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Performance measurement and improvement in the management of bank branch networks using data envelopment analysis

Camanho, Ana Maria Cunha Ribeiro dos Santos Ponces
Fonte: Universidade do Porto Publicador: Universidade do Porto
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: XVII, 319 fls., 30 cm; application/pdf; application/pdf
Português
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Dissertation submitted for obtain the degree of Doctor of Philosophy, at the University of Warwich

Population biobanking in selected European countries and proposed model for a Polish national DNA bank

Sak, Jarosław; Pawlikowski, Jakub; Goniewicz, Mariusz; Witt, Magdalena
Fonte: Springer-Verlag Publicador: Springer-Verlag
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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Population biobanks offer new opportunities for public health, are rudimentary for the development of its new branch called Public Health Genomics, and are important for translational research. This article presents organizational models of population biobanks in selected European countries. Review of bibliography and websites of European population biobanks (UK, Spain, Estonia). Some countries establish national genomic biobanks (DNA banks) in order to conduct research on new methods of prevention, diagnosis and treatment of the genetic and lifestyle diseases and on pharmacogenetic research. Individual countries have developed different organizational models of these institutions and specific legal regulations regarding various ways of obtaining genetic data from the inhabitants, donors’ rights, organizational and legal aspects. Population biobanks in European countries were funded in different manners. In light of these solutions, the authors discuss prospects of establishing a Polish national genomic biobank for research purpose. They propose the creation of such an institution based on the existing network of blood-donation centres and clinical biobanks in Poland.

Potential Bud Bank Responses to Apical Meristem Damage and Environmental Variables: Matching or Complementing Axillary Meristems?

Klimešová, Jitka; Malíková, Lenka; Rosenthal, Jonathan; Šmilauer, Petr
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 06/02/2014 Português
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Soil nutrients, dormant axillary meristem availability, and competition can influence plant tolerance to damage. However, the role of potential bud banks (adventitious meristems initiated only after injury) is not known. Examining Central European field populations of 22 species of short-lived monocarpic herbs exposed to various sources of damage, we hypothesized that: (1) with increasing injury severity, the number of axillary branches would decrease, due to axillary meristem limitation, whereas the number of adventitious shoots (typically induced by severe injury) would increase; (2) favorable environmental conditions would allow intact plants to branch more, resulting in stronger axillary meristem limitation than in unfavorable conditions; and (3) consequently, adventitious sprouting would be better enabled in favorable than unfavorable conditions. We found strong support for the first hypothesis, only limited support for the second, and none for the third. Our results imply that whereas soil nutrients and competition marginally influence plant tolerance to damage, potential bud banks enable plants to overcome meristem limitation from severe damage, and therefore better tolerate it. All the significant effects were found in intraspecific comparisons...

A Simple Approach for Monitoring Business Service Time Variation

Yang, Su-Fen; Arnold, Barry C.
Fonte: Hindawi Publishing Corporation Publicador: Hindawi Publishing Corporation
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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Control charts are effective tools for signal detection in both manufacturing processes and service processes. Much of the data in service industries comes from processes having nonnormal or unknown distributions. The commonly used Shewhart variable control charts, which depend heavily on the normality assumption, are not appropriately used here. In this paper, we propose a new asymmetric EWMA variance chart (EWMA-AV chart) and an asymmetric EWMA mean chart (EWMA-AM chart) based on two simple statistics to monitor process variance and mean shifts simultaneously. Further, we explore the sampling properties of the new monitoring statistics and calculate the average run lengths when using both the EWMA-AV chart and the EWMA-AM chart. The performance of the EWMA-AV and EWMA-AM charts and that of some existing variance and mean charts are compared. A numerical example involving nonnormal service times from the service system of a bank branch in Taiwan is used to illustrate the applications of the EWMA-AV and EWMA-AM charts and to compare them with the existing variance (or standard deviation) and mean charts. The proposed EWMA-AV chart and EWMA-AM charts show superior detection performance compared to the existing variance and mean charts. The EWMA-AV chart and EWMA-AM chart are thus recommended.

