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Has the Stability and Growth Pact stabilised? Evidence from a panel of 12 European countries and some implications for the reform of the Pact

Marinheiro, Carlos José Fonseca
Fonte: FEUC. Grupo de Estudos Monetários e Financeiros Publicador: FEUC. Grupo de Estudos Monetários e Financeiros
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.17%
Ever since its inception EMU has been subject to controversy. The fiscal policy rules embedded in the Treaty on European Union, and clarified in the Stability and Growth Pact (SGP), are probably the most contentious. The SGP is being accused of being too rigid and of forcing pro-cyclicality in fiscal policy. We test the impact of the SGP rules on the cyclical properties of fiscal policy for a panel of 12 European countries. We conclude that contrary to what might have been expected the euro fiscal rules have reinforced the counter-cyclicality of fiscal policy. However, the results also show that the SGP is not being applied symmetrically over the cycle, leading to insufficient fiscal consolidation during economic upswings. This explains the recent difficulties of Portugal, Germany and France in complying with SGP requirements. Based on these conclusions we argue for the creation of independent national technical committees that would define an appropriate deficit target on an annual basis.

Honorius Augustodunensis e O Elucidarium : um estudo sobre a reforma, o diabo e o fim dos tempos; Honorius Augustodunensis and the Elucidarium: a study on the reform, the devil and the end of time between the end of times of the eleventh century and the beginning of the XII

Carvalho, João Rafael Chio Serra
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 30/03/2009 Português
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O objetivo da pesquisa é compreender o desenvolvimento de algumas das mais importantes representações da mentalidade medieval, a saber: a figura do diabo, as idéias acerca do escathon e os ideais ético-comportamentais defendidos pela reforma. Mais especificamente, propugnamos aqui analisar a partir do estudo do Elucidarium de Honorius Augustodunensis o desenvolvimento da espiritualidade e da religiosidade nos séculos XI e XII, sob a égide dos novos ideais reformadores da Igreja, especialmente como estes se deram na Inglaterra. A intenção é a partir da análise do Elucidarium explicar e explicitar as peculiaridades do desenvolvimento dos ideais reformistas e do imaginário na Britannia da época. A escolha do Elucidarium se justifica tanto por sua abrangência bem como por sua simplicidade de tecitura e complexidade de conteúdos. Esse tratado, uma espécie de Summa Totius Theologiae, constitui-se em importante janela de compreensão da utensilagem mental dos homens do medievo, já que apresenta de todas as grandes preocupações teológicas de um homem da intelligentsia voltadas para a formação do clero e para as distintas clivagens do laicato. Mais do que buscar um viés interpretativo alternativo ao dos clássicos ou mesmo entrar em pequenas querelas sobre pormenores cabe àquele que deseja trazer nova luz sobre o assunto uma mudança de foco. O que procuramos com o presente estudo é entender por quais mecanismos os ideais dogmáticos propostos pelo pólo eclesiástico se imiscuem nos costumes e tradições do pólo laico perfazendo assim um percurso pendular entre as distintas vertentes de uma cultura compósita. É perseguindo tal objetivo que nos debruçamos na análise do Elucidarium para fazermos ouvir seus silêncios. Compreender o não-dito por meio de da análise sistemática de seu discurso e suas temáticas recuperando assim...

Turmoil at Twenty : Recession, Recovery, and Reform in Central and Eastern Europe and the Former Soviet Union

Mitra, Pradeep; Selowsky, Marcelo; Zalduendo, Juan
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Português
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36.25%
This book, written on the eve of the 20th anniversary of the fall of the Berlin wall in 1989, addresses three questions that relate to recession, recovery, and reform, respectively, in Europe and Central Asia (ECA) transition countries. Did the transition from a command to a market economy and the period when it took place, plant the seeds of vulnerability that made transition countries (the region excluding Turkey) more prone to crisis than developing countries generally? Did choices made on the road from plan to market shape the ability of affected countries to recover from the crisis? What structural reforms do transition countries need to undertake to address the most binding constraints to growth in a world where financial markets have become more discriminating and where capital flows to transition and developing countries are likely to be considerably lower than before the crisis? This report is structured as follows: chapter one of the book analyses how countries fell into recession and crisis...

