should require privileged treatment additional to freedom of speech in a secular world where religious affiliation is regarded as a matter of personal choice. It also questions the assumption of market theories of religion that more and more intense religion is good for religion and good for society.; This work was supported by the Arts and Humanities Research Council [grant number AH/F007566/1].

Cross-Cultural Generalizability of CBCL Syndromes Across Three Continents: From the USA and Holland to Australia

Heubeck, Bernd
Fonte: Kluwer Academic Publishers Publicador: Kluwer Academic Publishers
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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55.62%
The study asked how well Achenbach's 8-factor cross-informant model for the Child Behavior Checklist (Achenbach, 1991a, 1991b, 1991c) fits clinic data in the USA, Holland, and Australia. DeGroot et al.'s Dutch 8-factor model (DeGroot, Koot, and Verhulst 1994) was also tested for its cross-cultural generalizability. Achenbach's matched clinical sample data (N = 2110) were analyzed and contrasted with the previously reported Dutch findings (N = 2335), as well as a new data set collected on clinic referred children and adolescents in Australia (N = 2237). Confirmatory factor analyses supported the Dutch as much as the American model in the USA, Holland, and Australia. Although about 90% of items showed convergent validity across models and countries, the attention and especially the social problems factor found least support. Most double loadings in the current models were not upheld. Instead, additional analyses discovered a number of unmodelled loadings including many cross-loadings. This led to the redefinition of the social problems factor as a mean aggression factor (with associated social problems) whereas the original aggression factor focuses on emotional acting out and the delinquent factor describes an evasive, covert type of antisocial behavior. Overall most support was obtained for the withdrawn...

A new approach to generating research-quality phenology data: The USA National Phenology Monitoring System

Ellen G. Denny; Abraham J. Miller-Rushing; Brian P. Haggerty; Bruce E. Wilson; Jake F. Weltzin; the rest of the USA-NPN Protocol Development Team
Fonte: Nature Preceedings Publicador: Nature Preceedings
Tipo: Poster
Português
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65.62%
The USA National Phenology Network (www.usanpn.org) has recently initiated a national effort to encourage people at different levels of expertise—from backyard naturalists to professional scientists—to observe phenology and contribute to a national database that will be used to greatly improve our understanding of spatio-temporal variation in phenology and associated phenological responses to climate change. Many phenological observation protocols identify specific single dates at which individual phenological events are observed, but the scientific usefulness of long-term phenological observations can be improved with a more carefully structured protocol. At the USA-NPN we have developed a new approach that directs observers to record each day that they observe an individual plant, and to assess and report the state of specific life stages (or phenophases) as occurring or not occurring on that plant for each observation date. Observations of animal phenophases are similarly recorded, although for a species as a whole rather than for a specific individual. Evaluation is phrased in terms of simple, easy-to-understand, questions (e.g. “Do you see open flowers?”) which makes it appropriate for a broad audience. From this method...

In situ monitoring of primary roofbolts at underground coal mines in the USA

Spearing,A.J.S.; Hyett,A.
Fonte: Journal of the Southern African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy Publicador: Journal of the Southern African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/10/2014 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.62%
Primary roof support represents the first line of defence against rock-related falls of ground in underground mines, and improper utilization or misunderstanding of the applicability and behaviour of primary support can be costly from a safety standpoint. This is a major concern for underground mines, as roof support is the single most costly expense from a mining operational perspective. This is further backed by the evidence that, in the USA, hundreds of injuries and fatalities still occur each year because of rib, roof, and massive roof falls. Additionally, the fully-grouted passive rebar, fully-grouted tension rebar, and resin-assisted mechanical anchor bolts, which constitute a large portion (89%) of the 68 million bolts installed each year in underground mines in the USA can vary in cost quite dramatically. To mitigate this concern a study was conducted in 2010 by the National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health, in conjunction with Southern Illinois University of Carbondale, to assess the performance of primary roofbolts in underground coal mines for improved safety and cost. This was accomplished using underground roofbolt monitoring solutions, field data, and numerical modelling to better understand the quasi-static behaviour of underground coal mine roofs and the response behaviour of the bolts. In particular...