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An analysis of the Navy's Science and Technology (S&T) Budget

Zangardi, John A.
Fonte: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 112 p.
Português
Distinguished Alumni Award Program author. CAPT John A. Zangardi, USN (Ret) (Presented 9 Nov 06); This thesis examines the importance of the Navy's Science and Technology (S&T) budget. The relevance and value of the budget are addressed. The composition and size of the Navy's S&T budget between 1984 and 1994 are evaluated as a share of the Department of Defense (DoD) and Navy Research, Development, Test, and Evaluation (RDT&E) budgets. The Navy S&T budget is examined from the presidential request through appropriations over a ten year period. There is an analysis of Naval Technology Transfer Programs and an examination of Advanced Technology Demonstrations (ATDs) and Enhanced Technology Demonstrations (ETDs). Five major conclusions are drawn. First, the period between 1984 and 1987 generally saw DoD RDT&E, Navy RDT&E, and Navy S&T generally increase. Second, for the period 1988 and 1994, DoD and Navy RDT&E funding generally decreased while Navy S&T generally increased. Third, for the 1989 through 1993 period there was significantly more conflict between Congress and the executive branch over Navy S&T funding levels. Fourth, technology transfer programs represent an increasing constraint on S&T procurement; http://www.archive.org/details/analysisofnavyss00zang

Fluidically augmented nozzles for pulse detonation engine applications

Smith, Larry R.
Fonte: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School
Formato: xvi, 129 p. : ill. (some col.) ; 28 cm.
Português
Pulse Detonation Engines (PDE) operate in a cyclic manner resulting in large changes in the combustion chamber pressure. The widely varying pressure ratio between the chamber and nozzle exit makes it difficult to efficiently produce thrust since a fixed area ratio exhaust nozzle would operate off design nearly the entire cycle. Therefore, a nozzle with the capability to create the necessary area ratio throughout the cycle is required to produce an effective and efficient thrust profile. A dynamically varying nozzle was evaluated which investigated the possibility of using air injection into the diverging portion of the nozzle in order to effectively adjust the nozzle's exit area and provide the primary engine combustion products the most efficient area ratio throughout the combustion cycle. A two-dimensional nozzle and combustion section was created and simulated using computational fluid dynamics software to analyze the flow for various air injection pressures and velocities. A test section was designed and assembled for actual testing of the nozzle with the air injection ports and used a shadowgraph technique to observe the time-varying gas dynamics in the nozzle. The results of each were compared and analyzed to determine the validity of the CFD analysis. Subsequent computational analysis was conducted to find the most optimal injection conditions to achieve the most effective variable nozzle design for maximizing the impulse per cycle.; US Navy (USN) author

Bell and banner: Armenian revolutionaries at the end of the Ottoman Empire

Stebbins, Jeffrey W.
Fonte: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School
Formato: xivi, 111 p. ; 28 cm.
Português
This study begins by addressing the political, social, and economic conditions in the Ottoman Empire in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries in order to provide the historical context for the emergence of Armenian revolutionaries. It then details the attempts at reforming the empire by the Tanzimat and Hamidian regimes, the effect these reforms had on social and economic conditions for provincial Ottoman Armenians, and the steps those within the empire but especially among the Armenian diaspora took to adopt revolutionary tactics in attempting to alleviate conditions in the Armenian fatherland. Specific attention will be paid to the programs and activities of the major parties that have comprised the Armenian Revolutionary Movement: The Dashnaktsutiun, the Hunchaks, and the Armenakans. This study then reviews revolutionary activity amidst the rise of the Committee of Union and Progress, particularly the Dashnaktsutiun who were most active during this period, in an effort to complete a survey of Armenian revolutionary activity. Finally, it concludes with general observations regarding the process by which some Armenians, who had at one point been considered the Ottoman Empire's "loyal millet," decided to arm themselves first in self-defense in pursuit of autonomy and then to engage in terrorism as an acceptable tactic in carrying out their strategy.; US Navy (USN) author

