Página 13 dos resultados de 48523 itens digitais encontrados em 0.029 segundos

"Hideous architecture" : mimicry, feint and resistance in turn of the century southeastern Nigerian building; Mimicry, feint and resistance in turn of the century southeastern Nigerian building

Okoye, Ikemefuna Stanley Ifejika
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 3 v. (730 leaves); 67866368 bytes; 67866124 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.37%
This dissertation reconstructs the histories of some exceptional, hitherto unstudied buildings, erected in southeastern Nigeria between 1889 and 1939; they are part of a larger group, dispersed over the African Atlantic coast and 'interior'. To architectural scholarship, these kinds of building have seemed unfathomable , if they emerge at all from invisibility (and thus from being unamenable to study). Typically, they are viewed through a lens which distorts them in one of two mutually complementary ways; one identifies some of them with an extended European architecture. The other consigns the rest a characteristic resistance to change, and situates them within an unhistoricized traditional world. These frames emerge from how the academy views non- western society and from local African representations and feints; both their architecture historical frames tend, then, to frustrate attempts to flee their fields of vision for more clarified accounts. The buildings in this study, and the larger class to which they belong, thus resist an adequately descriptive, coherent, historicized interpretation. Far more than is imagined, textual witness is shown to be available, by 1890, for constructing a part-documentary history that challenges Europeanizing historiographic frames. Moreover oral narratives garnered from the buildings' communities (biographies of builders and of their patrons for whom architecture seems well developed as a form of representation) are founded as this history's necessary and equal complement. Thus...

Modernism and professionalism in American architecture, 1919-1933

Bentel, Paul.
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 2 v. (615 p.); 55290125 bytes; 55289882 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.37%
This dissertation examines the dominant conventions of architectural practice in the United States between 1919 and 1933. It proceeds from two assumptions: first, that by the 1900s, both the American Institute of Architects (AlA) and the numerous professional journals available to architects across the country solidified the profession nationally and yielded a coherent field within which practitioners could debate the content of their professional service; second, that within the context of its national discourse, the architecture profession drew inspiration for its effort to identify a social function for itself from the White City Movement which forged a link between the architect and a national political, industrial and cultural leadership drawn together by American Progressivism. The study focuses on the period following the demise of the White City Movement during which American architects cast off their allegiance to its traditional aesthetic formulae but retained the aspiration to associate themselves and their work with prevailing trends in a national political and social milieu. It demonstrates that in their efforts to redefine the terms of their professional service, American architects invoked the popular terminology of Scientific Management...

Beyond analysis and representation in CAD : a new computational approach to design education; Beyond analysis and representation in computer-aided design

Celani, Maria Gabriela Caffarena
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 202 p.; 43114181 bytes; 43113940 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.37%
This thesis aims at changing students' attitude towards the use ofcomputer-aided design (CAD) in architecture. It starts from the premise that CAD is used mostly for analysis and representation, and not as a real design aide, and that architecture students have a bias against learning computer programming. For this purpose, a prototypical instruction system that mixes computer-aided design and computational design theory was developed, based on a series of fundamental concepts that are common to both fields. This system was influenced by Mitchell's (1987) The Art of Computer Graphics Programming and Stiny's (1976) shape grammars. Despite being based on solid theoretical foundations, CAD has progressively become an exclusively practical tool, since its origins in the 50's and 60's, while computational design theories have been mostly restricted to the academic circles. This thesis proposes an inversion in the present situation: the study of CAD theory, and the application of computational design into practice. The system proposed provides a conceptual framework that can be adapted to different circumstances, including course formats and resources, as well as students' background and technical training.; (cont.) It is based on seven fundamental concepts from computational design theories that are also important to the study of shape grammars: symmetry...

