Página 1 dos resultados de 210 itens digitais encontrados em 0.001 segundos

Teoria da escolha pública: uma introdução crítica; Public choice theory: a critical introduction

Bernabel, Rodolpho Talaisys
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 02/07/2009 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.07%
Reconstruímos a Teoria da Escolha Pública explicitando seus pressupostos sobre a natureza do objeto, do conhecimento e dos valores e sua lógica de operação, ou seja, seu método de solução de problemas. Mostramos com essa teoria que podemos entender a política como um processo de pacificação pela troca, em vez de um processo de pacificação pelo poder. Temos então novas respostas para as perguntas fundamentais da Ciência Política: Como é possível emergir a cooperação pacífica e legítima entre indivíduos? Qual é a maneira de fazer com que diferentes interesses individuais sejam reconciliados? A Teoria sugere que a política pode ser um jogo de soma positiva, evitando deseconomias constitucionais, guiando-se pelo princípio da unanimidade. Mostraremos então os desenhos constitucionais como ambientes de interação entre indivíduos e poderemos predizer que regras engendrarão cooperação ou competição.; We do a reconstruction of the Public Choice Theory explaining their assumptions about the nature of the object, knowledge and values and logic of their operation, i.e. its method of solution of problems. We show that with this theory we can understand the politics as a process of pacification through trade-offs...

Performance status assessment in cancer patients. An inter-observer variability study.

Sørensen, J. B.; Klee, M.; Palshof, T.; Hansen, H. H.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /04/1993 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
17.07%
The ECOG Scale of Performance Status (PS) is widely used to quantify the functional status of cancer patients, and is an important factor determining prognosis in a number of malignant conditions. The PS describes the status of symptoms and functions with respect to ambulatory status and need for care. PS 0 means normal activity, PS 1 means some symptoms, but still near fully ambulatory, PS 2 means less than 50%, and PS 3 means more than 50% of daytime in bed, while PS 4 means completely bedridden. An inter-observer variability study of PS assessment has been carried out to evaluate the non-chance agreement among three oncologists rating 100 consecutive cancer patients. Total unanimity was observed in 40 cases, unanimity between two observers in 53 cases, and total disagreement in seven cases. Kappa statistics reveal the ability of the observers compared to change alone and were used to evaluate non-chance agreement. Overall Kappa was 0.44, (95% confidence limits 0.38-0.51). The Kappa for PS 0 was 0.55 (0.44-0.67), while those for PS 1, 2, 3 and four were 0.48 (0.37-0.60), 0.31 (0.19-0.42), 0.43 (0.32-0.55), and 0.33 (0.33-0.45), respectively. If one observer allocated patients to PS 0-2, then another randomly selected observed placed the patients in the same category with a probability of 0.92. For patients with PS 3-4 the probability that the same category would be chosen was 0.82. Overall...

The hip prosthesis in lateral femur fracture: current concepts and surgical technique

Giannotti, Stefano; Bottai, Vanna; Dell’Osso, Giacomo; De Paola, Gaia; Bugelli, Giulia; Guido, Giulio
Fonte: CIC Edizioni Internazionali Publicador: CIC Edizioni Internazionali
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
17.07%
The third proximal femur fractures are divided into medial and lateral ones. For medial fractures already exists unanimity of thought for the choice of treatment that involves the prosthetic replacement of the hip joint in patients over 60 without indications to the synthesis. Regarding the lateral femur fractures this unanimity does not exist yet even if the majority of surgeons practice treatment with osteosynthesis. We want to highlight if there are any types of lateral fractures associated with patient’s clinical condition in which it might be more useful to a prosthetic replacement with the aim of being able to allow a total load and earlier deambulation, reducing complications related to a possible patient immobilization.