Legal Basis and Scope of the New EU-Ukraine Enhanced Agreement. Is there any room for further speculation?

PETROV, Roman
Fonte: European University Institute Publicador: European University Institute
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento Formato: application/pdf; digital
Português
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The paper conducts a critical analysis of the potential legal basis and scope of the future European Union (EU)-Ukraine enhanced agreement. Accepting that the most probable and most beneficial possibility for Ukraine is to conclude an association agreement with the EU on the basis of Article 310 EC Treaty (EC), it is argued that the objectives of the enhanced co-operation between the EU and Ukraine - as expected and desired by the Ukrainian political élite - could be achieved by a partnership agreement concluded on the basis of Article 181a EC. Furthermore, if the new enhanced EU-Ukraine agreement were concluded as a partnership agreement, it might be better suited for the solving of certain political and legal challenges in contemporary EU-Ukraine relations. First, a new enhanced agreement concluded on the basis of Article 181a EC would not entail unjustified political expectations - on the part of Ukraine - of obtaining the perspective of full EU-membership in the near future. Second, a future EU-Ukraine partnership agreement would be the best option for a “transitional” enhanced agreement before the Treaty of Lisbon enters into force. Third, a future partnership agreement between the EU and Ukraine will not undermine the fundamentals of the evolving strategic partnership between the EU and Russia.

Mass Media and Contested Meanings: EU Constitutional Politics after Popular Rejection

LIEBERT, Ulrike; TRENZ, Hans-Jörg
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento Formato: application/pdf; digital
Português
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36.5%
This paper applies a normative democratic perspective on European constitutional politics to the analysis of discursive practices related to the crisis of the "Treaty establishing a Constitution for Europe" (TCE), in the aftermath of the failed referenda. Starting from three distinct logics of constitutionalisation, we ask whether and in which ways EU constitutional politics has interacted with the general public sphere. In terms of constitution politics, did the national mass media basically ignore the European dimension, and fail to take the debate beyond the national state? Or did they closely represent deliberations that went on during the "reflection period," and present the various reasons for and against this joint agreement designed to get the EU out of its impasse? And, moreover, did they represent social contentions and enhance the diversity of interests and identities involved in the constitutional crisis debates in the run up to the Lisbon Reform Treaty? To answer these questions, we will use the methodology of comparative discourse analysis and a data set covering constitutional media debates from May 2005 - June 2007 in 14 EU member and candidate countries.

EU External Action in the JHA Domain: a legal perspective

CREMONA, Marise
Fonte: European University Institute Publicador: European University Institute
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento Formato: application/pdf; digital
Português
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Since the Conclusions of the European Council on the Area of Freedom, Security and Justice (AFSJ) at Tampere in 1999 the Union has recognised the significance of the external dimension to this policy field, and over the last decade the Union’s activity in this field has both intensified and broadened to include not only migration, border management and asylum but all aspects of the AFSJ, ranging from counter-terrorism to civil procedure. Although the scope of external action reflects the fragmentation of the subject matter and the AFSJ lacks an easily identifiable policy objective, there are ways in which we can identify certain common elements in the approach to external AFSJ policy, in particular in managing the relationship between different actors. This paper seeks to explore some of these distinctive elements; its purpose is to set out some of the particular legal features of external AFSJ policy. First, to examine the basis for and the scope of external competence given that there is no explicit provision in the EC Treaty for external action in the field. Second, the legal implications of the inter-pillar nature of the AFSJ: the consequences this has for the types of instrument available to the Union and the legal constraints imposed by the need to ‘police’ the boundary. And finally the paper explores the relationship between Union / Community action and Member State action: the possibility of exclusive Community competence...