Growing up virtual : the computational lessons of development

Lyons, Derek Eugen
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 205 p.; 7564590 bytes; 7589626 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.37%
Cognitive development is one of nature's most important mechanisms for creating robustly adaptive intelligent creatures. From felids to oscines, developing animals are capable of learning in adverse environments with a reliability that often outpaces the current state-of-the-art in artificial intelligence (AI) The purpose of this thesis, therefore, is to examine how insights from cognitive development might be applied to the design of AI architectures. Starting with a targeted review of the ethological literature, I identify the key computational lessons of development, the fundamental conceptual insights that suggest intriguing new strategies for behavioral organization. These insights are then employed in the design of a developmental behavior architecture in which a hierarchical motivation-based behavior system is coupled to a distributed set of domain-specific learning tools. The architecture is deployed in a synthetic character (Hektor the mouse) whose challenge is to learn to play a competitive card matching game successfully against a human user. Evaluation of Hektor's performance on this task, at both qualitative and quantitative levels of description, reveal that the developmental architecture is capable of surmounting complex learning objectives in a novel and efficient manner. I conclude that the architecture presented here represents a valuable starting point for further consideration of developmental design principles.; by Derek Eugen Lyons.; Thesis (S.M.)--Massachusetts Institute of Technology...

José Rafael Moneo Vallés: 1965-1985

Koukoutsi-Mazarakis, Valeria E., 1962-
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 260 leaves; 39655383 bytes; 39655139 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.37%
Rafael Moneo, a Spanish architect and educator who has been practicing architecture in Madrid since 1965, rose in the profession from local practitioner to designer of international reputation in the mid-1980s with his Museum of Roman Art in MWrida (1980-86) and into the highest ranks of academe when he assumed the chairmanship of the Department of Architecture at the Graduate School of Design at Harvard University (1985-1990). Moneo's work falls into three distinct periods: the pre-Harvard Spanish years (1965-85), the five Harvard years (1985-90), and the post-Harvard international years (1990-present). This dissertation traces the systematic and reflective character of Moneo's double practice up to 1985; it fits his uninterrupted professional practice into the context of his academic career, suggesting that his commitment to both professional practice and knowledge of the discipline is what led him to form a coherent philosophy of design. Throughout the years the contents of his teaching and writing have imbued his built projects with a programmatic character derived from his critique of modern architecture in the 1960s, investigations in architectural theory in the 1970s, and interpretation of the history of Western architecture in the early 1980s and allowed him to achieve a synthetic reading of the modern within the Western tradition of building.; (cont.) It is his drive to design and explain the building...

Bathrooms, bubbles and systems : archigram and the landscapes of transience

Steiner, Hadas Anna
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 175 leaves; 20856745 bytes; 20856504 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.37%
The dissertation studies the Archigram, the primary avant-garde architectural publication in Britain from 1961 to 1970, and the related avant-garde practices that engendered the high-tech movement. Drawing on the histories of technology, architecture and popular culture, the study explores the roots of architecture's foray into the realm of electronic information. By challenging the machine-based model of technology that had defined modernist architectural theory and production, my thesis unfolds, the publishers of the Archigram struggled to reconcile architectural form with emerging technologies and to represent visually the dissolution of the artifact into a landscape of complex and indeterminate systems. This attempt to conceive an essentially material object, such as a house, in a world viewed as a series of impulses was among the earliest architectural explorations of the dilemmas introduced by electronic culture. Using the concept of mobility and flux as a unifying thread, the dissertation examines the strategy for developing an architecture based in the practice of representation and of dissemination. The desire to set structures in motion by liberating them from the anchor of urban infrastructures required a reconsideration of the architectural object. For architecture to fully abandon its traditional role as environmental hardware...