Ending America's energy insecurity how electric vehicles can drive the solution to energy independence

Stein, Fredrick.
Fonte: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School
Formato: xvii, 67 p. : ill. (some col.) ; 28 cm.
Português
CHDS State/Local; The homeland/national security threat posed by the United States' dependence on foreign oil has been part of the American discourse for years; yet nothing has been done. No pragmatic, realistic step-by-step plan has been pursued to end this scourge on the American people. The solution can be found in the problem. Net imports of oil account for approximately 50 percent of the oil the U.S. consumes. Likewise, 50 percent of oil consumed in the U.S. is consumed as motor gasoline. If overnight the U.S. stopped using oil to power its vehicles, if overnight drivers switched to electric vehicles, then overnight the U.S. would become energy independent. Using historical data to establish the effect of gasoline price changes on consumer vehicle choice, a predictive model has been created showing the expected switch to electric vehicles if the price of gasoline increases and the cost of electric vehicles decreases. There is a cost to energy independence: two to five dollars per gallon of retail gasoline sold. If monies raised from the tax are used to lower the price of electric vehicles, build recharge infrastructure, and dampen the regressive nature of the tax, energy independence is a few short years away.; Transportation Security Administration...

Strengthening homeland security through improved foreign language capability

Stevens, Sean C.
Fonte: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: xx, 110 p. : ill. ; 28 cm.
Português
Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited; In this thesis, I examine the best ways to meet post-9/11 language requirements for homeland defense and security. I look at language programs at the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), the State, the Homeland Security (DHS), the New York Police Department (NYPD), and a federally sponsored initiative called the Language Flagship. I then examine how trained linguists reach native-like proficiency, drawing on existing studies and original research of the interpreter program at the Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA). Analysis reveals that motivation, time-on-task, and immersion are the most important individual factors in attaining high-level foreign language proficiency. In addition, organizations which utilize native or heritage speakers, conduct proficiency testing, offer language-related incentives (not to include proficiency pay), and offer regular exposure to foreign language at work, are most successful. While these factors are necessary for an organization's success, they alone are not sufficient. DTRA, NYPD, and FBI's Language Analyst programs successfully utilize foreign language capability for homeland defense and security, although each accomplishes this goal in vastly different ways. This thesis argues that expanded use of native and heritage speakers...

Stochastic network interdiction for optimizing defensive counter air operations planning

Tsamtsaridis, Charalampos I.
Fonte: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School
Formato: 53 p. : some col. ill. ; 28 cm.
Português
This thesis describes a stochastic, network interdiction optimization model to guide defensive, counter-air (DCA) operations planning. We model a layered, integrated air-defense system, which consists of fighter and missile engagement zones. We extend an existing two-stage, stochastic, generalized-network interdiction model by Pan, Charlton and Morton, and adapt it to DCA operations planning. The extension allows us to handle multiple-type interdiction assets, and constrain the attacker's flight path by the maximum allowable traveled distance. The defender selects the locations to install multiple interceptor types, with uncertainty in the attacker's origin and destination, in order to minimize the probability of evasion, or the expected target value collected by the evader. Then, the attacker reveals an origin-destination pair (independent of the defender's decision), and sends a strike package along a path (through the interdicted network) that maximizes his probability of evasion. By adding a small persistence penalty we ensure the plans are consistent in presence of minor variations in the number of interceptors. We present computational results for several instances of a test case consisting of the airspace over a 360-by-360 nautical miles area. The computational time ranges from some seconds to ten minutes...