Welfare Integration through EU Law: The Overall Picture in the Light of the Lisbon Treaty

DAMJANOVIĆ, Dragana; DE WITTE, Bruno
Fonte: European University Institute Publicador: European University Institute
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento Formato: application/pdf; digital
Português
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46.34%
The authors present a synthetic view of the evolution of the impact of EU law on the provision of welfare services in the member states of the EU. They distinguish, in this regard, between the core welfare services, in which the impact of EU law is more recent and less important, and the services provides by public utilities, where EU law has had a major transformative impact for many years now. In recent years, however, the distinction between the two categories becomes more blurred. The paper also discusses the likely impact of the Lisbon Treaty, if and when it enters into force, on welfare integration through EU law.

Small States – Big Negotiations Decision-Making Rules and Small State Influence in EU Treaty Negotiations

LEHTONEN, Tiia
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf; digital
Português
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36.68%
This study examines the impact of the decision-making rules, procedures and practices of the European Union on the ability of small Member States to influence Treaty negotiation outcomes, and assesses the causality of this influence in Treaty-revision. Within Treatymaking processes, actor influence is here expected to vary according to the institutional preconditions, and small states are presumed to benefit from particular type of decisionmaking rules to the disadvantage of others. The fundamental aim of the study is therefore to investigate the conditions under which small state influence increases in European Union Treaty-negotiations. To explain this puzzle, a distinction is made between two types of Treaty-making processes, those of the Intergovernmental Conferences and the Convention, which allows for subsequent comparisons between the decision-making rules of unanimity and restricted consensus. In order to empirically test the underlying hypotheses, explicit units of observation are chosen from the IGCs of Amsterdam, Nice and 2003-04, and the Convention on the Future of the EU. In-depth comparisons are made between four small Member States – Belgium, Denmark, Finland and Ireland – and their de facto influence is process-traced through three substantial issues of the institutional reform: the composition of the Commission...

Enhanced Cooperation and the Common Foreign and Security and Defence Policies of the EU

CREMONA, Marise
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento Formato: application/pdf; digital
Português
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36.54%
The aim of this paper is the study of the enhanced cooperation mechanism in the framework of the Lisbon Treaty as it applies to the Common Foreign and Security Policy (CFSP) and the Common Security and Defence Policy (CSDP) of the EU. The concept of enhanced cooperation was introduced into the EU Treaty structure by the Treaty of Amsterdam, although initially the CFSP was excluded. The Treaty of Nice extended a limited possibility of enhanced cooperation to the CFSP, while still excluding from its scope all ‘matters having military or defence implications’. The Treaty of Lisbon, at the same time as emphasising solidarity and the building of a common policy, accepts the extension of enhanced cooperation and flexibility into the defence sphere. The object of this paper, as well as outlining the ways in which enhanced cooperation has applied to the CFSP and the ways in which this will be affected by the Treaty of Lisbon, is to examine the extent to which foreign policy, security and defence lend themselves to enhanced cooperation and other forms of flexibility. The conclusion is that there is a need to distinguish between foreign policy and defence; the development of an active and credible EU foreign policy cannot readily accommodate differentiated integration as it depends for its force not primarily on either legally binding instruments or coercion but on political weight. On the other hand...

Coherence Through Law: What Difference Will the Treaty of Lisbon Make?

CREMONA, Marise
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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36.49%
Despite the simplification offered by the Lisbon Treaty in establishing a single European Union with a single legal personality and a single set of principles and objectives for the EU’s external action, the structural complexity inherent in the Union system will largely survive. In the process of treaty reform that started with the Laeken Declaration in December 2001 and ended with the Treaty of Lisbon, signed in October 2007, the coherence of the Union’s foreign policy has been one of the recurrent themes. The Laeken Declaration already asked, "how should a more coherent common foreign policy and defence policy be developed?" and raised the issue of foreign policy coherence expressly twice, first in the context of the organisation of Union competence and its relation to that of the Member States and second in the context of institutional and decision-making efficiency. It could be argued from the analysis undertaken here that the innovations the Lisbon Treaty introduces, both structural and institutional, give prominence to rules of delimitation and to the principle of complementarity in both vertical and horizontal dimensions of coherence. Despite the prominence given to the new institutional mechanisms, it could be that the most important element of the Treaty of Lisbon from the perspective of foreign policy coherence is the clear external mandate given to the Union as a whole in both substantive and instrumental terms. (www.hamburg-review.com)

