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How Can Safety Nets Contribute to Economic Growth?

Alderman, Harold; Yemtsov, Ruslan
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
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The paper provides an up-to date and selective review of the literature on how social safety nets contribute to growth. The evidence is carefully chosen to show how safety nets have the potential to overcome constraints on growth linked to market failures, and is organized into 4 distinct pathways: i) encouraging asset accumulation by changing incentives and by addressing imperfections in financial markets caused by constraints in obtaining credit, and from information asymmetries; overcoming such failures helps households to invest into their human capital or productive assets; ii) failures in insurance markets especially in low income setting; safety nets are assisting in managing risk both ex post and ex ante; iii) safety nets are overcoming failure to create assets and other local economy complementary factors to household-level investments; iv) safety nets are shown to relax political constraints on policy. Safety nets have a dual objective of directly alleviating poverty through transfers to the poor and of triggering higher growth for the poor. However...

Pension Funds and National Saving

Lopez Murphy, Pablo; Musalem, Alberto R.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, D.C. Publicador: World Bank, Washington, D.C.
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The authors conduct an empirical study on the effect of the accumulation of pension fund financial assets, on national saving, using a panel of 43 industrial, and developing countries. The authors find evidence suggesting that the accumulation of pension fund financial assets might increase national saving, when these funds are the result of a mandatory pension program. By contrast, national saving might be unaffected, when pension funds are the result of a public program, implemented to foster voluntary pension saving.

Financial Sector Assessment : Armenia

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
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The Armenian financial system is quite small, with the assets of the banking system (by far the largest component) accounting for only 15 percent of gross domestic product (GDP). The banking sector has not yet reached the level of consolidation and sophistication of the more advanced transition economies, and intermediation costs are high. The results of the stress tests show that the banking system is significantly exposed to a combination of credit and foreign exchange rate risks, but only moderately exposed to interest rate risks. The legal framework governing the financial sector in Armenia is reasonably sound and comprehensive, but decisions by the Central Bank of Armenia (CBA) to withdraw banking licenses and or to initiate bankruptcy proceedings against banks have been successfully appealed in the courts. The authorities have agreed that the law on joint-stock companies should be replaced as soon as possible, and supplemented by a law on limited liability companies. Many of the Basel core principles are largely complied with...

Financial Sector Assessment Program : Malawi - Legal Framework for Acceptance, Registration and Realization of Collateral

International Monetary Fund; World Bank
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
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A well-functioning legal framework for secured lending needs to provide for the creation, recognition and enforcement of security interests. This includes making it possible for all types of assets to be collateralized, effective notice and registration rules to be adapted to all types of property, and clear rules of priority on competing claims or interests in the same assets. This working paper includes the following headings: procedure and costs for a secured transaction; registration system; credit reference bureau; realization of collateral; judicial framework; insolvency and corporate rehabilitation; and recommendations.

Financial Sector Assessment : Saudi Arabia

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
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The capacity of the banking sector to respond to macroeconomic shocks, and regional uncertainties have been strengthened considerably over the past decade. Historically, the operating environment has been volatile as a result o f pervasive dependence on the hydrocarbon sector and swings in investor confidence associated with uncertainty in the region. This experience has helped shape fairly risk-averse portfolios: the bank-led financial system has functioned with substantial capital-adequacy ratios (CAR), loan-loss provisions, and liquidity buffers. The sector is highly profitable, with returns on assets averaging above 2 percent, supported by a large, low-cost demand deposit base. These buffers are underpinned by an effective regulatory and supervisory structure that proactively contains risk taking through the use o f maximum loan-deposit ratios, caps on individual and corporate indebtedness, and pre-approval requirements on foreign lending. The sector is supported by a modem and efficient payment and settlement infrastructure.

Partial Consumption Insurance and Financial Openness Across the World

Hevia, Constantino; Servén, Luis
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
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This paper examines the extent of international consumption risk sharing for a group of 50 industrial and developing countries. The analysis is based on the empirical implementation of a model of partial consumption insurance whose parameters have the natural interpretation of coefficients of partial risk sharing even when the 0 hypothesis of perfect risk sharing is rejected. Estimation results show that rich countries exhibit higher degrees of risk sharing than developing countries, and that the gap between both country groups appears to have widened over the period of financial globalization. Moreover, the pattern of consumption risk sharing is related to the degree of financial openness: countries with larger stocks of foreign assets or liabilities exhibit larger degrees of risk sharing. Furthermore, countries whose foreign asset stocks are more tilted towards foreign direct investment assets also show higher degrees of consumption risk sharing.