Incomplete Social Contracts

Bolton, Patrick; Aghion, Philippe
Fonte: MIT Press Publicador: MIT Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
17.07%
There is a long normative ‘Social Contract’ tradition that attempts to characterize ex-post income inequalities that are agreeable to all ‘behind a veil of ignorance.’ This paper takes a similar normative approach to characterize social decision-making procedures. It is shown that quite generally some form of majority-voting is preferred to unanimity ‘behind a veil of ignorance’ whenever society faces deadweight costs in making compensating transfers. Deviations from unanimity (or ex-post Pareto optimality) are exante efficient to the extent that they economize on costly compensating transfers. Put another way, the optimal decision rule trades off the benefits of minority protection and those from greater flexibility.; Economics

Unanimity and Disagreement on the Supreme Court

Sunstein, Cass Robert
Fonte: Cornell Law Review Publicador: Cornell Law Review
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.07%
In 2013, the Supreme Court showed an unusually high rate of unanimous decisions – the highest, in fact, since 1940. This increase in unanimity, long favored by Chief Justice John Roberts, places a spotlight on an insufficiently appreciated fact: In 1941, the Supreme Court experienced a radical transformation. Almost immediately, it changed from a court that had operated by consensus, with very few separate opinions, into something closer to nine separate law offices, with a large number of dissenting opinions and concurrences, and with a significant rate of 5-4 divisions. Remarkably, the patterns established in the early 1800s continued until 1941, and the patterns established in the early 1940s have persisted to the present day. The transformation of 1941 appears to be attributable, in significant part, to the leadership style of Chief Justice Harlan Fiske Stone, who had no aversion to separate opinions and split decisions, and who was a frequent dissenter himself. The transformation offers general lessons not only about consensus and dissent within courts, but also about broader relationships among leaders, personnel, path dependence, prevailing norms, and the Court’s future. With respect to group behavior, it suggests the possibility of multiple equilibria: With small differences in leadership style and prevailing norms...

A Bayesian Model of Voting in Juries

Martinelli, Cesar ; Duggan, John
Fonte: University of Rochester. Publicador: University of Rochester.
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
17.37%
We take a game-theoretic approach to the analysis of juries by modelling voting as a game of incomplete information. Rather than the usual assumption of two possible signals (one indicating guilt, the other innocence), we allow jurors to perceive a full spectrum of signals. We offer three main results. First, given any voting rule requiring a fixed fraction of votes to convict, we characterize the unique symmetric equilibrium of the game. Second, we obtain a condition under which unanimity rule exhibits a bias toward convicting the innocent. Third, we prove a "jury theorem" for the continuous signal model: as the size of the jury increases, the probability of making a mistaken judgement goes to zero for every voting rule, except unanimity rule; for unanimity rule, the probability of a mistake is bounded strictly above zero.

The World Trade Organization, competition policy, and developing countries: A cross -country examination of domestic policy actions

Parakkal, Raju
Fonte: FIU Digital Commons Publicador: FIU Digital Commons
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
17.07%
This dissertation addresses the following research question: in a particular policy area, why do countries that display unanimity in their international policy behavior diverge from each other in their domestic policy actions? I address this question in the context of the divergent domestic competition policy actions undertaken by developing countries during the period 1996-2007, after these countries had quite conspicuously displayed near-unanimity in opposing this policy measure at the World Trade Organization (WTO). This divergence is puzzling because (a) it does not align with their near-unanimous behavior at the WTO over competition policy and (b) it is at variance with the objectives of their international opposition to this policy at the WTO. Using an interdisciplinary approach, this dissertation examines the factors responsible for this divergence in the domestic competition policy actions of developing countries. ^ The theoretical structure employed in this study is the classic second-image-reversed framework in international relations theory that focuses on the domestic developments in various countries following an international development. Methodologically, I employ both quantitative and qualitative methods of analysis to ascertain the nature of the relationship between the dependent variable and the eight explanatory variables that were identified from existing literature. The data on some of the key variables used in this dissertation was uniquely created over a multi-year period through extensive online research and represents the most comprehensive and updated dataset currently available. ^ The quantitative results obtained from logistic regression using data on 131 countries point toward the significant role played by international organizations in engineering change in this policy area in developing countries. The qualitative analysis consisting of three country case studies illuminate the channels of influence of the explanatory variables and highlight the role of domestic-level factors in these three carefully selected countries. After integrating the findings from the quantitative and qualitative analyses...