Theorizing the anti-avant-garde : invocations of phenomenology in architectural discourse, 1945-1989

Otero-Pailos, Jorge, 1971-
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 501, [20] p.
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.37%
My dissertation is an intellectual history of "phenomenology," as it came to be understood within architectural discourse during the Cold War. The principal thesis is that contacts with phenomenology were at the crux of the 1970s shift from modernist to postmodernist thinking in architecture. I support this thesis through critical analyses of the work of Ernesto Rogers, Charles Moore, Christian Norberg-Schulz, and Kenneth Frampton, who are largely credited with introducing phenomenology to architecture, and with the expansion of the debates on Postmodern architecture to include issues of human-environment relations, such as the social function of traditional building practices, and place-bound identity politics. At present their invocations of phenomenology are often charged with a naive essentialism generally understood to be inconsistent with postmodern thought. This dissertation takes issue with that simplistic view by providing a more complete account of their contributions to architectural thinking. It situates each author in the context of the historical emergence of a new type of architectural avant-garde practice, that of the historian, which to this day has received little scholarly attention. I argue that they are important transitional figures...

Information and Service-Oriented Architecture & Web Services: enabling integration and organizational agility

OLIVEIRA, Saulo Barbará de; BALLONI, Antonio José; OLIVEIRA, Felipe Nogueira Barbará de; TODA, Favio Akiyoshi
Fonte: Elsevier Publicador: Elsevier
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.37%
Competitive organizations are facing a variety of problems as a result of advances in management techniques as well due to the delay in the introduction of these in business management models. One of the biggest and critical problems for competitiveness in the globalised market is the creation of a technological infrastructure for real-time decision-making. But the combination of technologies, such as Service-Oriented Architecture (SOA), Web Services (WS) and Information Architecture (IA), promises to revolutionize the way in which organizations compete, speeds up decision-making, and take leverage of market opportunities. However, these technologies still face challenges that need to be overcome. Based on the literature review, the scope of this article is to discuss the main issues and the development of organizational modeling technologies, and presenting an online and real time business architecture framework.

MOMCC: Market-Oriented Architecture for Mobile Cloud Computing Based on Service Oriented Architecture

Abolfazli, Saeid; Sanaei, Zohreh; Gani, Abdullah; Shiraz, Muhammad
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 27/06/2012 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.37%
The vision of augmenting computing capabilities of mobile devices, especially smartphones with least cost is likely transforming to reality leveraging cloud computing. Cloud exploitation by mobile devices breeds a new research domain called Mobile Cloud Computing (MCC). However, issues like portability and interoperability should be addressed for mobile augmentation which is a non-trivial task using component-based approaches. Service Oriented Architecture (SOA) is a promising design philosophy embraced by mobile computing and cloud computing communities to stimulate portable, complex application using prefabricated building blocks called Services. Utilizing distant cloud resources to host and run Services is hampered by long WAN latency. Exploiting mobile devices in vicinity alleviates long WAN latency, while creates new set of issues like Service publishing and discovery as well as client-server security, reliability, and Service availability. In this paper, we propose a market-oriented architecture based on SOA to stimulate publishing, discovering, and hosting Services on nearby mobiles, which reduces long WAN latency and creates a business opportunity that encourages mobile owners to embrace Service hosting. Group of mobile phones simulate a nearby cloud computing platform. We create new role of \textit{Service host} by enabling unskilled mobile owners/users to host Services developed by skilled developers. Evidently...