Negotiating the Lisbon Treaty : Redistribution, Efficiency and Power Indices

Varela Pedreira, Diego; Prado Domínguez, A. Javier
Fonte: Charles University Prague, Facukty of Social Sciences, Insitute of Economic Studies Publicador: Charles University Prague, Facukty of Social Sciences, Insitute of Economic Studies
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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46.65%
[Abstract] In this paper, we try to explain the intergovernmental negotiation of the Lisbon treaty from a rational choice perspective with the aid of power index analysis. There are two aspects of the reform of qualified majority voting (QMV) in the Council that we find puzzling. The first one is that, according to Shapley-Shubik index based on the notion of power as the distribution of a fixed prize, small and medium-sized member states have lost power as compared to the Nice treaty, which conflicts with the unanimity requirement for treaty reform. The second one is that, according to the Banzhaf measure based on the notion of power as influence, the Lisbon treaty leaves all member states worse off in absolute terms as compared to the Convention’s draft. We propose the measure developed by Steunenberg et al. (1999) as a possible solution to these paradoxes, and draw some conclusions about the nature of EU policy making and power index analysis.

Ukrainian naval reform: required for survival

Kessler, George Albert
Fonte: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: xx, 94 p.; 28 cm.
Português
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This thesis examines the transition of the Ukrainian Navy from the Soviet Union Black Sea Fleet (BSF) to a national navy and its need for reform to survive. The settlement of the BSF revolved around three central issues: the division of BSF assets; basing rights; and sovereignty in the Crimea. Ukraine's navy must evolve from an obsolete Cold War force to a regional navy capable of protecting its national interests. Stability in the Black Sea region is critical to Ukraine and centers on four issues: a resurgent Russian Federation; Turkish dominance; Caspian Sea oil; and political and military instability. The thesis analyzes the Ukrainian Navy via a 'Top-down' method of force planning utilizing a T-matrix model. This produced three areas of required reform: establishment of military functions; allocation of resources; development of a regional navy. The problems facing reform in Ukraine are military development, domestic political will, and economic issues. These problems make reform difficult. For Ukraine to survive, it must implement reform through a combination of governmental action and continued reliance on outside assistance through North Atlantic Treaty Organization/Partnership for Peace and the United States.; US Navy (USN) author

Une constitution courte et obscure ou claire et détaillée ? Perspectives pour la simplification des traités et la rationalisation de l’ordre juridique de l’union européenne

ZILLER, Jacques
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento Formato: 226157 bytes; application/pdf
Português
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36.57%
The paper examines deals with the possibility to keep the 'acquis' of the Constitutional Treaty in terms of simplification of the EC-EU treaties and of rationalisation of the EU legal system if the Treaty establishing a Constitution for Europe were not to be ratified in the form it has been signed on 29 October 2004. The basic assumption of the paper is that contrary to what is too often said, not only the length of the treaty may not be seen as a primary cause of its rejection in the French and Dutch referendums of 2005, but also that a shorter treaty might not serve better the objective of clarity than a longer one. Five basic elements are being identified as the European Convention’s 'acquis' which should be maintained in the future: the suppression of the pillar structure, the integration of the Charter of fundamental right in the EU fundamental treaty, the reorganisation of the treaties - as done in part III of the Constitution for Europe - the typology of legal instruments of the Union and the typology of competences. While acknowledging that a number of formal, technical and political improvements could further be added to the existing text, which could also formally be split in two if necessary, the paper is rather sceptical about the political feasibility of scenarios which would not be based on the ratification of the existing European Constitution’s content.

