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O welfare state e a integração econômica : trajetórias, mudanças e resiliências

Hammoud, Ricardo Hussein Nahra
Fonte: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul Publicador: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Português
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36.56%
O presente estudo tenta compreender as causas das trajetórias divergentes de três diferentes modelos de Welfare State: o liberal, o conservador/corporativista e o social-democrata. Para tanto são selecionados três países que representam tipos ideais destes modelos: Reino Unido, França e Suécia, respectivamente. São utilizadas as ferramentas do institucionalismo com o objetivo de estabelecer uma relação entre o enraizamento dos valores em cada sociedade selecionada e suas instituições formais. As trajetórias são analisadas no contexto de uma crescente integração econômica e da pressão da União Europeia para a convergência dos modelos de proteção social. Pode-se perceber a partir da pesquisa que alguns modelos de Welfare State são mais resilientes que outros e que as trajetórias são dependentes das trajetórias passadas (path dependency). Os modelos e suas transformações refletem os valores socio-culturais dos países selecionados, e essa relação não determinística faz a convergência das políticas sociais, obejetivo da União Europeia, difícil e improvável de ser realizada no curto/médio prazo. Para a análise dos valores culturais são usadas as respostas dos questionários da World Values Survey. A partir destes dados...

Latin America - Determinants of Regional Welfare Disparities within Latin American Countries : Synthesis

Skoufias, Emmanuel; Lopez-Acevedo, Gladys
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Português
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36.36%
This study analyzes the complicated and dynamic nature of welfare differences across space. The objectives are two-fold. First, the study seeks to provide a methodological framework useful for investigating the determinants of the observed differences in the standards of living between two regions at a given point in time. Second, it aims to provide empirical evidence on regional welfare differences to inform the policy debate surrounding regional inequalities within countries. Chapter two sets the stage by presenting the poverty profiles within and between regions in each of the eight countries in study. Chapter three reviews the methodology, based on the Oaxaca-Blinder (1973) decomposition method used to asses the relative size of the concentration and geography effect in welfare differences across regions/areas. Chapter four reports the findings from various comparisons conducted between urban and rural areas within regions, and urban vs. urban (or rural vs. rural) areas between regions. Chapter five focuses on the role of internal migration within Latin America (LAC) countries. Chapter six summarizes the available empirical evidence regarding the poverty and welfare impacts of the two most distinct types interventions associated with the concentration and the geography views: conditional cash transfers; and territorial development strategies. Chapter seven summarizes findings and discusses some of their main policy implications.

Latin America - Determinants of Regional Welfare Disparities within Latin American Countries : Country Case Studies

Skoufias, Emmanuel; Lopez-Acevedo, Gladys
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.35%
This study analyzes the complicated and dynamic nature of welfare differences across space. The objectives are two-fold. First, the study seeks to provide a methodological framework useful for investigating the determinants of the observed differences in the standards of living between two regions at a given point in time. Second, it aims to provide empirical evidence on regional welfare differences to inform the policy debate surrounding regional inequalities within countries. Chapter two sets the stage by presenting the poverty profiles within and between regions in each of the eight countries in study. Chapter three reviews the methodology, based on the Oaxaca-Blinder (1973) decomposition method used to asses the relative size of the concentration and geography effect in welfare differences across regions/areas. Chapter four reports the findings from various comparisons conducted between urban and rural areas within regions, and urban vs. urban (or rural vs. rural) areas between regions. Chapter five focuses on the role of internal migration within Latin America (LAC) countries. Chapter six summarizes the available empirical evidence regarding the poverty and welfare impacts of the two most distinct types interventions associated with the concentration and the geography views: conditional cash transfers; and territorial development strategies. Chapter seven summarizes findings and discusses some of their main policy implications.

Internal Migration in Ghana : Determinants and Welfare Impacts

Ackah, Charles; Medvedev, Denis
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Português
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36.43%
Using a recently compiled dataset on migration and remittances in Ghana, this paper estimates the determinants of an individual s likelihood to be an internal migrant and the relationship between internal migration and welfare. The analysis finds that the likelihood to migrate is determined by a combination of individual (pull) and community-level (push) characteristics. The probability of migration is higher for younger and more educated individuals, but communities with higher levels of literacy, higher rates of subsidized medical care, and better access to water and sanitation are less likely to produce migrants. The analysis finds that households with migrants tend to be better off than similar households without migrants, even after controlling for the fact that households with migrants are a non-random sample of Ghanaians. However, the positive relationship is only true for households with at least one migrant in urban areas; the welfare of households with migrants exclusively in rural areas is no different from households without any migrants.

