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Community accountability at peripheral health facilities: a review of the empirical literature and development of a conceptual framework

Molyneux, Sassy; Atela, Martin; Angwenyi, Vibian; Goodman, Catherine
Fonte: Oxford University Press Publicador: Oxford University Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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26.34%
Public accountability has re-emerged as a top priority for health systems all over the world, and particularly in developing countries where governments have often failed to provide adequate public sector services for their citizens. One approach to strengthening public accountability is through direct involvement of clients, users or the general public in health delivery, here termed ‘community accountability’. The potential benefits of community accountability, both as an end in itself and as a means of improving health services, have led to significant resources being invested by governments and non-governmental organizations. Data are now needed on the implementation and impact of these initiatives on the ground. A search of PubMed using a systematic approach, supplemented by a hand search of key websites, identified 21 papers from low- or middle-income countries describing at least one measure to enhance community accountability that was linked with peripheral facilities. Mechanisms covered included committees and groups (n = 19), public report cards (n = 1) and patients’ rights charters (n = 1). In this paper we summarize the data presented in these papers, including impact, and factors influencing impact, and conclude by commenting on the methods used...

Local Budgeting

Shah, Anwar
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
Português
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26.33%
This publication, Local Budgeting, provides a comprehensive guide for local administrators who are involved in designing and implementing budgetary institutions and who wish to improve efficiency and equity in service delivery and to strengthen internal and external accountability. It details principles and practices to improve fiscal management. It reviews techniques available in developing countries for forecasting revenues and expenditures, and it examines institutional arrangements for ensuring transparency and fiscal discipline. In addition, it outlines some strategies to deal with corruption in local revenue administration. With respect to budgeting, the volume discusses the decisions that need to be made in determining budget format and layout, including the scope of the budget, the degree of transparency of the legal requirements underlying the budget, and the extent to which the budget will emphasize inputs, outputs, and outcomes. Local Budgeting also discusses the role of the capital budget. It details how performance budgeting can serve as a tool for results-based accountability to citizens. It helps the non-specialist reader learn how to interpret budget documents to discover what the government is doing and how well it is performing its tasks. It highlights approaches to stakeholder inputs in the budget process. Finally...

Governance Reform : Bridging Monitoring and Action

Levy, Brian
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
Português
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26.33%
Governance reform: bridging, monitoring, and action lays out a broad framework for analyzing and monitoring governance in developing countries. It identifies fourteen core indicators for governance monitoring- both broad measures of overall patterns and specific actionable measures that can be used to guide reforms and track progress. The book also summarizes good practices for reforming public bureaucracies and checks and balances institutions (including parliaments, the justice system, media and information, and local governance); highlights improvements in transparency as a relatively low-cost and low-key way of deepening government accountability to civil society; and suggests ways to complement top-down reforms with approaches that focus directly on improving service provision and the investment climate (such as strengthening the bottom-up accountabilities of service providers to communities, firms, and citizens).

Cameroon - The Path to Fiscal Decentralization : Opportunities and Challenges

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Português
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26.34%
Decentralization in Cameroon is an instrument to meet multiple objectives. This report takes stock of Cameroon s experience with decentralization. It examines whether the design has been coherently formulated and preconditions for decentralization have been put in place. It also suggests short to medium-term proposals to make the process work better, within the constraints of significant data limitations. The design of the decentralization process in Cameroon reflects the normative approaches to decentralization-assuming benign officials and policy makers, and stipulating a normative allocation of responsibilities. In reality, a political economy story is at play, as suggested by developments in the positive literature that drop the assumption of disinterested officials. The legal framework relating to decentralization is overlapping, cumbersome and contradictory, and in many respects open to different interpretations. The main difficulty is that decentralized functions are ill-defined and not distinct from deconcentrated operations of the central government. This report examines the building blocks of the decentralization framework-starting in chapter one with a description of the status quo and the methods to be used. In chapter two discuss the unclear legal framework in Cameroon. The fuzzy spending responsibilities and lack of effective strategy to address the extent and scope of decentralization are examined in chapter three. The weaknesses in information flows and public financial management (PFM) issues...