Revisiting individual choices in group settings: The long and winding (less traveled) road?

Quester, P.; Steyer, A.
Fonte: Univ Chicago Press Publicador: Univ Chicago Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2010 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
17.07%
This study revisits Ariely and Levav’s previous findings in relation to consumers’ need for variety when ordering (food or beverages) in a group setting. We examine how group opinion and unanimity can explain consumers’ individual choice in a group setting. We hypothesize that the relationship between individual choice and group opinion is nonmonotonic as it is moderated by the degree of unanimity around an alternative. We demonstrate this effect in two empirical studies. We show that choice patterns are curvilinear, with previous findings accurately reflecting only specific sections of the overall pattern of individual choices in a group setting.; Pascale Quester and Alexandre Steyer

Small States – Big Negotiations Decision-Making Rules and Small State Influence in EU Treaty Negotiations

LEHTONEN, Tiia
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf; digital
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.55%
This study examines the impact of the decision-making rules, procedures and practices of the European Union on the ability of small Member States to influence Treaty negotiation outcomes, and assesses the causality of this influence in Treaty-revision. Within Treatymaking processes, actor influence is here expected to vary according to the institutional preconditions, and small states are presumed to benefit from particular type of decisionmaking rules to the disadvantage of others. The fundamental aim of the study is therefore to investigate the conditions under which small state influence increases in European Union Treaty-negotiations. To explain this puzzle, a distinction is made between two types of Treaty-making processes, those of the Intergovernmental Conferences and the Convention, which allows for subsequent comparisons between the decision-making rules of unanimity and restricted consensus. In order to empirically test the underlying hypotheses, explicit units of observation are chosen from the IGCs of Amsterdam, Nice and 2003-04, and the Convention on the Future of the EU. In-depth comparisons are made between four small Member States – Belgium, Denmark, Finland and Ireland – and their de facto influence is process-traced through three substantial issues of the institutional reform: the composition of the Commission...

Inter- and intra-observer variation in silicosis radiology.; Variação inter e intra-observador na radiologia da silicose.

Marques, J A; de Macedo, V; Coelho, M; Cabral, J; de Castro, L P; Vaz, A A; Pinheiro, L G; Alves, J
Fonte: Ordem dos Médicos Publicador: Ordem dos Médicos
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; article; article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 30/12/1989 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
17.07%
The radiologic criteria are important for the diagnosis of silicosis and must be objective. Initial radiologic changes are nonspecific and sometimes misinterpreted. We asked six Pulmonologists with distinct training in pulmonary disease to interpret 112 chest films according to a simple established protocol. No further information was given. One year later, all the observers analysed the same films over again. Then, we compared the results among the observers and between the two analysis made by the same individual. In 34 cases (30%) there was unanimity in asserting or denying the presence of micronodules and in 74 cases (66%) there was an agreement among the three more experienced observers. The intraobserver variability ranged from 8% to 40% and it was more important in the least trained observers. We concluded that when interpreting early radiologic changes in silicosis inter and intraobserver variability was elevated, more objectivity was achieved by the observers with more experience in epidemiologic studies and that we must be careful in interpreting results of epidemiologic studies concerning this matter.; The radiologic criteria are important for the diagnosis of silicosis and must be objective. Initial radiologic changes are nonspecific and sometimes misinterpreted. We asked six Pulmonologists with distinct training in pulmonary disease to interpret 112 chest films according to a simple established protocol. No further information was given. One year later...

Shaken Baby Syndrome: fact or fiction in Portugal?.; Síndrome do Shaken Baby: realidade ou ficção em Portugal?