The Nature and Dynamics of Poverty Determinants in Burkina Faso in the 1990s

Fofack, Hippolyte
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, D.C. Publicador: World Bank, Washington, D.C.
Português
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26.66%
The author investigates the determinants and dynamics of poverty during the five-year growth period that followed the 1994 CFA franc devaluation in Burkina Faso. Results show that the nature and dynamics of poverty determinants are influenced by the spatial location of households and that the post-devaluation growth period did not significantly alter the pattern of poverty determinants. The most significant determinants of poverty over the growth period include the burden of age dependency, human and physical assets, household amenities, and spatial location. Though consistently significant at the national level, the direction of association between these determinants and welfare depends on their nature. While the burden of age dependency is consistently negatively associated with welfare, asset ownership is positively associated. The probability of being poor declines with increasing share of household assets and increases with the burden of age dependency. There are some variations at the regional level, however...

Imputed Welfare Estimates in Regression Analysis

Elbers, Chris; Lanjouw, Jean O.; Lanjouw, Peter
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, D.C. Publicador: World Bank, Washington, D.C.
Português
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36.25%
The authors discuss the use of imputed data in regression analysis, in particular the use of highly disaggregated welfare indicators (from so-called "poverty maps"). They show that such indicators can be used both as explanatory variables on the right-hand side and as the phenomenon to explain on the left-hand side. The authors try out practical ways of adjusting standard errors of the regression coefficients to reflect the error introduced by using imputed, rather than actual, welfare indicators. These are illustrated by regression experiments based on data from Ecuador. For regressions with imputed variables on the left-hand side, the authors argue that essentially the same aggregate relationships would be found with either actual or imputed variables. They address the methodological question of how to interpret aggregate relationships found in such regressions.

Reproducing exclusion or inclusion? Implications for the wellbeing of Indigenous Australian children

Daly, A; Smith, Diane E
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Working/Technical Paper Formato: 542327 bytes; 355 bytes; application/pdf; application/octet-stream
Português
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46.29%
This paper is exploratory. It examines the analytic usefulness and practical implications of the concepts of ‘exclusion’ and ‘inclusion’ in a cross-cultural context. The focus is on the socioeconomic wellbeing of Indigenous children, in the context of the families and households in which they live. First, the current dimensions and trends of Indigenous children’s socioeconomic status are analysed using key indicators from the 2001 Census. Interpretive depth is given to that quantitative analysis by reference to the long-term ethnographic fieldwork and survey research conducted by the authors with Indigenous families in different communities. The paper demonstrates that, in terms of a ‘deficit model’ which emphasises exclusion, Indigenous children continue to be among the most socioeconomically disadvantaged children in Australia. The paper then proceeds to consider an alternative perspective which focuses on an ‘asset model’, emphasising Indigenous children’s inclusion and participation within their own culturally-based family, social and economic systems. Again, reference is made to qualitative and survey information. The paper concludes by exploring the implications for children of exclusion from one sphere of life (i.e. the mainstream economy)...

The realities of Indigenous adult literacy acquisition and practice: implications for capacity development in remote communities

Kral, Inge; Schwab, Robert G.
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Working/Technical Paper Formato: 2553363 bytes; 355 bytes; application/pdf; application/octet-stream
Português
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46.29%
The future sustainability of remote communities is being questioned with increasing frequency. The current state of welfare dependency is fragile. Significant work is being undertaken to develop the capacity of Indigenous communities to govern their own services and adult literacy is clearly seen as a major factor in the participation of Indigenous people in community development and the capacity building processes. Yet little research on adult literacy practices and competence in remote Indigenous communities has taken place in Australia. This paper reports on findings from a collaborative study involving two remote Indigenous communities in the Northern Territory, one in the Top End and the other in the Central Desert. The project, involving a collaboration between the Centre for Aboriginal Economic Policy Research and Central Australian Remote Health Development Services, used an ethnographic approach, drawing on ideas developed internationally by anthropologists and linguists associated with the New Literacy Studies to explore the social context of literacy acquisition and use in these communities. In this paper we analyse the findings and explore the implications for training, employment and capacity development in remote Indigenous communities.; no