Regulation, Renegotiation and Capital Structure : Theory and Evidence from Latin American Transport Concessions

Moore, Alexander; Straub, Stéphane; Dethier, Jean-Jacques
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
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The paper examines the capital structure of regulated infrastructure firms. The authors develop a model showing that leverage, the ratio of liabilities to assets, is lower under high-powered regulation and that firms operating under high-powered regulation make proportionally larger reductions in leverage when the cost of debt increases. They test the predictions of the model using an original panel dataset of 124 transport concessions in Brazil, Chile, Colombia and Peru over 1992-2011, finding broad support for our predictions.

The Role of Occupational Pension Funds in Mauritius

Vittas, Dimitri
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
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Mauritius belongs to a select group of developing countries where contractual savings-savings with insurance companies and pension funds-exceed 40 percent of GDP and represent a major potential force in the local financial system. Pension funds account for 75 percent of contractual savings. Contractual savings institutions invest in government securities, housing loans, corporate securities, real estate and bank deposits. They currently hold 35 percent of government securities and also account for 36 percent of total outstanding housing loans.Given their strong demand for long-duration assets, they can stimulate the issue of long-term government bonds (both inflation-linked and zero-coupon) and the development of corporate debentures, mortgage bonds, and mortgage-backed securities.Mauritius has a balanced and well-managed multipillar pension system. In addition to several public components, such as the Basic Retirement Pension, the National Pensions Fund (NPF), the National Savings Fund, and the Civil Service Pension Scheme...

Crisis and Contagion in East Asia : Nine Lessons

Kawai, Masahiro; Newfarmer, Richard; Schmukler, Sergio
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
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The authors investigate the origins of the East Asian crisis and its contagion, examine the channels of contagion, and discuss policy recommendationsThey make detailed recommendations in the context of nine general lessons learned from the East Asian crisis. 1) Preventing crises and contagion: avoid large current account deficits financed through short-term private capital inflows. Aggressively regulate and supervise financial systems to ensure that banks and nonbank financial institutions manage risks prudently. Put in place incentives for sound corporate finance to prevent high leverage ratios and overreliance on foreign borrowing. 2) Managing crises and contagion: In the context of sound policies, mobilize timely external liquidity of sufficient magnitude to restore market confidence. At times of crisis, "bail in" private foreign creditors. When official resources are too limited for the magnitude of the crisis or contagion, and when private creditors are not amenable to coordination, some involuntary private involvement may be needed too. Keep in mind that there is no one-size-fits-all monetary and fiscal stance for responding to crises and contagion. 3) Resolving the systemic consequences of crises and contagion. Move swiftly to establish domestic and international mechanisms for dealing with the assets and liabilities on nonviolable banks and corporations. Cushion the effects of crisis on low-income groups through social policies to ameliorate the inevitable social tensions associated with adjustment. 4) Developing an effective regional financial architecture. Improve mechanisms for preventing...

Ownership Structure and the Temptation to Loot : Evidence from Privatized Firms in the Czech Republic

Cull, Robert; Matesova, Jana; Shirley, Mary
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
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Using a new data set on privatized firms in the Czech Republic, the authors examine how the design of privatization affects outcomes. Earlier studies of privatization in the Czech Republic focused largely on how the broad distribution of shares through vouchers may have motivated the new owners to strip assets from the privatized firms. The authors find evidence for static asset stripping, but also for what Akerlof and Romer (1993) call looting - borrowing heavily with no intent to repay and using the loans for private purposes. This looting occurred because the larger privatized companies had privileged access to credit from state-controlled banks, which had little incentive to enforce debt contracts. The policy implications are significant: financial incentives and regulation are as important as ownership structure in the design of privatization.

Institutional Investors and Long-Term Investment : Evidence from Chile

Opazo, Luis; Raddatz, Claudio; Schmukler, Sergio L.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
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Developing countries are trying to develop long-term financial markets and institutional investors are expected to play a key role. This paper uses unique evidence on the universe of institutional investors from the leading case of Chile to study to what extent mutual funds, pension funds, and insurance companies hold and bid for long-term instruments, and which factors affect their choices. The paper uses monthly asset-level portfolios to show that, despite the expectations, mutual and pension funds invest mostly in short-term assets relative to insurance companies. The significant difference across maturity structures is not driven by the supply side of debt or tactical behavior. Instead, it seems to be explained by manager incentives (related to short-run monitoring and the liability structure) that, combined with risk factors, tilt portfolios toward short-term instruments, even when long-term investing yields higher returns. Thus, the expansion of large institutional investors does not necessarily imply longer-term markets.