Fiscal Decentralization in Developing and Transition Economies: Progress, Problems, and the Promise

Shah, Anwar
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, D.C. Publicador: World Bank, Washington, D.C.
Português
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26.34%
The author discusses the revolution in public sector thinking that is transforming the public sectors of developing and transition countries. Countries are reconsidering their fiscal systems and searching for the right balance between central government control and decentralized governance. Political decentralization has advanced in most countries. Subnational expenditures in developing countries as a percentage of total public expenditures have also increased over the past two decades. However, the process is far from complete. In many countries, the central government is still involved in the delivery of local services, local governments have few sources of own-revenues, local governments have limited access to borrowing for capital projects, and the design of intergovernmental transfers does neither address regional fiscal equity nor convey appropriate incentives for fiscal discipline, improved service delivery performance, and accountability to citizens. Decentralized public governance can help realign public sector incentives through greater accountability to citizens...

Strengthening Governance of Social Safety Nets in ASEAN

Giannozzi, Sara; Khan, Asmeen
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
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26.34%
Several Association of Southeast Asian Nation (ASEAN) member states, in the aftermath of the global financial crisis, are expanding their social safety net programs. In many cases, existing delivery mechanisms for social assistance in the region tend to be basic, in line with the small size of programs. This paper is an analytical framework to systematically consider and include governance aspects in the design and analysis of modern social assistance programs. The underlying conceptual model is simple. Programs face a set of supply-side challenges that have to do with their institutional structure and the ways in which accountability and incentive relationships are shaped. However, both in the region and elsewhere in the world there are a number of experiences with diverse governance tools that countries can draw upon as they think how best to design and implement more sophisticated and comprehensive social safety net programs. Finally, administrative capacity is likely to represent a constraint as governments seek to deliver increasingly complex programs to a growing number of beneficiaries over a wide geographically dispersed area. While large investments in administrative capacity are unlikely...

Rwanda : Technical Assessment on a Proposed Credit

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Português
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26.34%
The Public Financial Management (PFM) Sector Strategic Plan (SSP) identifies key challenges and proposes solutions in each program that are translated into a foundation for defining sector priorities and outcomes through FY2017-18. Improving coherence between national strategies, the Medium Term Expenditure Framework (MTEF), and the annual budget process has been identified as an area for improvement under the first program, on economic planning and budgeting. In the second program, on resource mobilization, key challenges are inadequate resource mobilization, resulting in aid dependency at the national level and lack of discretionary revenues at the subnational level. Across the PFM sector, particularly under program 7, on PFM sector and coordination, capacity and skill shortages are identified as key bottlenecks. Capacity and skill shortages are more pronounced at the subnational level, especially on core PFM areas such as accounting, auditing, budgeting, and reporting. NISR made significant progress in the quality...

Mongolia Public Financial Management Performance Report

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Relatório
Português
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26.34%
This public financial management performance report (PFM-PR) is the first assessment of Mongolia’s PFM system using the public expenditure and financial accountability (PEFA) framework. The report aims principally to establish an objective baseline measure of current PFM performance, highlighting areas of absolute and relative strength and weakness, thereby enabling a stock-taking of over a decade of PFM reforms in Mongolia and guiding the government in its reform priorities. The assessment covers PFM at the budgetary central government level. The PEFA is an evidence-based methodology that measures the performance of a country’s PFM system at a particular point in time using a set of standardized indicators. The assessment is done on six dimensions of an open and orderly PFM system identified by the framework, which are: credibility of the budget; comprehensiveness and transparency; policy-based budgeting; predictability and control in budget execution; accounting, recording, and reporting; and external scrutiny and audit. This PEFA assessment will complement the considerable work that has already taken place on public expenditure management...