The development of services in the Caribbean

Fonte: ECLAC Publicador: ECLAC
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Includes bibliography; The services sector has grown significantly in most countries and in the world economy as a whole. This has been observed in the progression from primary to secondary and/or tertiary sector-led economic growth and development. Services contribute significantly to output, employment and exports. They account for about 80% of the United States output (GDP) and about 65% of GDP of the European Union. Developed countries are the largest service exporters accounting for over 70% of services traded in the late 1990s. Although developing countries account for a relatively small proportion of internationally traded services their exports of services grew more significantly than those of developed countries during the 1990s. Travel and tourism are the most significant service exports of developing countries. Export of financial services became increasingly significant since the 1990s. Most Caribbean countries have moved directly from primary-sector-led development to tertiary-sector-led development. Despite this, data collection and accounting methods remained largely biased towards measurement of the goods producing sectors of the economy. This is no doubt due to the fact that the output of services sectors is more difficult to measure than that of goods sectors. Part of the problem of measurement has to do with the treatment of services within goods producing sectors. One can determine the contribution of services to output if...

Managing the Politics of Reform : Overhauling the Legal Infrastructure of Public Procurement in the Philippines

Campos, J. Edgardo; Syquia, Jose Luis
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
Português
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Over the past 30 years there has been considerable research on the political economy of reform. Yet despite this, little is known about strategies for managing the politics of change-moving from a bad to a better equilibrium. Part of the challenge of studying this issue stems from the difficulty of obtaining detailed, so-called "blow-by-blow" information on actual reform processes. From this type of information, one can discern and cull practical lessons on strategy, which by its very nature is about dealing with political barriers or problems as they crop up during the implementation process. This study looks at the sequence of events that ultimately led to the passage of legislation that markedly altered the rules that govern public procurement in the Philippines. The study attempts to distill operationally useful lessons for managing the politics of a reform process.

Corruption and Decentralized Public Governance

Shah, Anwar
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
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This paper examines the conceptual and empirical basis of corruption and governance and concludes that decentralized local governance is conducive to reduced corruption in the long run. This is because localization helps to break the monopoly of power at the national level by bringing decisionmaking closer to people. Localization strengthens government accountability to citizens by involving citizens in monitoring government performance and demanding corrective actions. Localization as a means to making government responsive and accountable to people can help reduce corruption and improve service delivery. Efforts to improve service delivery usually force the authorities to address corruption and its causes. However, one must pay attention to the institutional environment and the risk of local capture by elites. In the institutional environments typical of some developing countries, when in a geographical area, feudal or industrial interests dominate and institutions of participation and accountability are weak or ineffective and political interference in local affairs is rampant, localization may increase opportunities for corruption. This suggests a pecking order of anticorruption policies and programs where the rule of law and citizen empowerment should be the first priority in any reform efforts. Localization in the absence of rule of law may not prove to be a potent remedy for combating corruption.

Democratization and Clientelism : Why are Young Democracies Badly Governed?

Keefer, Philip
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
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This paper identifies systematic performance differences between younger and older democracies: younger democracies are more corrupt; exhibit less rule of law, lower levels of bureaucratic quality, and lower secondary school enrollments; and spend more on public investment and government workers. Only one theory explains the effects of democratic age on the wide range of policy outcomes examined here-the inability of political competitors in younger democracies to make credible promises to citizens. This explanation, first advanced in Keefer and Vlaicu (2004), offers a concrete interpretation of what political institutionalization might mean, and why it is that young democracies frequently fail to become older and well-performing democracies. A variety of tests support this explanation against alternatives. The effect of democratic age remains large even after controlling for the possibilities that voters are less well-informed in young democracies, that young democracies have systematically different political and electoral institutions, or that young democracies exhibit more polarized societies.