Care for the Elderly in Spain during Democracy. New social risks, welfare modernisation and territorial politics

RODRIGUEZ GARCIA, Carla
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 1764827 bytes; application/pdf; digital
Português
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36.33%
This thesis highlights the importance of new social risks, welfare modernisation, and territorial changes on current welfare states. The interaction of these factors, which I have decided to label as “Tris Syndrome”, is fundamental pillar of this analysis. In this respect, this work investigates how the answer to one of these new risks namely, care for the elderly, has evolved in Spain within the context of the evolution of the Spanish welfare state and noteworthy transformations of the territorial structure of the country since the beginning of the democratic period (mid-70’s) to present. More precisely, this work poses the following questions: What factors have motivated change in the Spanish system of social services for the elderly, in the face of the apparent lack of mobilisation or demand from risk-bearers? What spurred the system to undertake radical reform following the authoritarian downturn, despite the fact that it is only very recently that care for the elderly has started to be defined as a challenge, and has taken a visible, but though timid, place on the political agenda? What have been the factors that have given voice to this “silent” demand? Why, despite the reforms undertaken, does the Spanish system of social (care) services for the elderly show comparatively little development in comparison with other countries and other areas of the Spanish welfare state? In relation to these issues...

Labor Migration and Welfare in the Kyrgyz Republic (2008-2013)

World Bank Group
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Report; Economic & Sector Work :: Other Poverty Study; Economic & Sector Work
Português
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36.47%
This paper examines the impact of labor migration from a welfare and social development perspective. Rather than focusing on regulatory and legal aspects determining migration, this note centers on the impacts of migration on the domestic welfare of households in the Kyrgyz Republic. The profiling of labor migration and identification of knowledge gaps are used to inform the development of strategies for more effective and sustainable welfare impacts from labor migration and remittances.

Disparate housewives: lone parents, work and welfare reform

Broyd, Benjamin
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Relatório
Português
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46.65%
Over the last twenty years societal change in western countries, and indeed Australia, has been characterised by two prominent trends: 1. A significant growth in the sole parent family unit as a proportion of total families. This social unit, due to its untraditional characteristics, comes into conflict with the traditional structure of society and is therefore more prone to exclusion, disadvantage and poverty. 2. A significant increase in the cost of the welfare state and the rate of welfare dependency. The convergence of these two problems has resulted in a critical conundrum for the modem state: a rising level of sole parent families dependent on welfare at an unsustainable cost to the state. Policy discourse has recognised and articulated solutions to this problem since the late 1980 ' s. In the last decade many western countries have enacted reforms of their social policy towards sole parents with the rationale of transferring dependency from the welfare state to the labour market. Australia's own attempt at such reform manifested in some minor changes to the payment for lone parents in 2000 and a more comprehensive overhaul in the 2005-06 budget. The case for reform of the parenting payment is convincing. In its current form welfare policy towards lone parents is incongruent with the dominant values and structure of society. This undermines the legitimacy of the payment and marginalises its recipients. The system also fails its recipients. Firstly by perpetuating welfare dependency which leads to deleterious consequences for the life chances and living standards of both lone parents and their children and secondly by failing to assist recipients in achieving their goal of workforce participation. It is necessary therefore to reform the payment so its primary goal is workforce participation. Workforce participation is an efficient means of improving individuals socio-economic circumstances and well being. In order to promote and achieve this ends policy needs to focus on attenuating the barriers faced by lone parents when they attempt to enter the workforce. Recipients of the lone parent payment have demonstrated the most positive attitude towards workforce participation. Paradoxically...

Accommodation and assimilation: comparing the education and employment policies of Indigenous Australians and those with disability.

Sammon, Sean
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Relatório
Português
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26.53%
Indigenous Australians and those with disability are two of Australia's largest minorities. There are 757,000 Australian's receiving the disability support pension and the vast majority of indigenous Australian's receive some form of income support from the government. This report has selected three of the most important policy areas to explore; education, employment and welfare dependency. Australia has ratified both the UN Declaration of the Rights of Indigenous Peoples and the Declaration of the Rights of Persons with Disability and this is the basis for the policy links discussed in this report. While those with Disability are able to appeal to the UN if all other avenues have been exhausted indigenous Australians are not. The UN Declaration of the Rights of Indigenous has been 'ratified' yet has no legal standing for fear of land rights issues arising and compensation claims developing as a result of the stolen generation. The education system of those with disability and indigenous Australians is the most important policy area. Both are under the control of state governments but need further funding and support from the Federal government. It is recommended that a higher level of accountability is required if there is to be development in this area. It is required at all levels...