China's gender imbalance and its implications on China-Japan and China-Taiwan security relations

Tzeng, Jerry Y.
Fonte: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School
Formato: x, 59 p. ; 28 cm.
Português
The purpose of this thesis is to investigate how China's gender imbalance could affect East Asian security with respect to China-Japan relations and China-Taiwan relations. The research result is ambiguous in that China's excess males may or may not force the Chinese government to adopt a more aggressive foreign policy stance with Japan and Taiwan. On the one hand, the Chinese government has been relatively calm in its dealings with Japan and Taiwan despite the rise of Chinese nationalism. The Chinese government actively contains anti-social behaviors associated with excess males without seriously affecting bilateral relations with Japan or Taiwan. On the other hand, appealing to nationalistic fervor in order to strengthen regime legitimacy could force the Chinese government to be more belligerent. Inaction by the Chinese government in response to Japanese or Taiwanese provocation could compel many in China to engage in mass uprising against the state, thus threatening the regime's power. This thesis also provides possible options to mitigate the social and political tensions presented by these excess males and to prevent potential regional instability. Options such as war, public works projects, foreign marriage tax, population control...

Free-Electron Laser (FEL) utilization in space applications (ship-borne pointing accuracy, deep-space communications, and orbital debris tracking)

Wittrock, Jason M.
Fonte: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School
Formato: xvi, 119 p. : ill. (some col.) ; 28 cm.
Português
The U.S. Navy is currently conducting research which will support the production of a MW-class free-electron laser (FEL). The Navy's end-state goal is to design and implement a defense system capable of destroying a fast-flying, anti-ship cruise missile (ASCM) target. To this end, the necessity of ensuring accurate pointing control of the beam is required. The first part of this thesis focuses on the U.S. Navy's desired end-state and investigates the ability of feedback and feed-forward control methods to provide improved pointing accuracy to a beam director mounted on a naval vessel similar in size to that of a Ticonderoga-class cruiser while traversing through various sea-states. The second part of this thesis examines the feasibility of employing the FEL as a means of deep-space (Mars and beyond) communication and orbital debris removal and tracking of objects in low-earth orbit (LEO).; US Navy (USN) author

Active cyber defense: enhancing national cyber defense

Wong, Tiong Pern.
Fonte: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School
Formato: xvi, 57 p. : 1 col. map ; 28 cm.
Português
With increased dependency on the Internet, cyber attacks are fast becoming an attractive option for state adversaries, in part because of the ease of hiding one's identity. In response, governments around the world are taking measures to improve their national cyber defenses. However, these defenses, which are generally passive in nature, have been insufficient to address the threat. This thesis explores the possibility of employing active cyber defenses to improve cyber defenses at the national level. Active cyber defense refers to the use of offensive actions, such as counter hacking, pre-emptive hacking, etc., to defend against cyber attacks. This thesis studies the typologies of active cyber defense and examines how this approach can enhance a state's cyber defense posture.

Air commando Intel: optimizing specialization training for Air Force Special Operations Command Intelligence Officers

Workinger, Christopher L.
Fonte: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School
Formato: xx, 95 p. : (some col.) ill. ; 28 cm.
Português
Since 1999, Air Force Intelligence officers have been trained, managed, and assigned in accordance with a 'generalist' approach to intelligence disciplines. Specialization is the exception, and intelligence officers are assigned to a variety of missions, disciplines, and commands in an attempt to "broaden" their experience and maximize exposure to various disciplines. Because of this approach, specialization training after completion of the Air Force Intelligence Officer Course has become crucial to intelligence officer success at the unit level. This research examines specialization training provided to intelligence officers assigned to Air Force Special Operations Command (AFSOC) flying squadrons. Information gathered through surveys and interviews of AFSOC squadron leadership, weapons officers, and intelligence officers, coupled with a detailed analysis of AFSOC Intelligence Officer responsibilities and training, was utilized to develop a web-based survey designed to measure intelligence officer performance at unit level AFSOC flying squadrons. The survey results were analyzed to determine areas of strength and weakness, and recommendations for optimizing specialization training were created from the survey results. Recommendations include actions to enhance intelligence at the individual and team level in AFSOC flying squadrons...