High Speed VLSI Architecture for 3-D Discrete Wavelet Transform

Srinivasarao, Batta Kota Naga; Chakrabarti, Indrajit
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 13/09/2015 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.37%
This paper presents a memory efficient, high throughput parallel lifting based running three dimensional discrete wavelet transform (3-D DWT) architecture. 3-D DWT is constructed by combining the two spatial and four temporal processors. Spatial processor (SP) apply the two dimensional DWT on a frame, using lifting based 9/7 filter bank through the row rocessor (RP) in row direction and then apply in the colum direction through column processor (CP). To reduce the temporal memory and the latency, the temporal processor (TP) has been designed with lifting based 1-D Haar wavelet filter. The proposed architecture replaced the multiplications by pipeline shift-add operations to reduce the CPD. Two spatial processors works simultaneously on two adjacent frames and provide 2-D DWT coefficients as inputs to the temporal processors. TPs apply the one dimensional DWT in temporal direction and provide eight 3-D DWT coefficients per clock (throughput). Higher throughput reduces the computing cycles per frame and enable the lower power consumption. Implementation results shows that the proposed architecture has the advantage in reduced memory, low power consumption, low latency, and high throughput over the existing designs. The RTL of the proposed architecture is described using verilog and synthesized using 90-nm technology CMOS standard cell library and results show that it consumes 43.42 mW power and occupies an area equivalent to 231.45 K equivalent gate at frequency of 200 MHz. The proposed architecture has also been synthesised for the Xilinx zynq 7020 series field programmable gate array (FPGA).; Comment: Submitting to IET CDS. arXiv admin note: substantial text overlap with arXiv:1509.03836

Multicast-based Architecture for IP Mobility: Simulation Analysis and Comparison with Basic Mobile IP

Helmy, Ahmed
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 10/06/2000 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.37%
With the introduction of a newer generation of wireless devices and technologies, the need for an efficient architecture for IP mobility is becoming more apparent. Several architectures have been proposed to support IP mobility. Most studies, however, show that current architectures, in general, fall short from satisfying the performance requirements for wireless applications, mainly audio. Other studies have shown performance improvement by using multicast to reduce latency and packet loss during handoff. In this study, we propose a multicast-based architecture to support IP mobility. We evaluate our approach through simulation, and we compare it to mainstream approaches for IP mobility, mainly, the Mobile IP protocol. Comparison is performed according to the required performance criteria, such as smooth handoff and efficient routing. Our simulation results show significant improvement for the proposed architecture. On average, basic Mobile IP consumes almost twice as much network bandwidth, and experiences more than twice as much end-to-end and handoff delays, as does our proposed architecture. Furthermore, we propose an extension to Mobile IP to support our architecture with minimal modification.; Comment: 14 pages, 14 pages (.pdf file)

FPGA Architecture for Multi-Style Asynchronous Logic

Huot, N.; Dubreuil, H.; Fesquet, L.; Renaudin, M.
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 25/10/2007 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.37%
This paper presents a novel FPGA architecture for implementing various styles of asynchronous logic. The main objective is to break the dependency between the FPGA architecture dedicated to asynchronous logic and the logic style. The innovative aspects of the architecture are described. Moreover the structure is well suited to be rebuilt and adapted to fit with further asynchronous logic evolutions thanks to the architecture genericity. A full-adder was implemented in different styles of logic to show the architecture flexibility.; Comment: Submitted on behalf of EDAA (http://www.edaa.com/)

A Novel Architecture for Antenna Arrangement in Wireless Cellular CDMA Systems

Saghaei, Hamed
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 21/08/2012 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.37%
Wise arrangement of antennas is critical in wireless cellular systems for both reduction of co-channel interference (CCI) and increase the quality of service (QoS). In this paper, a novel architecture for antenna arrangement in CDMA wireless cellular systems is presented. In this architecture that we called microzone, every cell is divided into three (or more) zones and information transmission in downlink channel is done by an antenna which is placed at the outer region of the related zone. Also, the transmitting signal by the mobile station (MS) in uplink channel is received by all antennas of the related cell. Analytical calculations of the received signal to noise ratio (SIR) and outage probability for both microzone and used architectures show that proposed architecture has better performance in compared with the used architecture. Also, simulation results confirm lower outage probability in uplink channel for microzone architecture.; Comment: 4 Pages, 4 figures

A Simple Network Management Architecture for Supporting Network Administrator and QoS Requirements