The transition from welfare to work: a qualitative study based on four remote Indigenous communities in the Northern Territory

Bridier, Eleonore
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Relatório
Português
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56.59%
This research report utilises debate surrounding the future of the Community Development and Employment Projects (CDEP) scheme to unravel the concept of 'welfare dependency,' its many definitions, and thus policy implications for remote Indigenous communities in the Northern Territory. It underscores the importance of acknowledging socio-cultural features of life in these communities in order for a policy-setting that stresses economic integration to be effective but also properly balanced in its emphasis. The political reality is of a growing and frustrated working age population in relation to traditional governance structures, and eventual, overall limits and inappropriateness of direct government transfers, which includes CDEP. Moving these communities towards more economic autonomy must begin at some point and the abolition and consequent reforms to CDEP reflect these imperatives for change. However, socio-cultural considerations suggest limits to punitive measures, when the people targeted by such policy are highly embedded in a domestic moral economy that both levels consumer dependency and private gain, while conferring a great deal of individual autonomy for action. Moreover, when different socio-cultural forms of economic engagement collide...

Is welfare dependency 'welfare poison'? An assessment of Noel Pearson's proposals for Aboriginal welfare reform

Martin, D. F
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Working/Technical Paper Formato: 227768 bytes; application/pdf
Português
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56.57%
Aboriginal lawyer, activist and social commentator Noel Pearson has recently argued that the current mode of delivery of welfare services to Aboriginal people is deeply antithetical to their interests and wellbeing. Central to his scheme for policy change and improved welfare outcomes are two core propositions. The first is that the 'passive welfare' policies instituted in Aboriginal communities over the past three decades, with no demands for reciprocity and responsibility on the part of welfare recipients, have promoted detrimental relations of passivity and dependence which are now deeply embedded within Aboriginal societies.

Pearson's second key proposition is that addressing the dysfunctional consequences of the welfare system for Aboriginal people will require structural change. In particular, new institutions for Aboriginal governance, both formal and informal, will need to be developed. It is through reform of the existing institutional arrangements between government and Aboriginal communities, and through these formal and informal Aboriginal institutions, Pearson argues, that the principles of reciprocity and individual responsibility necessary to leach the 'poison' from welfare resources can be instituted and implemented.

Pearson's arguments should be seen as a welcome and politically innovative contribution to a policy debate of fundamental importance. The status quo in welfare policy...

Sources of Welfare Disparities Across and Within Regions of Brazil : Evidence from the 2002-03 Household Budget Survey

Skoufias, Emmanuel; Katayama, Roy
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
Português
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36.35%
Brazil's inequalities in welfare and poverty across and within regions can be accounted for by differences in household attributes and returns to those attributes. This paper uses Oaxaca-Blinder decompositions at the mean as well as at different quantiles of welfare distributions on regionally representative household survey data (2002-03 Household Budget Survey). The analysis finds that household attributes account for most of the welfare differences between urban and rural areas within regions. However, comparing the lagging Northeast region with the leading Southeast region, differences in returns to attributes account for a large part of the welfare disparities, in particular in metropolitan areas, supporting the presence of agglomeration effects in booming areas.

Kosovo : Poverty assessment, Volume 1. Accelerating Inclusive Growth to Reduce Widespread Poverty; Vleresimi i varferise ne Kosove Procena siromastva na Kosovu

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Poverty Assessment; Economic & Sector Work
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.47%
Poverty in Kosovo is widespread and has remained persistent in the first half of this decade. The evidence suggests that poverty is higher among those who live in families that are large, have many unemployed members, and have low education levels. The poor are also geographically concentrated in rural areas and a few regions. The main message of this report is that the slow and volatile growth was doubly disadvantageous. The first disadvantage was that it did not enable a significant fraction of the population to earn their way out of poverty. The second disadvantage was that by constraining the government's revenue base, it made it difficult for many families to receive adequate public protection against shocks. Therefore, to improve welfare in the future, the report recommends a focus on generating high and sustainable growth by improving urban services and infrastructure and addressing inequities in the access to secondary and higher education for the poorest population transitioning out of over-reliance on migration...