After finalité? The Future of the European Constitutional Idea

WALKER, Neil
Fonte: European University Institute Publicador: European University Institute
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento Formato: 203234 bytes; application/pdf
Português
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36.22%
This paper sets out to examine the prospects for EU constitutionalism in the light of the protracted and perhaps insuperable difficulties surrounding the ratification of the 2004 Constitutional Treaty. It argues that these difficulties simply reinforce the need for thinking about the EU's constitutional settlement in non 'finalist' terms. The EU polity has always been and remains dynamic and open-ended, and so the attempt to 'contain' it within a final settlement is probably in practice misconceived, as well as leading to deep disagreement about the terms of any such purported final agreement. The constitutional idea remains a powerful one - a key way for the European polity to think about itself seriously as collective project rather than the sum of it various national parts - provided the association of constitutional thought and method with finalité is broken.

The European Union’s external representation after Lisbon : from 'hydra-headed' to 'octopus'?

JOHANSSON-NOGUES, Elisabeth
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento Formato: application/pdf
Português
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36.34%
A longstanding critique of the European Union has been its ‘hydra-headed’ external representation whereby multiple EU actors intervene to speak on the Union’s behalf in international organizations. Expectations were therefore raised as the 2009 Lisbon Treaty created a simplified regime of external representation whereby in essence the representation is left in the hands of the President of the European Council, the High Representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy and Vice-President of the European Commission and, finally, the President of the Commission. The question explored in this Working Paper is whether the 2009 Lisbon Treaty reform has since given rise to that cohesion and clarity of expression ("single voice") for which the EU and its member states allegedly strives. We survey this topic by ways of the EU´s external representation in the United Nations system and related conferences. Our main findings are that while it can be said that the ‘new’ troika has gained in formal representative ‘authority’, it has not been accompanied by greater independence of action or ‘autonomy’ from member states or by significant gains in terms of overall simplification of the Union’s external representation so far.

Symbol of strength or symbol of weakness? The Lornbok Treaty and Australian foreign policy

Amos, Philip
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Relatório
Português
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36.62%
On the 13th November 2006, in Mataram on the island of Lombok, the Agreement between Australia and the Republic of Indonesia on the Framework for Security Cooperation (the Treaty) was signed by the Australian Foreign Minister Alexander Downer and his Indonesian counterpart Dr Hassan Wirajuda. The Treaty represents a renewal of formal treaty level security cooperation between the two states in traditional military and intelligence areas and non-traditional security areas including counter-terrorism, maritime security, aviation safety and security, the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction, and emergency cooperation. The Treaty is a combination of practical measures to increase security cooperation and political measures to strengthen the bi-lateral relationship. Dividends from practical cooperation in traditional military areas and in combating regional terrorism and crime will advance the national interests of both states, while political dividends from obligations to support territorial integrity and refrain from support for separatism will serve to address ongoing fault lines in the bi-lateral relationship. By incorporating both practical and political dividends the Treaty reflects both the strengths and weaknesses of the bi-lateral relationship. The overwhelming majority of debate in Australia has been concerned with three areas that are the focus of this report: human rights...

Debt Management Reform Plan : Madagascar

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work; Economic & Sector Work :: Debt Management Performance Assessment
Português
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36.25%
The reform plan pillars outlined in this report build on the findings of the 2013 World Bank Debt Management Performance Assessment (DeMPA) for Madagascar and the discussions held during this mission with the central government representatives. Recent presidential elections and envisaged inauguration of the new government provides an enabling environment for engaging into broad economic and institutional reforms. Improvement of the governance practices and continuation of the public finance management reforms are among priorities stipulated in the President's reform agenda. It is important to mention that during the last two years MoFB's Treasury undertook a number of initiatives to improve government debt management. The Public Debt Directorate (DDP) was reorganized in 2012 and additional staff was hired during the last calendar year. Improvement of existing legal framework was initiated by the DDP in close cooperation with legal advisers of the Treasury. The main areas of reforms identified include: (i) improvement of the legal framework...