Pereira, Sandra; Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade do Porto, Porto, Portugal.; Magalhães, Teresa
Fonte: Ordem dos Médicos Publicador: Ordem dos Médicos
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; article; article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 29/12/2011 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
17.07%
Shaken Baby Syndrome (SBS) is an unquestionable and current worldwide problem, as it is considered one of the most severe forms of child abuse, with significant morbidity and mortality among children under one year of age. In Portugal the actual incidence of SBS is still unknown and probably undervalued and underdiagnosed, but international literature reports incidences between 14 and 40.5 per 100.000 children a year in several different countries. It is classically considered SBS to consist of shaking a child repeatedly and violently, inducing a cervical whiplash like movement. Due to the child's development stage, this external force of acceleration/deceleration acting on the head and cervical musculature may cause several lesions, specially subdural, subarachnoid and retinal hemorrhage, and sometimes even bone fractures. However, there is no unanimity concerning this trauma mechanism, especially on the requirement of direct trauma to the head leading to intracranial lesions, since a satisfactory biomechanical model to test it is still lacking. Its diagnosis is controversial, difficult and has important legal and family implications, always adding an emotional element to it, susceptible of withholding the necessary objectivity. In order to substantiate a strong suspicion it is thus mandatory to correlate the clinical history...

Global Warming: the Sacrificial Temptation

Galam, Serge
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 10/03/2008 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
17.07%
The claimed unanimity of the scientific community about the human culpability for global warming is questioned. Up today there exists no scientific proof of human culpability. It is not the number of authors of a paper, which validates its scientific content. The use of probability to assert the degree of certainty with respect the global warming problem is shown to be misleading. The debate about global warming has taken on emotional tones driven by passion and irrationality while it should be a scientific debate. The degree of hostility used to mull any dissonance voice demonstrates that the current debate has acquired a quasi-religious nature. Scientists are behaving as priests in their will "to save the planet". We are facing a dangerous social phenomenon, which must be addressed from the social point of view. The current unanimity of citizens, scientists, journalists, intellectuals and politicians is intrinsically worrying. The calls to sacrifice our way of life to calm down the upset nature is an emotional ancestral reminiscence of archaic fears, which should be analyzed as such.; Comment: 14 pages, no figure

Unanimity Rule on networks

Lambiotte, Renaud; Thurner, Stefan; Hanel, Rudolf
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 04/12/2006 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.07%
We introduce a model for innovation-, evolution- and opinion dynamics whose spreading is dictated by unanimity rules, i.e. a node will change its (binary) state only if all of its neighbours have the same corresponding state. It is shown that a transition takes place depending on the initial condition of the problem. In particular, a critical number of initially activated nodes is needed so that the whole system gets activated in the long-time limit. The influence of the degree distribution of the nodes is naturally taken into account. For simple network topologies we solve the model analytically, the cases of random, small-world and scale-free are studied in detail.; Comment: 7 pages 4 figs

Arrow's Impossibility Theorem Without Unanimity

Mossel, Elchanan
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.07%
Arrow's Impossibility Theorem states that any constitution which satisfies Transitivity, Independence of Irrelevant Alternatives (IIA) and Unanimity is a dictatorship. Wilson derived properties of constitutions satisfying Transitivity and IIA for unrestricted domains where ties are allowed. In this paper we consider the case where only strict preferences are allowed. In this case we derive a new short proof of Arrow theorem and further obtain a new and complete characterization of all functions satisfying Transitivity and IIA.; Comment: Most of the new results in the Arxiv sumbission now appear in a follow up paper on quantitative Arrow's theorem

The existence of a near-unanimity function is decidable

Zhuk, Dmitriy
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 08/08/2011 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.07%
We prove that the following problem is decidable: given a finite set of relations, decide whether this set admits a near-unanimity function.; Comment: 31 pages, 5 figures

Solution of the Unanimity Rule on exponential, uniform and scalefree networks: A simple model for biodiversity collapse in foodwebs

Hanel, Rudolf; Thurner, Stefan
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 28/06/2007 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.07%
We solve the Unanimity Rule on networks with exponential, uniform and scalefree degree distributions. In particular we arrive at equations relating the asymptotic number of nodes in one of two states to the initial fraction of nodes in this state. The solutions for exponential and uniform networks are exact, the approximation for the scalefree case is in perfect agreement with simulation results. We use these solutions to provide a theoretical understanding for experimental data on biodiversity loss in foodwebs, which is available for the three network types discussed. The model allows in principle to estimate the critical value of species that have to be removed from the system to induce its complete collapse.; Comment: 4 pages, 3 figs

Generating clones with conservative near-unanimity operation

Greiner, Johannes
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 27/03/2015 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.07%
Due to the Baker-Pixley theorem we know that every clone over a finite domain $A$ containing a near-unanimity operation $g$ is finitely generated. Therefore there exists an integer $k$ such that the clone is generated by its $k$-ary part. In this paper we are interested in the size of $k$ for a fixed $A$ and fixed arity of a conservative $g$. We obtain lower bounds for all arities and they turn out to be sharp for arity three.

