Germ cells undergo epigenetic modifications as they develop, which suggests that they may be ideal donors for nuclear transfer (cloning). In this study, nuclei from confirmed embryonic germ cells were used as donors to determine whether they are competent for cloning and at which stage they are most competent. Embryos cloned from migrating 10.5-days-postcoitum (dpc) primordial germ cells (PGCs) showed normal morphological development to midgestation but died shortly thereafter. In contrast, embryos cloned from later-stage germ cells were developmentally delayed at midgestation. Thus, donor germ cell age inversely correlated with the developmental stage attained by cloned embryos. The methylation status of the H19- and Snrpn-imprinting control regions in germ cell clones paralleled that of the donors, and revealed that demethylation, or erasure of imprints, was already initiated in PGCs at 10.5 dpc and was complete by 13.5 dpc. Similarly, clones derived from male 15.5-dpc germ cells showed increased methylation correlating with the initiation of de novo methylation that resets imprints at this stage, and clones from neonatal germ cells showed nearly complete methylation in the H19 imprinting control region. These results indicate that the epigenetic state of the donor nucleus is retained in cloned embryos...
Nuclear transfer technology can be applied to produce autologous differentiated cells for therapeutic purposes, a concept termed therapeutic cloning. Countless articles have been published on the ethics and politics of human therapeutic cloning, reflecting the high expectations from this new opportunity for rejuvenation of the aging or diseased body. Yet the research literature on therapeutic cloning, strictly speaking, is comprised of only four articles, all in the mouse. The efficiency of derivation of embryonic stem cell lines via nuclear transfer is remarkably consistent among these reports. However, the efficiency is so low that, in its present form, the concept is unlikely to become widespread in clinical practice.
The method uses a novel plasmid vector, p9lox5, containing a site-specific recombination sequence lox from the lox/Cre recombinase system of bacteriophage P1. There are two distinct stages. Firstly, vector and fragment DNAs are ligated intermolecularly under conditions of macromolecular crowding (15% polyethylene glycol 6000) which accelerate blunt-end joining a thousandfold. Secondly, circular recombinant molecules are efficiently excised from the ligation products by Cre recombinase acting on pairs of lox sites within directly repeated vector molecules flanking insert DNA. Recombinants are introduced into cells conventionally by transformation or electroporation. In both a model system and the cloning of PCR products, yields approaching those obtainable in cohesive-end cloning were achieved. Applications of the technique to cDNA library generation and recovery of DNA from archive material are discussed.
We have constructed a genomic library of Neurospora crassa DNA in a cosmid vector that contains the dominant selectable marker for benomyl resistance. The library is arranged to permit the rapid cloning of Neurospora genes by either sib-selection or colony-hybridization protocols. Detailed procedures for the uses of the library are described. By use of these procedures, a modest number of unrelated genes have been isolated. The cloning of trp-3, the structural gene for the multifunctional enzyme tryptophan synthetase (tryptophan synthase, EC 220.127.116.11), is reported in detail; its identity was verified by restriction fragment length polymorphism mapping. The strategies described in this paper should be of use in the cloning of any gene of Neurospora, as well as genes of other lower eukaryotes.
We present a procedure for cosmid cloning that allows rapid and efficient cloning of individual DNA fragments of between 32kb and 45kb. By appropriate treatment of the cloning vector, pJb8, we make left-hand and right-hand vector ends that are incapable of self-ligation but which accept dephosporylated insert DNA fragments. The inserted fragments are generated by partial digestion with MboI or Sau3A and are dephosphorylated to prevent ligation and insertion of non-contiguous fragments. The method eliminates the need to size the insert DNA fragments and prevents formation of clones containing short or multiple inserts. 1 microgram of target Drosophila DNA gives about 5 x 10(5) clones, with an average insert size of 38kb. We also describe a rapid and efficient method for preparing plasmid and cosmid DNA.