Shoot, move, communicate, purchase : how United States Special Forces can better employ money as a weapon system

Yamaki-Taylor, Ryan D.
Fonte: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School
Formato: xvi, 53 p. ; 28 cm.
Português
This thesis analyzes how well United States Special Forces (USSF) are employing Money as a Weapon System (MAAWS) in accordance with the current Commander International Security Assistance Force (COMISAF) guidance on counterinsurgency (COIN) contracting in Afghanistan. By analyzing the current ways USSF are employing MAAWS, specifically in Southern Afghanistan, this thesis identifies friction areas (past, present, future) between guidance and employment at the Special Operation Task Force (SOTF) level and below. Based on this analysis, this thesis provides recommendations to help reduce these friction areas and enable Special Forces tactical units to better employ Money as a Weapon System. The main recommendations focus on incorporating the Yoder Three-Tier Model, modified to meet the needs of USSF and enhancing training on contingency contracting to educate SF Commanders and Soldiers designated to fill the role of contracting officer's representative (COR). These recommendations will enable Special Forces to better employ MAAWS in the future and greatly increase the effectiveness and efficiency of their contracting procedures.; US Army (USA) author

Numerical analysis of shear thickening fluids for blast mitigation applications

Zhu, Weijie Kelvin
Fonte: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School
Formato: xiv, 65 p. : ill. (some col.) ; 28 cm.
Português
Improvised Explosive Devices (IEDs) have evolved over the years to become one of the main causes of casualties and fatalities in recent conflicts. One area of research focuses on the improvement of blast attenuation using Shear Thickening Fluid (STF). The STF is a dilatant material, which displays non-Newtonian characteristics in its unique ability to transit from a low viscosity fluid to a high viscosity fluid. Although empirical research and computational models using the non-Newtonian flow characteristics of STF have been conducted to study the effects of STF on blast mitigation, to the author's best knowledge, no specific research has been performed to investigate the STF behavior by modeling and simulation of the interaction between the base flow and embedded rigid particles when subjected to shear stress. The model considered the Lagrangian description of the rigid particles and the Eulerian description of fluid flow. The numerical analysis investigated key parameters such as applied flow acceleration, particle distribution arrangement, volume concentration of particles, particle size, particle shape, and particle behavior in Newtonian and Non-Newtonian fluid base. The fluid-particle interaction model showed that the arrangement...

The Iranian century: the tension between Iran and the Gulf States

Al Kaabi, Yousef H.; Al Kaabi, Khaled M.
Fonte: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School
Formato: xii, 69 p. ; 28 cm.
Português
The Arabian Gulf represents a significant part in the world because of its oil wealth. During the last thirty years, three wars have taken place in the region resulting in regional and global instability: the Iran-Iraq war; the Persian Gulf War of 1990-1991, and the U.S. led invasion of Iraq in 2003. The fall of Iraq made Iran more powerful in the region, and as a domination strategy, Iran launched its nuclear program. Iran represents a major power in the region; it can destabilize the regional balance even more if it controls nuclear weapons, marking a potential arms race in the region Iran's nuclear program is threatening the stability of the region. The highest priority is to make the Gulf region free from weapons of mass destruction by all available means. The Gulf States, the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA), Kuwait, Bahrain, Oman, the United Arab Emirates (UAE) and Qatar should work collectively to defend their interests. In an unpredictable world, a power vacuum could arise at any time in the region, especially when the United States withdraws from Iraq. More cooperation and coordination through the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) could help the Gulf States develop the capacity to play a larger role in their region.; United Arab Emirates Army authors

The perfect storm : the religious apocalyptic imagination and personal disaster preparedness

Albertazzi, Anne Marie.
Fonte: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School
Formato: xvi, 87 p. : ill. ; 28 cm.
Português
CHDS State/Local; Using the Citizen Corps' Personal Disaster Preparedness (PDP) Model as a framework, this thesis examines the relationship between religious apocalyptic beliefs and disaster preparedness motivations in the United States. Four focus groups were convened with members of the American public who reported holding religious beliefs that included an end-times doctrine. Findings include the following: 1) estimations of likelihood, impact and response efficacy were not significantly influenced by religious end-times beliefs; 2) beliefs in biblical prophesy did not alter the cognitive heuristics that have been shown to influence personal risk assessment; 3) spiritual beliefs motivated spiritual preparedness while material or secular concerns motivated actual completion of FEMA-recommended preparations; and 4) millennialist beliefs provided high spiritual self-efficacy, but it did not correlate with high material self-efficacy, which is essential to material preparation. Recommendations are made for leveraging high spiritual self-efficacy in millennialist faith groups to further DHS's mission of disaster resiliency. Suggestions include building a Threat/Efficacy profile specific to the religious populations that holds strong eschatological beliefs...