Strategic Interactions and Portfolio Choice in Money Management : Evidence from Colombian Pension Funds

Pedraza Morales, Alvaro
Fonte: World Bank Group, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank Group, Washington, DC
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This paper studies the portfolio choice of strategic fund managers in the presence of a peer-based underperformance penalty. Evidence is taken from the Colombian pension fund management industry, where six asset managers are in charge of portfolio allocation for the mandatory contributions of the working population. These managers are subject to a peer-based underperformance penalty, known as the Minimum Return Guarantee. The trading behavior by the managers is studied before and after a change in the strictness of the guarantee in June 2007. The evidence suggests that a tighter minimum return guarantee results in more trading in the direction of peers, a behavior that is more pronounced for underperforming managers. These managers rebalance their portfolios by buying securities in which they are underexposed relative to their peers, as opposed to selling assets in which they are overexposed. Overall, the results suggest that incentives for managers to be close to industry benchmarks play an important role in the portfolio allocation of these funds.

Public-Private Partnerships : Reference Guide, Version 2.0

World Bank; Asian Development Bank; Inter-American Development Bank
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC; Asian Development Bank, Mandaluyong City, Philippines; Inter-American Development Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC; Asian Development Bank, Mandaluyong City, Philippines; Inter-American Development Bank, Washington, DC
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A growing number of developing country governments are interested in using public-private partnerships (PPPs) to provide public infrastructure assets and services. The PPP reference guide seeks to provide advice on what PPP practitioners should know, rather than provide advice on what to do. The guide sets out the main topics, looks at the key issues that must be addressed, and provides what one consider the most important references that PPP practitioners can turn to for answers and to enhance one knowledge and understanding. It is structured into separate sections that focus on three main areas, firstly what are PPPs, when may they be used and the advantages and disadvantages relative to public provision; secondly the policy, legal, and institutional frameworks that should be put into place to help improve effectiveness; and finally the ways in which PPP projects can be developed and implemented. It introduces key topics on PPP, sets out options, and directs readers to examples, and key references where one can find out more. This guide provides new resources and updated examples.

The Power of Public Investment Management : Transforming Resources into Assets for Growth

Rajaram, Anand; Minh Le, Tuan; Kaiser, Kai; Kim, Jay-Hyung; Frank, Jonas
Fonte: World Bank Group, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank Group, Washington, DC
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This publication consists of seven chapters: building a system for public investment management; a unified framework for public investment management; country experiences of public investment management; approaches to better project appraisal; public investment management under uncertainty; procurement and public investment management; and public investment management for public-private partnerships.

SME Finance in Ethiopia : Addressing the Missing Middle Challenge

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
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This study starts with a brief analysis of which firms are the main net job creators in Ethiopia and then focuses on the financing constraints of Ethiopian MSMEs as one of the key obstacles to job creation and growth. In doing so, the study uses two demand-side surveys (the Ethiopia Survey of Large and Medium Scale Manufacturing Industries LMMIS, an unbalanced panel composed of about 6,000 firms with at least 10 employees which allows for a study of firm dynamics from 2000 through 2011 and the World Bank s Enterprise Survey (ES) that was conducted between July 2011 and July 2012 and includes 794 firms which allows for the additional examination of the services sector, microenterprises, and a more detailed understanding of firm experiences with respect to access to finance) and an ad-hoc supply side survey administered to 16 financial institutions, including the major public and private sector commercial banks and microfinance institutions, covering over 90% of the total assets in the banking and microfinance sector. This survey allowed collecting data on the actual involvement of financial institutions with MSMEs...