Developing Capacity Through Networks : Lessons from Anticorruption Parliamentary Coalitions

Campbell, Meaghan; Stapenhurst, Frederick C.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
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National, regional, or global networks of parliamentarians are proving important vehicles for enhancing their capacity and the effectiveness of parliaments and parliamentarians in developing countries. The networks have been particularly active in fighting corruption and mitigating its negative impacts on economic and human development. This Capacity Development (CD) Brief reviews the activities of several such networks worldwide at the individual, regional, and global levels that are making a difference in the ability of parliamentarians to address corruption in their countries.

Winning through Cross-Cutting : Breaking Down IFC Silos to Promote Access to Finance in Rural Bangladesh

Kamal, Sayed Tarek; Haque, Mekhola; Zaman, Zaki Uz
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
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In an increasingly congested market for financial institutions in the major cities of Bangladesh, United Leasing Company (ULC), an International Finance Corporation (IFC) partner financial institution, decided to go where other such institutions were not yet focusing, rural Bangladesh. The smart lesson describes how IFC South Asia Enterprise Development Facility (SEDF) was able to leverage internal expertise and help ULC take a first-mover position and access viable businesses in rural Bangladesh.

Reaching Out to Indigenous People in the Russian Far East

Buhonina, Natalia
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
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The Russian Far East faces severe development challenges. Its remoteness and harsh winter conditions, particularly in the case of Magadan Oblast, limit economic development opportunities to mining and fishing. The weak investment climate, combined with geographic isolation, contribute to a poor standard of living. And the most vulnerable group is the indigenous community, where unemployment is four to five times that of the general population. The smart lesson summarizes the experience of the Russian Far East Business Development Project in working to develop new economic opportunities for entrepreneurs among the native population.

Regional Planning, Local Visions : Participatory Futuring in West Africa

Easton, Peter
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
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The note examines regional planning, and future participatory methods for economic development in West Africa, based on the work carried out by the Club du Sahel - a branch of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) - responsible for coordinating northern donor agencies, in support of food security, and natural resource management in the desert-edge portions of West Africa, in cooperation with the Interstate Committee for Struggle Against Drought in the Sahel. The results prompted controversy, because of disagreements between Europeans - favoring urban-oriented scenarios - and North Americans - more inclined toward rural-oriented ones - including the views of Northerners who provided the analysis, in contrast to that of African researchers who felt somehow shortchanged. However, collaboration on a participatory study of decentralization, and capacity building, involving case studies of local communities, assumed a major new development, and management responsibilities on their own. Through a trial methodology...

Corporate Social Responsibility : Private Self-Regulation is Not Enough

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Português
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Corporate social responsibility (CSR) has become an established part of the global landscape, with companies throughout the world abiding by the United Nations global compact and many governments starting CSR initiatives. Michel Doucin explains the history behind the phenomenon, identifying the pioneers, including those in emerging markets, and the different interpretations of CSR. He argues for the recently adopted genuine international rules to shape a universal CSR framework.

Priorities for Sustainable Growth : A Strategy for Agriculture Sector Development in Tajikistan, Technical Annex 1. Cotton Sector Review

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
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Agriculture sector growth has made a powerful contribution to post-war economic recovery in Tajikistan, accounting for approximately one third of overall economic growth from 1998 to 2004. Sector output increased by 65 percent in real terms during this period, and has now returned to the level extant at independence in 1990. Total Factor Productivity (TFP) has also increased, by 3 percent per year. Despite this progress, there is legitimate concern that this growth is unsustainable. Evidence suggests that it has been driven largely by the external factors noted above, rather than substantive changes to resources, incentives and the behavior of factor and commodity markets. First, an extensive program of policy reform, particularly in the area of land ownership, has yet to make a substantial impact on the incentive structure for agricultural workers cultivating the majority of arable land. Second, sustainable growth requires positive net investment. Third, commodity markets remain weak, with a limited capacity to translate increased demand into improved production incentives. And fourth...