Phonphoem, Anan; Jansang, Aphirak
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 12/11/2011 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.37%
In this paper, a simple network management architecture for supporting both QoS requirements and organization network management policies is purposed. By grouping the traffic flows according to the QoS requirements or certain network management policies, the network resources are effectively controlled. The purposed architecture is easy to deploy; the gateway is the only equipment that needs installation, leaving the rest of the system untouched. The architecture has not significantly degraded the overall system utilization when applying it to the outgoing bound of the gateway. The architecture can also be implemented on the wireless LAN at the access point because the architecture is designed in such the way that it is independent to both the lower and upper protocol layers.; Comment: 10 pages, 11 figures, The 15th international conference on Computer communication (ICCC 2002), Mumbai, India. August 11-14, 2002

Archeotecture: seeking a new archaeological vision of Architecture

Ayán Vila, Xurxo; Blanco-Rotea, Rebeca; Mañana-Borrazás, Patricia
Fonte: Archaeopress Publicador: Archaeopress
Tipo: Capítulo de libro Formato: 348963 bytes; application/pdf
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.37%
[ES] En las últimas décadas la Arquitectura ha incrementado su interés hacia enfoques sobre nuevos contenidos. Muchos de estos temas eran raramente estudiados por la Arqueología tradicional. En este sentido, por ejemplo, los restos arquitectónicos sólo eran analizados partiendo de un acercamiento formalista y tipológico, pese a su importancia como reflejo material de procesos sociales. Hoy la necesidad se ha impuesto al aumento de perspectivas investigadoras, asimilando nuevas líneas que hacen posible maximizar la información que provienen de un espacio construido. Esta necesidad está justificada por cuestiones como la inconsistencia del estudio del registro arquitectónico y la superación de la investigación tradicional que incluso defiende la imposibilidad de tratar con una interpretación social e integral de este registro. A pesar de estos factores condicionantes, estudios alternativos e instrumentos analíticos fueron desarrollados recientemente en un nuevo campo de investigación, designado Arqueología Arquitectónica. Esta disciplina engloba diferentes metodologías: Análisis formal o arquitectura primitiva; el estudio de estratigrafía vertical, particularmente usada en el estudio de yacimientos medievales; el análisis funcional y simbólico que reconoce factores sociales y aspectos simbólicos de la arquitectura; el estudio del uso simbólico del espacio con una comunicación no verbal...

The architecture of Brazilian colonial sources in the time of Felipe II: José de Anchieta and Gabriel Soares de Sousa; La arquitectura en las fuentes coloniales brasileñas del tiempo de Felipe II: José de Anchieta y Gabriel Soares de Sousa; A arquitetura nas fontes coloniais brasileiras do tempo de Felipe II: José de Anchieta e Gabriel Soares de Sousa

Castro Brunetto, Carlos Javier
Fonte: Universidade de São Paulo, Universidade de Salamanca e Universia Publicador: Universidade de São Paulo, Universidade de Salamanca e Universia
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 23/07/2014 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.37%
Architecture was born in Brazil during the second half of the 16th century. While in Europe there were frequent intellectual debates and discussions about art, in this land of South America they were interested in fortifying the territory, fighting the hostile Indians and creating a complex system for the exploitation of the riches of the colony thanks to slave labor. In this context, the architecture was not an aesthetic purpose, but a necessity to meet the demand of fortifications, churches and domestic buildings. Therefore no specific texts on how architecture should be in the colony were written, although the architecture appears in many documents as a secondary reference. The passage of time and the little interest in preserving the ancient texts, obscured the knowledge of the art of that time. However, under the reign of Felipe II in Brazil, during the Iberian Union, two characters, José de Anchieta and Gabriel Soares de Sousa, intervened as chroniclers of their time. The light that their written works shed, collaborates with the knowledge of Brazil in the late 16th century and the importance architecture had as a Lusitanian identity sign in the giant tropical colony.; La arquitectura nació en Brasil durante la segunda mitad del siglo XVI. Mientras en Europa eran frecuentes los debates intelectuales y las discusiones en torno al arte...