What Matters Most for School Autonomy and Accountability

Demas, Angela; Arcia, Gustavo
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento
Português
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26.34%
This framework paper provides an overview of what matters most for school autonomy and accountability. The focus is on public schools at the primary and the secondary level. This paper begins by grounding School Autonomy and Accountability in its theoretical evidence base (impact evaluations, lessons learned from experience, and literature reviews) and then discusses guiding principles and tools for analyzing country policy choices. The goal of this paper is to provide a framework for classifying and analyzing education systems around the world according to the following five policy goals that are critical for enabling effective school autonomy and accountability: 1) level of autonomy in the planning and management of the school budget; 2) level of autonomy in personnel management; 3) role of school councils in school governance; 4) school and student assessment, and 5) accountability to stakeholders. This paper also discusses how country context matters to school autonomy and accountability and how balancing policy goals matters to policy making for improved education quality and learning for all.

CPIA 2014 Criteria

World Bank Group
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Relatório
Português
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26.34%
The country policy and institutional assessment (CPIA) assesses the quality of a country’s present policy and institutional framework. Quality refers to how conducive that framework is to fostering poverty reduction, sustainable growth, and the effective use of development assistance. The CPIA ratings are used in the International Development Association (IDA) allocation process and several other corporate activities. The Bank initiated country assessments in the late 1970s to help guide the allocation of IDA lending resources. The CPIA consists of a set of criteria representing the different policy and institutional dimensions of an effective poverty reduction and growth strategy. This criterion assesses the quality of monetary and exchange rate policies in a coherent macroeconomic policy framework. The objective is to evaluate whether the monetary and exchange rate policy framework is consistent with economic stability and sustained medium-term growth. This criterion covers the extent to which monetary and exchange rate policy framework: (a) maintains short- and medium-term internal and external balances...

Governance of State Owned Enterprises and Public Agencies in the Islamic Republic of Mauritania; Gouvernance du secteur parapublic en Republique Islamique de Mauritanie

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Report; Economic & Sector Work; Economic & Sector Work :: Public Expenditure Review
Português
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26.34%
This study analyzes the governance framework of the business portfolio of Mauritanian institutions and government agencies and offers avenues for reform. The report begins with an overview of the scope of work and performance of the portfolio mentioned using the term Para-Statal sector and identifies the main challenges represented by this sector. It then analyzes the governance framework of Para-statal sector of Mauritania through comparative references from the guidelines of the OECD. The diagnosis includes an analysis of the legal framework, the supervisory function, risk monitoring budget and performance in terms of delivery of services, advice to administration, transparency and dissemination of information. The report closes with a detailed and sequenced action plan compiled from observations in the diagnosis and offers a series of suggestions for appropriate reforms to the institutional context of Mauritania. The action plan focuses primarily on strengthening the monitoring of risk of the budget and proposes ways of sequenced reforms taking into account both international examples and the Mauritanian context.

EU peacebuilding in Kosovo and Afghanistan : legality and accountability

SPERNBAUER, Martina
Fonte: Martinus Nijhoff Publishers Publicador: Martinus Nijhoff Publishers
Tipo: Livro
Português
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(Published version of EUI LAW PhD thesis, 2012.); In EU Peacebuilding in Kosovo and Afghanistan: Legality and Accountability Martina Spernbauer offers a comprehensive account of the EU's peacebuilding toolbox in light of the Union's constitutional architecture under the Treaty of Lisbon. A detailed analysis of EU peacebuilding in Kosovo and Afghanistan, with a focus on the security and justice sectors, demonstrates that the Union's continuous dichotomy between the Common Foreign and Security Policy (CFSP) and other Union policies is difficult to maintain for this multi-faceted, comprehensive policy framework, which lies at the interface of security, justice and development. Within this analysis, the central questions of compliance of EU external action with international law and international human rights law in particular under CFSP, as well as accountability towards third countries and their nationals are addressed.; -- Peacebuilding as a policy framework at the interface of security, justice, and development -- The legislative and institutional framework in Kosovo -- The legislative and institutional framework in Afghanistan -- Non-CFSP assistance to the law enforcement institutions -- CFSP assistance to the law enforcement institutions : CSDP operations -- Constitutional requirements for EU peacebuilding -- EU peacebuilding under a "legality" test -- EU peacebuilding under an "accountability" test

Interpreting Petroulias: pathways to enhancing integrity in the Australian Public Service