The Cook Islands

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Relatório
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This country note is produced is part of The Pacific Catastrophe Risk Assessment andFinancing Initiative (PCRAFI). The geographic spread of the Cook Islands poses logistical problems for any necessary post-disaster relief and response efforts. The events of 2005 demonstrated that the Cook Islands is extremely vulnerable to the threat of tropical cyclones (TCs): in the two months of February and March 2005, TCs Meena, Nancy, Olaf, Percy, and Rae swept the country. The Cook Islands is expected to incur, on average, about NZ$6 million (US$4.9 million) per year in losses due to tropical cyclones. In the next 50 years, the Cook Islands has a 50 percent chance of experiencing a per-event loss exceeding NZ$97 million (US$79.5 million. The Cook Islands has a proactive approach to disaster risk financing and insurance (DRFI), which is supported by the upper echelons of government. In January 2011, the prime minister in his role as chair of the National Disaster Risk Management Council requested that the Ministry of Finance and Economic Management look at ways to become self-reliant in initial disaster response and generate new income streams for investment in a fund specifically for disaster management response and recovery. The Cook Islands has available a maximum amount of NZ$5.6 million (US$4.6 million) in the form of contingency funds and catastrophe risk insurance to facilitate disaster response. A number of options for further improving the Cook Islands financial protection against disasters are presented for consideration: (a) the development of an integrated DRFI strategy; (b) investigation of using contingent credit to access additional liquidity post-disaster; (c) development of an operations manual for post-disaster budget mobilization and execution; and (d) the identification of assets to be included in an insurance program for critical public assets.

Fiji

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Relatório
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This note aims to build understanding of the existing disaster risk financing and insurance (DRFI) tools in use in Fiji and to identify gaps where potential engagement could further develop financial resilience. In addition the note aims to encourage peer exchange of regional knowledge, specifically by encouraging dialogue on past experiences, lessons learned, optimal use of these financial tools, and the effect they may have on the execution of post-disaster funds. In 2012 alone Fiji experienced three major events with estimated total damage of F$146 million (US$78 million). Fiji is expected to incur, on average over the long term, annual losses of F$158 million (US$85 million) due to earthquakes and tropical cyclones. In the next 50 years Fiji has a 50 percent chance of experiencing a loss exceeding F$1,500 million (US$806 million). The country has a taken a proactive approach to DRFI and developed a finance manual for post-disaster budget execution. The government now has F$3 million (US$1.6 million) available in DRFI instruments to facilitate disaster response and also implemented tax concessions to encourage donations in the wake of tropical cyclone Evan. A number of options to support ongoing DRFI improvements in Fiji are presented for consideration: (a) the finance manual developed by the Ministry of Finance for post-disaster procedures should be finalized...

Marshall Islands

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Relatório
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This note aims to build understanding of the existing disaster risk financing and insurance (DRFI) tools in use in The Marshall Islands and to identify gaps where potential engagement could further develop financial resilience. The likelihood that a hazardous event will have a significant impact on the Marshall Islands has risen with the increasing levels of population and assets in the urban areas of Majuro and Ebeye. The low-lying atolls are at risk of damage to both assets and people as a result of storm surges and tsunamis. The Marshall Islands is expected to incur, on average over the long term, annual losses of US$3 million due to earthquakes and tropical cyclones. In the next 50 years, the Marshall Islands has a 50 percent chance of experiencing a loss exceeding US$53 million. The government takes an ex-ante approach to financing the cost of disasters, but the resources available are limited. The Marshall Islands has a maximum amount of US$15.6 million potentially available in ex-ante instruments to facilitate disaster response. The government s post-disaster budget execution process relies on a variety of financial tools...

Small Beginnings for Great 0pportunities

International Finance Corporation
Fonte: World Bank Group, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank Group, Washington, DC
Tipo: Livro
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By increasing access to finance for out-of-reach households and families, microfinance continues to be an essential tool for improving livelihoods at the base of the pyramid. The last 20 years have seen remarkable growth in the microfinance sector. From its early stages in small-scale microenterprise lending, through its commercial expansion to offer savings and a broad array of financial services to low-income customers, to its entry into new markets and incorporation of technological innovations, microfinance is ensuring that an ever-greater number of households have permanent access to a range of high-quality and affordable financial services. The microfinance industry is estimated at $60 to $100 billion globally, where several thousand microfinance organizations reach an estimated 200 million clients, most of whom were not previously served by the formal financial sector. However, 2.5 billion adults still lack access to formal financial services. Financial services for low-income people are an important factor when it comes to poverty reduction...

International diversification of real estate assets: is it worth it? Evidence from the literature

Wilson, P.; Zurbrugg, R.Y.
Fonte: American Real Estate Society Publicador: American Real Estate Society
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2003 Português
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This study examines the literature on the benefits of diversifying property assets internationally. There is no consensus on how much benefit can be derived from the global diversification of property. In the literature there are two contrasting opinions as to the level of integration global property markets have and the advantages there are from holding international property assets. The findings show that there are mixed outcomes irrespective of whether direct or indirect property assets are being examined. This study also provides some insights into more recent developments in the literature that might explain some of the diverse opinions that have been formed.; http://ares.metapress.com/content/p728u41k6378m138/; Patrick J Wilson and Ralf Zurbruegg