Global Pension Systems and Their Reform : Worldwide Drivers, Trends, and Challenges

Holzmann, Robert
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Working Paper; Publications & Research
Português
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36.4%
Across the world, pension systems and their reforms are in a constant state of flux driven by shifting objectives, moving reform needs, and a changing enabling environment. The ongoing worldwide financial crisis and the adjustment to an uncertain 'new normal' will make future pension systems different from past ones. The objectives of this policy review paper are threefold: (i) to briefly review recent and ongoing key changes that are triggering reforms; (ii) to outline the main reform trends across pension pillars; and (iii) to identify a few areas on which the pension reform community will need to focus to make a difference. The latter includes: creating solutions after the marginalization or, perhaps, demise of Bismarckian systems in countries with high rates of informality; keeping the elderly in the labor market; and addressing the uncertainty of longevity increases in pension schemes.

La protection des droits de l'homme dans l'Union européenne avant et après le traité constitutionnel. La Constitution représente-t-elle la bonne voie?

Piele, Mihaela Loredana
Fonte: Université de Montréal Publicador: Université de Montréal
Tipo: Thèse ou Mémoire numérique / Electronic Thesis or Dissertation
Português
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36.83%
Les Communautés européennes et l'Union européenne ont toujours exprimé leur engagement à respecter les droits de l'homme. Depuis la première Convention intergouvernementale chargée de la rédaction du projet de Charte des Droits Fondamentaux (1999-2001), une deuxième Convention a été organisée. La dernière a proposé le projet de Constitution pour l'Union européenne qui par la suite a été rejeté dans deux referenda nationaux et a soulevé de nombreuses questions sur la légitimité de l'Union et son avenir. Récemment, le Conseil de l'Union Européenne a décidé d'abandonner le projet de Constitution pour l'Union européenne et a ouvert la voie vers le traité modificatif. À part la légitimité de l'Union en tant que organisation internationale ou ordre juridique international et tous les problèmes auxiliaires que la constitutionnalisation implique, ce processus est inextricablement lié au sujet très controversé de la politique des droits de l'homme. Conformément au traité constitutionnel, la Charte d'un côté et la Convention européenne des droits de l'Homme de l'autre seraient devenu parties intégrantes du système constitutionnel européen. Par contre, le nouveau traité modificatif comprendra juste un renvoi à la Charte. Néanmoins...

Political Union or space of economic coordination: the European integration project indefinability and the Treaty of Lisbon; União política ou espaço de coordenação econômica:a indefinição do projeto de integração europeu e o Tratado de Lisboa

Kegel, Patrícia Luiza; Fundação Universidade Regional de Blumenau; Amal, Mohamed
Fonte: Fundação José Arthur Boiteux Publicador: Fundação José Arthur Boiteux
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 13/09/2010 Português
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36.46%
The aim of the present study is, in the light of the challenges faced by the EU regional integration, to evaluate the general framework of reforms proposed by the Lisbon Treaty. More specifically, to analyze the effects of the institutional, economic and political dimensions on the dynamic of the reform process of integration. The results of the study show that in term of the configuration of the European regional integration process, three main omissions can be observed: democracy deficit, competences distributions between the EU and the member states, and, finally, the challenges of efficiency in term of decision making and implementation. The Lisbon Treaty represents a general framework to overcome all those limitations and to keep also a balance between federal and intergovernamental tendencies. Nevertheless the Irish No to the treaty and the skeptic among many other member-states reviewed the discussion about the concept and strategy of integration framework: just a coordination of an economic space or a political union.; http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2177-7055.2008v29n57p153O objetivo do presente estudo é, à luz dos desafios enfrentados pelo processo de integração regional da União Européia...