United Nations led disarmament, Demobilization and Reintegration (DDR) in the eastern Democratic Republic of Congo

Allen, Tristan M.
Fonte: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School
Formato: x, 85 p. ; 28 cm.
Português
The United Nations Organization Mission in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, MONUC, was deployed following the signing of the Lusaka Ceasefire Agreement in July of 1999. A core pillar of the mission, disarmament, demobilization and reintegration (DDR) programs have attempted to address the issue of multiple armed nonstate actors operating, primarily in the country's eastern districts of Ituri, North and South Kivu. MONUC's DDR initiatives can be subdivided into the national DDR program for Congolese combatants and the disarmament, demobilization, repatriation, reintegration and resettlement (DDRRR) of foreign armed groups. Although there has been some success in the DDR(RR) programs over the past 12 years of UN deployment, rampant insecurity attributed to the presence of armed groups in the DRC continues to plague the east. An examination of the DDR process in the east reveals that although the UN has assisted in the implementation of large, multidimensional DDR and DDRRR programs in the east, the situational context, voluntary approach, and links to Security Sector Reform ((SSR) have all proven inadequate to achieving stability though DDR.

Operating and support costs and affordability of a 324 ship Naval battle force

Antonucci, Kevin C.
Fonte: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School
Formato: xvi, 113 p. : ill. ; 28 cm.
Português
The purpose of this research was to determine both the added operating and support (OandS) costs and affordability of operating and maintaining a future naval battle force of 324 ships as proposed in the Navy's 30-year shipbuilding plan. Cost estimation including regression, 3-year moving averages, point, expert and analogous modeling was used to capture both historical and future OandS costs from FY1991 to FY2024. With an emphasis on the three main cost drivers, (manpower, fuel and maintenance) which arguably had the largest influence on ships' OandS costs, data were obtained from the Visibility and Management of Operating and Support Cost (VAMOSC) database and various Selected Acquisition Reports (SARs). Analysis and modeling followed suite in order to forecast expected future costs and affordability for a proposed 12.5 percent growth in naval fleet size by FY2024. Reviewing all 29 classes of ship within the expected FY2024 battle force, normalized results from the cost estimation models yielded a minimum cost growth of 17 percent in OandS costs. Even if budget growth trend rates were to remain steady, negating the possibility of budget decreases, this thesis argues the Navy would still not be able to afford its proposed future battle force in FY2024.; US Navy (USN) author

Help a brother out : a case study in multinational intelligence sharing, NATO SOF

Ara, Martin J.; Larsse, Brage Andreas.
Fonte: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: xv, 55 p. : col. ill. ; 28 cm.
Português
Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited; This thesis examines how to optimize intelligence sharing in a coalition by a thorough literature review and site visits to intelligence sharing organizations in order to establish best practices for multinational intelligence sharing. The newly established NATO SOF Headquarters (NSHQ) in Mons, Belgium was treated as a test case to validate their intelligence sharing procedures and structures in reference to the authors' identified best practices: mutual gains and benefits; trust; direct control; and accessibility and interoperability. Intelligence support to SOF is a decisive factor, when in conventional operations it often is not; therefore intelligence support to SOF is special - NATO SOF is no exception. The level of intelligence support to SOF normally only exists at the national level, due to bureaucratic obstacles, a need to protect sensitive sources and capabilities, and lack of trust. The NSHQ is experimenting with several innovative methods to enhance trust and streamline intelligence capability amongst NATO SOF forces. There are structural and organizational lessons learned from the establishment of the NSHQ that can be applied to future operations and coalitions.; Outstanding Thesis; US Navy (USN) author