An Extensible, scalable microprocessor architecture

Dinmore, Matthew
Fonte: Rochester Instituto de Tecnologia Publicador: Rochester Instituto de Tecnologia
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.37%
An extensible, scalable stack-based microprocessor architecture is developed and discussed. Several unique features of the architecture, including its non-memory oriented interface, and its use of a stack for holding and executing code, are detailed. A programmed model is used to verify the architecture, and a hardware implementation of a small-scale version of the architecture is constructed and tested. Notes for future implementations are provides. Possible applications based on the latest technological trends are discussed, and topics for further research into the architecture are listed.

Adapting cooperative learning to teach software architecture in multiple-role teams

Chenoweth, Steve; Ardis, Mark; Dugas, Cheryl
Fonte: American Society for Engineering Education Publicador: American Society for Engineering Education
Tipo: Proceedings
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.37%
The software architecture process depends on successful teamwork involving cooperation among members of the design team, cooperation between the design team and the clients, and cooperation between the design team and the development organization. Cooperative learning is a pedagogy that directly supports this type of teamwork. Through cooperative learning students realize their interdependence, practice face-to-face communication, recognize their individual accountability to the success of the group, practice interpersonal and small-group skills, and engage in frequent reflective processing of their achievements. We have adapted cooperative learning to teach software architecture in two undergraduate software engineering programs. In traditional cooperative learning, students work on one team for an extended period. This helps foster acceptance of individual differences and promotes successful teamwork. In our courses we kept students together on the same teams, but we wanted students to play multiple roles: clients, architects, and developers. So, we let the teams change roles during the course. That is, for each project one team played the role of architects, while other teams played the roles of clients and developers. Student teams rotated roles on different projects throughout the term. A further variation in cooperative learning is that...

Pond: A Robust, scalable, massively parallel computer architecture

Spirer, Adam
Fonte: Rochester Instituto de Tecnologia Publicador: Rochester Instituto de Tecnologia
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.37%
A new computer architecture, intended for implementation in late and post silicon technologies, is proposed. The architecture is a fine-grained, inherently parallel system consisting of a large grid of thousands or millions of simple "atomic processors" (APs) employing a simple instruction set. Each AP is configured as either a program instruction or data storage element. These elements are organized into logical entities, analogous to traditional programming functions/methods and data structures. Programming work is underway to compile and run programs from traditional sequential code where parallelism is automatically discovered at the high level on both instruction level and function level, and integrated into the object code that is then sent to the processor. The result is a massively parallel architecture that fully exploits instruction and thread-level parallelism. The architecture design is presented, in-progress work involving conversion of existing code is discussed, and examples are shown to indicate the speedup potential that exists in this new architecture when compared to current architectures.

Graphic design and architecture at their intersection

Kaminski, Kathleen
Fonte: Rochester Instituto de Tecnologia Publicador: Rochester Instituto de Tecnologia
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.37%
This thesis will explore the increasingly important role played by graphic design in architecture. Traditionally thought of as a two-dimensional applied art, graphic design has relevant applications in the design of places. This is sometimes known as environmental graphic design. The premise of this investigation is that by extending graphic design into the world of architecture, both disciplines are strengthened. Graphic design in an architectural context benefits from a more long-lasting medium, in material and duration, than its more common forms in print, film or digital media. Architecture, in its turn, gains another way to communicate to an audience, one that is more flexible and changeable than its otherwise static structure would ordinarily permit. The research component of this thesis will analyze the ways in which environmental graphic design is similar to and different from architecture and two-dimensional graphic design. Research will also show how and why this hybrid is important. It will analyze the ways In which graphic design in the built environment adds value or interest to a place, marks territory, acts as ornament, provides identity, and adds meaning in ways that could not be achieved by architecture or graphic design alone. It will identify a wide range of applications where this might be useful. The application of this thesis study will be a book about the subject outlined above. This book could be used as a guidebook for teaching about these disciplines. It could also be used as a reference book for designers and clients considering the incorporation of graphic design in an architectural project. This application will collect and organize information that is currently scattered...