Key (critical) relations preserved by a weak near-unanimity function

Zhuk, Dmitriy
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 19/01/2015 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.07%
In the paper we introduce a notion of a key relation, which is similar to the notion of a critical relation introduced by Keith A.Kearnes and \'Agnes Szendrei. All clones on finite sets can be defined by only key relations. In addition there is a nice description of all key relations on 2 elements. These are exactly the relations that can be defined as a disjunction of linear equations. In the paper we show that, in general key relations do not have such a nice description. Nevertheless, we obtain a nice characterization of all key relations preserved by a weak near-unanimity function. This characterization is presented in the paper.

Strategic Voting in a Jury Trial with Plea Bargaining

Lee, SangMok
Fonte: California Institute of Technology Publicador: California Institute of Technology
Tipo: Report or Paper; PeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em /06/2010 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
17.67%
We study the criminal court process focusing on the interaction between plea bargaining and jury trials. We model plea bargaining such that a prosecutor makes a take-it-or-leave-it offer and a defendant, who is either guilty or innocent, pleads either guilty or not guilty. If the defendant pleads not guilty, the case goes to a jury trial, which follows a strategic voting model. Plea bargaining produces a bias in which the defendant is less likely to be guilty if the case goes to trial, which in turn alters the jurors’ voting behavior. Conversely, anticipated jury trial outcomes affect a prosecutor and a defendant while they participate in a plea bargain. We find that the equilibrium behavior in a court with plea bargaining and a jury trial, resembles the equilibrium behavior in the separate jury model, though jurors may act as if they echo the prosecutor’s preference against convicting the innocent and acquitting the guilty. We also compare two voting paradigms, unanimity and non-unanimity. The unanimity rule is inferior to non-unanimity because the ex-ante punishment delivered to the innocent or undelivered to the guilty by unanimity rule does not vanish as the size of jury gets large.

Unanimity and dialogue: argumentative purpose of late-antique synodical proceedings and hagiographies; Narrativas de unanimidade e diálogo em protocolos sinodais e hagiografias tardo-antigas

Frenkel, Luise Marion
Fonte: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Filosofia, Letras e Ciências Humanas Publicador: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Filosofia, Letras e Ciências Humanas
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; Avaliado pelos pares Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 27/06/2013 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.07%
I analyse summonses mentioned in letters and proceedings circulated by the majoritarian faction of the Christian leaders gathered in Ephesus in A.D. 431, highlighting its layers of meaning and the aspects of verbal and non-verbal communication to which they refer. I contrast them with the mutual accusations and sanctions, mentioned in letters and pamphlets by imperial officials and faction leaders, which corroborate or weaken the representation of consensus by means of written documents. Thus, I problematise the narrative which purports to meet the imperial injunctions of discussions about religious issues relying on the pattern set at Nicaea, performed in unanimity and dialogue, and secured imperial endorsement of the decisions. This literary and historical analysis of the argumentative purpose of late-antique synodical proceedings corroborates that also in the more extensively documented meetings of ecclesiastic leaders, the representation of the events remains partial, and they cannot be taken as typical representatives of a wider phenomenon. Analysing the reliability of the reports of popular and monastic demonstrations in Constantinople, especially the references to non-verbal communication, contributes to the study of the early circulation of synodical acts.; Analiso cenas de convocação nas cartas e protocolos circulados pela facção majoritária dos líderes cristãos reunidos em Éfeso em 431 d.C. atentando sobretudo à obliquidade das narrativas que contêm e aos aspectos verbais e não verbais a que se referem. Contrasto-as com as acusações e sanções mútuas...