Fitzgerald, M C; Skowron, P; Van Etten, J L; Smith, L M; Mead, D A
Fonte: PubMedPublicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 25/07/1992Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
A new approach has been developed for the rapid fragmentation and fractionation of DNA into a size suitable for shotgun cloning and sequencing. The restriction endonuclease CviJI normally cleaves the recognition sequence PuGCPy between the G and C to leave blunt ends. Atypical reaction conditions which alter the specificity of this enzyme (CviJI**) yield a quasi-random distribution of DNA fragments from the small molecule pUC19 (2686 base pairs). To quantitatively evaluate the randomness of this fragmentation strategy, a CviJI** digest of pUC19 was size fractionated by a rapid gel filtration method and directly ligated, without end repair, to a lacZ minus M13 cloning vector. Sequence analysis of 76 clones showed that CviJI** restricts PyGCPy and PuGCPu, in addition to PuGCPy sites, and that new sequence data is accumulated at a rate consistent with random fragmentation. Advantages of this approach compared to sonication and agarose gel fractionation include: smaller amounts of DNA are required (0.2-0.5 micrograms instead of 2-5 micrograms), fewer steps are involved (no preligation, end repair, chemical extraction, or agarose gel electrophoresis and elution are needed), and higher cloning efficiencies are obtained (CviJI** digested and column fractionated DNA transforms 3-16 times more efficiently than sonicated...
A set of plasmid vectors which allow single-step cloning and expression of PCR-amplified DNA coding sequences has been constructed. The vectors contain the phage lambda PL promoter, a synthetic translation initiation region (TIR), and convenient cloning sites. The cloning sites provide all or part of an AUG translation initiation codon and facilitate the precise fusion of target DNA sequences to vector transcriptional and translational signals. The vectors were constructed with synthetic TIRs because there is evidence which suggests that the efficiency of the phage lambda cII gene TIR present in the parental vector depends strongly on information contained within the cII N-terminal coding sequence. Bovine brain 14-3-3 eta chain cDNA was PCR-amplified and used to demonstrate the expression capacity of the newly constructed vectors. A significant increase in expression of 14-3-3 protein was observed when synthetic TIRs were used in the place of the cII TIR. Expression levels vary from 15% to 48% of total cell protein. The effects of a reported translational enhancer from phage T7 on expression of the 14-3-3 protein are also discussed. The vectors should be generally useful for high level heterologous protein expression in Escherichia coli.
Avian erythroblastosis virus (AEV) causes erythroblastosis and sarcomas in birds and transforms both erythroblasts and fibroblasts to neoplastic phenotypes in culture. The viral genetic locus required for oncogenesis by AEV is at present poorly defined; moreover, we know very little of the mechanism of tumorigenesis by the virus. To facilitate further analysis of these problems, we used molecular cloning to isolate the genome of AEV as recombinant DNA in a procaryotic vector. The identity of the isolated DNA was verified by mapping with restriction endonucleases and by tests for biological activity. The circular form of unintegrated AEV DNA was purified from synchronously infected quail cells and cloned into the EcoRI site of lambda gtWES x B. A restriction endonuclease cleavage map was established. By hybridization with complementary DNA probes representing specific parts of avian retrovirus genomes, the restriction map of the cloned AEV DNAs was correlated with a genetic map. These data show that nucleotide sequences unique to AEV comprise at least 50% of the genome and are located approximately in the middle of the AEV genome. Our data confirm and extend previous descriptions of the AEV genome obtained by other procedures. We studied in detail two recombinant clones containing AEV DNA: the topography of the viral DNA in the two clones was virtually identical...
cDNA expression cloning is a powerful method for the rescue and identification of genes that are able to confer a readily identifiable phenotype on specific cell types. Retroviral vectors provide several advantages over DNA-mediated gene transfer for the introduction of expression libraries into eukaryotic cells since they can be used to express genes in a wide range of cell types, including those that form important experimental systems such as the hemopoietic system. We describe here a straightforward and efficient method for generating expression libraries by using a murine retroviral vector. Essentially, the method involves the directional cloning of cDNA into the retroviral vector and the generation of pools of stable ecotropic virus producing cells from this DNA. The cells so derived constitute the library, and the virus they yield is used to infect appropriate target cells for subsequent functional screening. We have demonstrated the feasibility of this procedure by constructing several large retroviral libraries (10(5) to 10(6) individual clones) and then using one of these libraries to isolate cDNAs for interleukin-3 and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor on the basis of the ability of these factors to confer autonomous growth on the factor-dependent hemopoietic cell line FDC-P1. Moreover...