Markham, Rory
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Relatório
Português
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26.33%
The Australian Commission for Law Enforcement Integrity (ACLEI) is premised on the assumption that the AFP oversees all corruption investigations concerning law enforcement in the Australian Public Service (APS). This premise is reflected in the limitation of ACLEI's jurisdiction to the AFP and the ACC, as well as in its modest resources of 9 employees and a budget of 2 million dollars per annum. The assumption leading to the creating of ACLEI, however, is challenged by three interrelated principles that underlie the Commonwealth anti-corruption framework. First, corruption is not viewed by the APS as an independent offence in itself but is actually subsumed in the Commonwealth definition of fraud. This finding leads to the second point, that the predominate means of gathering information regarding corruption, especially regarding the limited class of law enforcement corruption in the APS, is through administrative review methods such as internal auditing, Australian Nation Audit Office performance reviews, and the Commonwealth Ombudsman. Consequently, understanding corruption oversight is as much about gaining accurate information from the APS' administrative review systems as it is about the process of the criminal law system. Thus...

Government of Republic of South Sudan Public Finance Management Assessment : Jonglei State

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Country Financial Accountability Assessment; Economic & Sector Work
Português
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26.33%
A public finance management (PFM) law is still not in place, even though a draft was prepared more than three years ago. The purpose is to assess the PFM system performance of Jonglei State in South Sudan. This report feeds into a Country Fiduciary Risk Assessment (CIFA) along with a South Sudan Public Expenditure Financial Accountability (PEFA) assessment country procurement assessment report being prepared by a World Bank team on Republic of the Republic of South Sudan (GRSS's) procurement system, using the OECD-DAC assessment methodology, and with PFM diagnostics study on three other state governments. The CIFA will include an action plan for implementing PFM reforms. This PEFA is focused on the State Government of Jonglei. At the time of this PEFA assessment, South Sudan, then known as Southern Sudan, was a semi-autonomous part of Sudan managed by Government of Southern Sudan (GoSS), as part of the Government of National Unity (GoNU) that included both GoSS and the Government of Sudan ('the north'). Jonglei is the largest state in South Sudan...

Vietnam Fiscal Transparency Review : Analysis and Stakeholder Feedback on State Budget Information in the Public Domain

World Bank
Fonte: Hanoi Publicador: Hanoi
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Other Financial Accountability Study
Português
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26.33%
Vietnam has come far in improving fiscal transparency. Building on these gains could help strengthen macroeconomic management, improve market perceptions of risk, and increase accountability for service delivery. Fiscal transparency is an important element of the Government's policy dialogue with development partners, particularly in the context of ongoing budgetary support. External reviews of PFM and fiscal transparency in Vietnam have noted important progress though highlighted considerable scope for improvement. This report aims to complement ongoing PFM reviews, including the Government's Public Expenditure and Financial Accountability (PEFA) assessment, to help identify relatively low cost measures to strengthen fiscal transparency. It draws on existing diagnostic approaches to carry out a technical review on the public availability of fiscal information (section B), and the coverage, comprehensiveness and presentation of fiscal reports (sections C and D).

Republic of Armenia : Country Procurement Assessment Report

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Country Procurement Assessment (CPAR); Economic & Sector Work
Português
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26.33%
Along with assessing the comprehensiveness, transparency, and competitiveness of Armenia's public procurement system, this CPAR addressed specific issues of importance to Government. The MOFE has been advocating that procurement using extra-budgetary donor funds follow the same rules as budget-funded procurement, with the SPA playing the same role. The Authorized Body, which regulates and monitors public procurement (attached to the Ministry of Finance) has been keen to introduce electronic procurement and has already hired a firm to develop specifications. The Ministry of Defense (MOD) has established an internal procurement department and requested the CPAR team's advice in its effort to identify which of its purchases could be suitable for open bidding, as required by law. Therefore the CPAR covers these four key topics: (1) the current degree of centralization of procurement control within the State Procurement Agency; (2) gradual transfer of experience and authority for procurement using Bank funds from Project Implementation Units to the line ministries; (3) the potential for introducing electronic catalogues for periodic procurement and the strategy for introducing other e-procurement uses; and (4) introduction of open bidding procedures for the procurement of non-sensitive items by the Ministry of Defense (MOD). The CPAR presents concrete recommendations that would contribute to three of the five core fiscal strategy objectives of the PER: (1) provide for major improvements in budget accountability to ensure that incremental resources are spent in a transparent and efficient way...