Educational, Economic Welfare and Subjective Well-Being in Afghanistan

Auturupane, Harsha; Gunatilake, Ramani; Shojo, Mari; Ebenezer, Roshini
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Working Paper; Publications & Research
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.25%
Education is universally recognized as one of the key determinants of socio-economic security and welfare. The link between education and increased individual earnings has been widely documented: there is a large body of cross-country evidence that education enhances the employability, productivity and income earning capacity of individuals. The impact of educational attainment on these various socio-economic indicators has been shown to vary by region, sub-region, gender, age, by income levels, and other variables. In this paper, we focus on the socio-economic impact of educational attainment in Afghanistan. Afghanistan presents a fairly unique context for examining the association between education and the socio-economic variable discussed above. It is a conflict-affected country, with strong and rich cultural and religious traditions. It also has some of the worst developmental indicators and in the world. Using data from the National Risk and Vulnerability Assessment (NRVA) survey of 2007/08, authors investigate the extent to which the educational attainment of men and women is associated with greater economic welfare and less likelihood of being poor. The analysis is divided into four parts: part one looks education and other factors associated with household economic welfare and the probability of being poor; part two focuses on the education and other factors associated with women's participation in the labor force; part three looks at the association of mother's education with health-related outcomes of children; and part four looks at the association between educational attainment of girls and women...

Medicaid, Welfare Dependency, and Work: Is There a Causal Link?

Moffitt, Robert; Wolfe, Barbara L.
Fonte: CENTERS for MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES Publicador: CENTERS for MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //1993 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.29%
Medicaid exerts a strong “pull” on potential welfare recipients, increasing the probability that a number of single mothers will apply for and stay on welfare in order to be covered by Medicaid. However, the availability of private health insurance coverage exerts a strong positive influence on women's decisions to work and a strong negative effect on welfare participation rates. If private insurance coverage were as comprehensive as Medicaid and readily available at all jobs, its impact on promoting work would be substantially greater than is the impact of Medicaid in promoting the use of welfare.

Substance abuse and the course of welfare dependency.

Schmidt, L; Weisner, C; Wiley, J
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /11/1998 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.65%
OBJECTIVES: New provisions in welfare reform target recipients with addictions, even though there is limited research on how substance abuse affects people's experiences on welfare. This prospective study examined substance abuse as a determinant of subsequent welfare dependency. METHODS: Representative samples of clients on Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) and general assistance in a California county were interviewed while applying for services in 1989 and were reinterviewed in 1995. RESULTS: Among AFDC recipients, substance abuse was not a significant determinant of long welfare stays, repeat welfare use, or the total time a person remained on welfare during the 6-year period. However, substance abuse was a strong predictor of repeat welfare use among general assistance recipients. CONCLUSIONS: Alcohol and drug problems have played dramatically different roles in welfare dependency within the AFDC and general assistance populations. Under welfare reform, local general assistance programs will be the final safety net for recipients removed from federal entitlement programs. These programs will probably be confronted with clients with more complex disabilities related to addiction, as well as with greater family needs for cash assistance.

European study of long-term care expenditure: investigating the sensitivity of projections of future long-term care expenditure in Germany, Spain, Italy and the United Kingdom to changes in assumptions about demography, dependency, informal care, formal care and unit costs

Comas-Herrera, Adelina; Costa-i-Font, Joan; Gori, Cristiano; di Maio, Alessandra; Patxot, Concepció; Pickard, Linda; Pozzi, Alessandro; Rothgang, Heinz; Wittenberg, Raphael
Fonte: PSSRU Publicador: PSSRU
Tipo: Monograph; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em /02/2003 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.12%
This European study of long-term care expenditure investigates the key factors that are likely to affect the future expenditure on long-term care services in Germany, Spain, Italy and the United Kingdom. The approach involves investigating how sensitive long-term care projections are to assumptions made about future trends in different factors, using comparable projection models. The main factors investigated in this study include demography changes, trends in functional dependency (defined as the ability to perform activities of daily living), future availability of informal care, the structure of formal care services and patterns of provision, and the future unit costs of services.