We have developed a sib selection procedure for cloning Neurospora crassa nuclear genes by complementation of mutants. This procedure takes advantage of a modified N. crassa transformation procedure that gives as many as 10,000 to 50,000 stable transformants per microgram of DNA with recombinant plasmids containing the N. crassa qa-2+ gene. Here, we describe the use of the sib selection procedure to clone genes corresponding to auxotrophic mutants, nic-1 and inl. The identities of the putative clones were confirmed by mapping their chromosomal locations in standard genetic crosses and using restriction site polymorphisms as genetic markers. Because we can obtain very high N. crassa transformation frequencies, cloning can be accomplished with as few as five subdivisions of an N. crassa genomic library. The sib selection procedure should, for the first time, permit the cloning of any gene corresponding to an N. crassa mutant for which an appropriate selection can be devised. Analogous procedures may be applicable to other filamentous fungi before the development of operational shuttle vectors.
The fate of hamster cells, abortively infected with adenovirus type 12, has been studied by correlation of chromosomal aberrations with induction of T antigens and cloning efficiency. The incidence of chromosomal changes paralleled to some extent the T antigen formation, but was inversely related to the cloning efficiency of the cells. At an input multiplicity of 100, within 24 hr after infection, nearly all of the cells or metaphases revealed the presence of T antigens and chromosomal lesions, respectively, but no clones of cells were obtained. Inhibition of cellular deoxyribonucleic acid synthesis was not noted during this period. Increasing doses of ultraviolet irradiation reduced, successively, the capacity of the virus to induce chromosomal aberrations and correspondingly improved cloning efficiency of the exposed cells. It is concluded that most, if not all, cells revealing chromosomal lesions 24 hr after infection fail to enter further mitoses.
In the establishment of the legume-rhizobial symbiosis, bacterial lipochitooligosaccharide signaling molecules termed Nod factors activate the formation of a novel root organ, the nodule. Nod factors elicit several responses in plant root hair cells, including oscillations in cytoplasmic calcium levels (termed calcium spiking) and alterations in root hair growth. A number of plant mutants with defects in the Nod factor signaling pathway have been identified. One such Medicago truncatula mutant, dmi3, exhibits calcium spiking and root hair swelling in response to Nod factor, but fails to initiate symbiotic gene expression or cell divisions for nodule formation. On the basis of these data, it is thought that the dmi3 mutant perceives Nod factor but fails to transduce the signal downstream of calcium spiking. Additionally, the dmi3 mutant is defective in the symbiosis with mycorrhizal fungi, indicating the importance of the encoded protein in multiple symbioses. We report the identification of the DMI3 gene, using a gene cloning method based on transcript abundance. We show that transcript-based cloning is a valid approach for cloning genes in barley, indicating the value of this technology in crop plants. DMI3 encodes a calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase. Mutants in pea sym9 have phenotypes similar to dmi3 and have alterations in this gene. The DMI3 class of proteins is well conserved among plants that interact with mycorrhizal fungi...