Albania : Public Expenditure and Institutional Review, Volume 1. Executive Summary

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Public Expenditure Review; Economic & Sector Work
Português
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26.33%
This report presents an in-depth evaluation of the budgetary planning process in Albania and the institutional arrangements required for better management of public expenditures. The report does not provide a detailed analysis of expenditures or an assessment of investment projects and their outcomes in each sector. Such a shift in emphasis is appropriate given the currently weak institutional capacities in Albania and the need to enforce accountability in the public sector.The report is arranged as follows: Chapter 1 deals with the macroeconomic frmaework and policies needed to maintain fiscal sustainability and improve fiscal discipline. Chapter 2 discusses revenue and expenditure patterns, presents measures that would enhance revenue performance and analyzes the allocation of expenditures. This chapter is designed to highlight the key expenditure priorities that should be more fully addressed as Albania moves forward with the medium-term expenditure framework process (MTEF). The bulk of the report--Chapters 3...

Governance in State-Owned Enterprises Revisited : The Cases of Water and Electricity in Latin America and the Caribbean

Andrés, Luis Alberto; Guasch, José Luis; López Azumendi, Sebastián
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper
Português
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26.36%
This paper studies the governance structure of state-owned enterprises in the water and electricity sectors of Latin America and the Caribbean. Through a unique dataset, the paper compares 44 leading state companies of the region based on an aggregate measure of corporate governance and six salient aspects of their design: board, chief executive officer, performance orientation, management, legal framework, and transparency/disclosure. The results indicate the need for improvement in areas such as the selection and appointment of directors to the board and the performance-orientation of the enterprises. The paper also highlights the importance of discussing the management of state-owned enterprises in the wider context of public sector governance, with particular focus on accountability. Moreover, it recognizes the role of accountability as central in the management of state-owned enterprises, recommending a better understanding of regulation and performance management. The paper finds a positive correlation between corporate governance and the utilities' performance. Among the different aspects of corporate governance...

Kyrgyz Republic Public Expenditure Review Policy Notes : Public Investment Management

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Public Expenditure Review; Economic & Sector Work
Português
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26.36%
Weaknesses in the public investment management (PIM) system may limit the gains from higher public sector investments in the Kyrgyz Republic. Capital spending has averaged 6.4 percent of GDP since 2010, up from 4.6 percent of GDP between 2005 and 2009, with significant investment in the energy sector and roads. Still, it remains unclear to what extent these investment decisions reflect the country's and sector priorities. Few projects, with the exception of donor-financed projects are subject to rigorous appraisal and there is no systematic procedure in place to monitor implementation progress. As a result, projects are often delayed or stalled and cost over-runs are frequent. Donor-financed projects, which comprise the bulk of public investment, are subject to relatively more rigorous project cycle management; however, they too face some of the same weaknesses. The rest of the note is structured as follows: section two provides a diagnosis of the public investment portfolio, including the structure of expenditures...

Turkey : Country Procurement Assessment Report

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Country Procurement Assessment (CPAR); Economic & Sector Work
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.36%
Public procurement legislation in Turkey has not kept pace with the sweeping reforms undertaken in the national procurement systems of many other countries during the same period nor with the development of internationally recognized bodies of procurement legislation, such as those of United Nations Commission on International Trade Law (UNCITRAL), the European Union (EU) and the World Trade Organization (WTO). Following Turkey's acceptance, in December 1999, as a candidate country for accession to the EU, the Government has committed itself to achieving approximation and, eventually, alignment with EU law in many areas, including public procurement. To that end, the MOF and MPWS have already begun the process of drafting a new public procurement law, a draft of which has already been promulgated within Government and on which both the World Bank and the European Commission have offered their comments. Clearly, it is essential that this new draft law should not only make up the ground lost in the 17 years since the GPL was last amended but also bring the Turkish law up to date with recognized models of best practice and achieve an appropriate degree of approximation with the EU Directives. However...