Deepening Trade Reforms in Syria for Improving Competitiveness and Promoting Non-Oil Exports

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
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Syria made promotion of non-oil exports one of the main objectives of its development strategy to counter the emerging twin balance of payments and fiscal deficits resulting from secular decline of oil production and exports. To realize this objective, the Government has implemented a number of trade policy reforms and took complementary measures in other policy areas during the 10th five-year plan to improve competitiveness of Syrian products in international markets. Non-oil exports responded strongly to the policy improvements. There is now a wide recognition of the need for further reforms to maintain this momentum. This paper tried to assess the achievement so far, identify the remaining gaps in the trade regime, and recommend follow up measures for broadening and deepening the trade reforms. The principal recommendations are presented in the attached policy matrix. The objective of export incentives is to reduce the costs of exported products with policy instruments consistent with World Trade Organization (WTO) rules.

Political Reforms and Public Policy : Evidence from Agricultural and Food Policies

Olper, Alessandro; Fałkowski, Jan; Swinnenm, Johan
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
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This paper studies the effect of political regime transitions on public policy using a new data set on global agricultural and food policies over a 50-year period (including data from 74 developing and developed countries over the 1955 2005 period). The authors find evidence that democratization leads to a reduction of agricultural taxation, an increase in agricultural subsidization, or both. The empirical findings are consistent with the predictions of the median voter model because political transitions occurred primarily in countries with a majority of farmers. The results are robust to different specifications, estimation approaches, and variable definitions.

What Does Political Economy Tell Us About Economic Development and Vice Versa?

Keefer, Philip
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, D.C. Publicador: World Bank, Washington, D.C.
Português
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The author reviews how three pillars of political economy-collective action, institutions, and political market imperfections-help us answer the question: Why do some countries develop and others do not? Each makes tremendous advances in our understanding of who wins and who loses in government decision making, generally, but only a subset of this literature helps us answer the question. The study of political market imperfections strongly suggests that the lack of credibility of pre-electoral political promises and incomplete voter information are especially robust in explaining development outcomes. From the institutional literature, the most powerful explanation of contrasting development outcomes links political checks and balances to the credibility of government commitments.

New Tools in Comparative Political Economy : The Database of Political Institutions

Beck, Thorsten; Clarke, George; Groff, Alberto; Keefer, Philip; Walsh, Patrick
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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This article introduces a large new cross-country database, the database of political institutions. It covers 177 countries over 21 years, 1975-95. The article presents the intuition, construction, and definitions of the different variables. Among the novel variables introduced are several measures of checks and balances, tenure and stability, identification of party affiliation with government or opposition, and fragmentation of opposition and government parties in the legislature.

Democratic Republic of Congo Reforming the Public Service Wage System : Background Paper

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
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The civil service management model in the Demorcatic Republic of Congo (DRC) still conforms to the old institutional order. The legislation governing employment in the public sector is unchanged and still responds to centralized administration. The public administration categorizes public employees in two main groups: civil servants and local public employees. Civil servants are governed by legislation that is neither merit based nor performance and result oriented. Local public employees are governed by labor legislation. Decentralization also requires the definition of a salary system for the new provincial administrations. For the first six months of the establishment of the provincial Civil Service, the same salary paid to the State civil servants should be ensured and paid to the provincial civil servants by the State administration. The provinces would not have yet established adequate financial coverage and mechanisms to ensure regular payments. While the provincial administrations are being consolidated (maximum 2 years)...

A Jordan Ombudsman Bureau with Enhanced Capacity

Cuvillier, Emmanuel; Almaroof, Salam
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
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The Ombudsman Bureau in Jordan was established in 2008. It was created to provide an avenue for redress by citizens for complaints against public sector bodies - part of the Government s drive to improve the public sector. Such a body is important in providing checks and balances in a government dominated by a strong executive branch. It also provides an alternative process of dispute resolution to filing cases in courts, thus relieving pressure on the court system and providing a means of redress that may prove more accessible than the courts for certain categories of disputes.