Retinoblastoma, the most common intraocular tumor, represents one of the prototypes of inheritable cancers. To elucidate the mechanisms that give rise to this tumor, the retinoblastoma gene (RB) must be molecularly cloned. The difficulty encountered in cloning the gene is that little of its function or structure is known. The human esterase D gene, on the other hand, has been localized cytogenetically to the same sub-band of chromosome 13q14:11 as the RB gene. The esterase D gene thus provides a convenient starting point for cloning the RB gene. In this communication, we describe the isolation of the esterase D cDNA clone. Its identification is based on three lines of evidence. This cDNA encodes a protein immunologically related to the esterase D protein. The deduced amino acid sequences of this clone contain sequences identical to the three CNBr-cleaved peptides of the esterase D protein. This clone is mapped to the chromosome 13q14 region by Southern genomic blotting using different deletion mutants. The availability of this clone should allow for the cloning of the RB gene by chromosome walking; the diagnosis of genetic defects such as retinoblastomas and Wilson disease, whose genes are closely linked to the esterase D gene; and the exploration of the large family of human esterase genes.
Charomids are cosmid vectors up to 52 kilobases (kb) long, bearing 1-23 copies of a 2-kb spacer fragment linked in head-to-tail tandem arrays. Like cosmids and lambda phage, charomids can be packaged in vitro for efficient introduction into bacteria. Charomids contain a polylinker with nine unique restriction sites for cloning and can be used without preparing vector arms. Using a charomid of appropriate size, one can clone inserts of any size up to 45 kb. For example, charomid 9-36 (9 cloning sites, 36 kb long) is too small to be packaged efficiently without an insert and can be used to clone fragments of 2-16 kb. The structure of charomids facilitates restriction mapping of the insert DNA and, after cloning, all the spacer fragments can be removed easily. After enrichment by size fractionation in an agarose gel, a specific single-copy genomic sequence can be cloned rapidly from approximately 3 micrograms of DNA. Using charomid 9-36, we have cloned and mapped an amplified novel DNA fragment from a cell line resistant to N-(phosphonoacetyl)-L-aspartate and carrying about 100 copies of the CAD (carbamoyl-phosphate synthetase/aspartate carbamoyltransferase/dihydroorotase) gene. The fragment lies at the center of an inverted duplication of this gene.
Recombination systems based on λ and Cre/loxP have been described to facilitate gene transfer from one vector to another in a high-throughput fashion, avoiding the bottlenecks associated with traditional cloning. However, no system described to date is suitable for the cloning of affinity reagents selected from display libraries, which requires that the recombination signals flanking the affinity reagent are translated with a minimum impact on functionality. As affinity reagents will be essential tools in the functional characterization of proteomes, and display technologies represent the most effective means to generate such affinity reagents on a genomic scale, we developed a Cre/loxP-based system, using mutually exclusive heterologous loxP sites placed 5′ (Lox 2372) and 3′ (Lox WT) of an affinity reagent (scFv). The translated lox sites have minimal impact on scFv expression or functionality, and, in association with a conditionally lethal gene (SacB) permit efficient, high-fidelity transfer to destination vectors. This approach will considerably facilitate the high-throughput downstream use of affinity reagents selected by display technologies, as well as being widely applicable to general recombinatorial cloning for genomic purposes.
Recently, metric linkage disequilibrium (LD) maps that assign an LD unit (LDU) location for each marker have been developed (Maniatis et al. 2002). Here we present a multiple pairwise method for positional cloning by LD within a composite likelihood framework and investigate the operating characteristics of maps in physical units (kb) and LDU for two bodies of data (Daly et al. 2001; Jeffreys et al. 2001) on which current ideas of blocks are based. False-negative indications of a disease locus (type II error) were examined by selecting one single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) at a time as causal and taking its allelic count (0, 1, or 2, for the three genotypes) as a pseudophenotype, Y. By use of regression and correlation, association between every pseudophenotype and the allelic count of each SNP locus (X) was based on an adaptation of the Malecot model, which includes a parameter for location of the putative gene. By expressing locations in kb or LDU, greater power for localization was observed when the LDU map was fitted. The efficiency of the kb map, relative to the LDU map, to describe LD varied from a maximum of 0.87 to a minimum of 0.36, with a mean of 0.62. False-positive indications of a disease locus (type I error) were examined by simulating an unlinked causal SNP and the allele count was used as a pseudophenotype. The type I error was in good agreement with Wald’s likelihood theorem for both metrics and all models that were tested. Unlike tests that select only the most significant marker...