Air Force Operational Contracting Knowledge Assessment: analyzing explicit and tacit contracting knowledge

Aufderheide, Derek; Maloy, Jeremy; Corrigan, Michael
Fonte: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School
Formato: xviii, 93 p. : col. ill. ; 28 cm.
Português
MBA Professional Report; The Defense Acquisition Workforce Improvement Act (DAWIA) establishes education and training standards for acquisition personnel. These standards culminate into ascending levels of certification for acquisition professionals based on education, training, and experience. While the intent of DAWIA certification is to ensure acquisition professionals possess the requisite knowledge and experience to perform their duties, currently no method exists to effectively measure an individual's contracting knowledge. The Air Force Operational Contracting Knowledge Assessment (OCKA-AF) attempts to accurately assess an individual's tacit (experiential) and explicit (factual) operational contracting knowledge across the six phases of the contracting process. The assessment tool also identifies knowledge gaps between tacit and explicit knowledge. The OCKA-AF was deployed in the form of a web-based survey to two Air Force operational contracting squadrons and Air Force contracting students attending the Naval Postgraduate School. The survey results were analyzed, upon which recommendations were made to reduce existing tacit and explicit contracting knowledge gaps. Due to its knowledge assessment capability, the OCKA-AF may be beneficial to supervisors and senior contracting leadership in determining whether current training efforts are producing the desired results in knowledge capture or provide insight into areas requiring further training emphasis.; US Air Force (USAF) authors

Brazil for sale? does Sino-Brazilian trade or investment significantly influence Brazil's United Nations General Assembly (UNGA) voting pattern?

Bailey, Kathleen S.
Fonte: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School
Formato: xvi, 105 p. : ill. ; 28 cm.
Português
This thesis examines whether Sino-Brazilian trade or investment significantly influences Brazil's voting in the United Nations General Assembly (UNGA). To examine this relationship, this thesis regresses a dataset of UNGA votes, which the literature commonly uses to represent political influence, with trade and investment data. Understanding whether the growing Sino-Brazilian economic relationship politically impacts Brazil is important both to Brazil and to the United States. Any increase in Chinese influence on Brazil may translate into a corresponding decrease in U.S. influence, which may have implications for the health of Brazil's democracy, regional stability and U.S. national security. This thesis crafts, for the first time in the literature on Sino-Brazilian relations, an estimable empirical model that examines whether trade or investment influences UNGA voting behavior between these two nations; this is an improved methodology for evaluating this relationship as previous studies relied on simple correlations. This thesis makes five hypotheses, and tests them with two types of voting affinity measurements using both regression analysis and simple correlations. This thesis finds that Brazil's exports to China have a statistically significant...

A comparative analysis of congressional budget adjustments for U.S. Special Operations Command

Baker, Lauren R.; Buckles, Ralph T.
Fonte: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School
Formato: xiv, 33 p. : ill. ; 28 cm.
Português
MBA Professional Report; The 1986 Defense Authorization Act included the Cohen-Nunn Amendment establishing a unified combatant command for Special Operations Forces (SOF), U.S. Special Operation Command (USSOCOM). USSOCOM's budget has close to tripled between September 11, 2001 and the fiscal year 2012 budget while manpower has almost doubled. These statistics provide sound basis for analysis of USSOCOM's budget and supplemental funds. The purpose of this report is to analyze a segment of U.S. Special Operations Command (USSOCOM) budgets to see if there is a common theme or reason behind adjustments. Some adjustments are solicited by the services, some by Office of the Secretary of Defense (OSD) direction, and some are non-solicited adds. The past ten years have had significant effects on all Defense (DoD) and USSOCOM budgets. This research categorizes USSOCOM changes and provides recommendations for future research.; US Navy (USN) authors