Forward genetic screens have been used as a powerful strategy to dissect complex biological pathways in many model systems. A significant limitation of this approach has been the time-consuming and costly process of positional cloning and molecular characterization of the mutations isolated in these screens. Here, the authors describe a strategy using microarray hybridizations to facilitate positional cloning. This method relies on the fact that premature stop codons (i.e., nonsense mutations) constitute a frequent class of mutations isolated in screens and that nonsense mutant messenger RNAs are efficiently degraded by the conserved nonsense-mediated decay pathway. They validate this strategy by identifying two previously uncharacterized mutations: (1) tom-1, a mutation found in a forward genetic screen for enhanced acetylcholine secretion in Caenorhabditis elegans, and (2) an apparently spontaneous mutation in the hif-1 transcription factor gene. They further demonstrate the broad applicability of this strategy using other known mutants in C. elegans, Arabidopsis, and mouse. Characterization of tom-1 mutants suggests that TOM-1, the C. elegans ortholog of mammalian tomosyn, functions as an endogenous inhibitor of neurotransmitter secretion. These results also suggest that microarray hybridizations have the potential to significantly reduce the time and effort required for positional cloning.
Plant genome sequence data now provide opportunities to conduct molecular genetic studies at the level of the whole gene locus and above. Such studies will be greatly facilitated by adopting and developing further the new generation of genetic engineering tools, based on homologous recombination cloning in Escherichia coli, which are free from the constraints imposed by the availability of suitably positioned restriction sites. Here we describe the basis for homologous recombination cloning in E. coli, the available tools and resources, together with a protocol for long range cloning and manipulation of an Arabidopsis thaliana gene locus, to create constructs co-ordinately driven by locus-specific regulatory elements.
The reported draft human genome sequence includes many contigs that are separated by gaps of unknown sequence. These gaps may be due to chromosomal regions that are not present in the Escherichia coli libraries used for DNA sequencing because they cannot be cloned efficiently, if at all, in bacteria. Using a yeast artificial chromosome (YAC)/ bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library generated in yeast, we found that approximately 6% of human DNA sequences tested transformed E. coli cells less efficiently than yeast cells, and were less stable in E. coli than in yeast. When the ends of several YAC/BAC isolates cloned in yeast were sequenced and compared with the reported draft sequence, major inconsistencies were found with the sequences of those YAC/BAC isolates that transformed E. coli cells inefficiently. Two human genomic fragments were re-isolated from human DNA by transformation-associated recombination (TAR) cloning. Re-sequencing of these regions showed that the errors in the draft are the results of both missassembly and loss of specific DNA sequences during cloning in E. coli. These results show that TAR cloning might be a valuable method that could be widely used during the final stages of the Human Genome Project.
Bifidobacterium longum DJO10A is a recent human isolate with probiotic characteristics and contains two plasmids, designated pDOJH10L and pDOJH10S. The complete sequences of both these plasmids have now been determined and consist of two circular DNA molecules of 10,073 and 3,661 bp, with G+C contents of 62.2% and 66.2%, respectively. Plasmid pDOJH10L is a cointegrate plasmid consisting of DNA regions exhibiting very high sequence identity to two other B. longum plasmids, pNAC2 (98%) and pKJ50 (96%), together with another region. Interestingly, the rolling circular replication (RCR) regions of both the pNAC2- and pKJ50-like plasmids were disrupted during the recombination event leading to a further recombination event to acquire a functional replicon. This consists of a new fused rep gene and an RCR-type ori consisting of a conserved DnaA box in an AT-rich region followed by four contiguous repeated sequences consistent with an iteron structure and an inverted repeat. The smaller pDOJH10S had no sequence similarity to any other characterized plasmid from bifidobacteria. In addition, it did not contain any features consistent with RCR, which is the replication mechanism proposed for all the bifidobacteria plasmids characterized to date. It did exhibit sequence similarity with several theta replication-related replication proteins from other gram-positive...