Página 15 dos resultados de 1393 itens digitais encontrados em 0.012 segundos

Emissions of NO(x) and SO(2) from Coals of Various Ranks, Bagasse, and Coal-Bagasse Blends Burning in O(2)/N(2) and O(2)/CO(2) Environments

KAZANC, Feyza; KHATAMI, Reza; CRNKOVIC, Paula Manoel; LEVENDIS, Yiannis A.
Fonte: AMER CHEMICAL SOC Publicador: AMER CHEMICAL SOC
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.18%
Oxy-coal combustion is a viable technology, for new and existing coal-fired power plants, as it facilitates carbon capture and, thereby, can mitigate climate change. Pulverized coals of various ranks, biomass, and their blends were burned to assess the evolution of combustion effluent gases, such as NO(x), SO(2), and CO, under a variety of background gas compositions. The fuels were burned in an electrically heated laboratory drop-tube furnace in O(2)/N(2) and O(2)/CO(2) environments with oxygen mole fractions of 20%, 40%, 60%, 80%, and 100%, at a furnace temperature of 1400 K. The fuel mass flow rate was kept constant in most cases, and combustion was fuel-lean. Results showed that in the case of four coals studied, NO(x) emissions in O(2)/CO(2) environments were lower than those in O(2)/N(2) environments by amounts that ranged from 19 to 43% at the same oxygen concentration. In the case of bagasse and coal/bagasse blends, the corresponding NO(x) reductions ranged from 22 to 39%. NO(x) emissions were found to increase with increasing oxygen mole fraction until similar to 50% O(2) was reached; thereafter, they monotonically decreased with increasing oxygen concentration. NO(x) emissions from the various fuels burned did not clearly reflect their nitrogen content (0.2-1.4%)...

Estudo da absorção de gases ácidos em solução aquosa de fenolato de sódio em processo semicontínuo; Study of the absorption of acid gases in aqueous solution of sodium phenolate in semicontinuos process

Shibata, Cintia Tiemi
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 07/03/2008 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.16%
O aumento das preocupações ambientais tem proporcionado a busca crescente por alternativas para reduzir os impactos decorrentes de resíduos perigosos oriundos de processos industriais. Dentre estes resíduos, pode-se destacar o fenol, por sua alta toxicidade e dificuldade de tratamento. O fenol é um dos principais poluentes encontrado em efluentes de indústrias de resinas fenólicas, automotivas, farmacêuticas e refinarias de petróleo. Compostos fenólicos são absorvidos facilmente por animais e seres humanos através da pele e são extremamente tóxicos para a vida aquática. Nesta busca por formas de tratamento de resíduos, a absorção é considerada uma das mais importantes técnicas de uso industrial utilizada na purificação de emissões gasosas, além de diversas aplicações em processos industriais. O princípio desta operação baseia-se no transporte de massa de pelo menos um componente de uma mistura gasosa para uma fase líquida, através da interface entre ambas. Este trabalho é parte integrante de um projeto global intitulado "Estudo da Recuperação de Poluentes Prioritários de Soluções Aquosas por Extração Liquido-Liquido com Tratamento Simultâneo de Gases Ácidos". Na primeira etapa há a remoção do fenol de soluções aquosas...

Estoque de carbono do solo e fluxo de gases de efeito estufa no cultivo do café; SOIL CARBON STOCK AND GREENHOUSE GASES FLUXES UNDER COFFEE CULTIVATION

Belizario, Maísa Honorio
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 05/03/2013 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.17%
O café é uma das principais culturas exploradas no Brasil, e está entre as mais importantes commodities agrícolas de exportação. A demanda por produtos agrícolas sustentáveis é cada vez maior, questão especialmente importante para a competitividade dos produtos de exportação. Portanto, conhecer os impactos das emissões de gases do efeito estufa (GEE) é fundamental para qualquer cultura agrícola, assim como estudar o seu manejo para detectar alternativas mitigadoras. O objetivo deste estudo foi determinar o estoque de carbono no solo e o fluxo de gases de feito estufa no cultivo do café. Para tal foram avaliados o estoque de carbono do solo devido à conversão do uso da terra sob vegetação de Cerrado para a cultura do café; o uso de corretivo agrícola e sua influencia no fluxo de CO2, assim como a influência do uso de fertilizantes nitrogenados na emissão de N2O. O carbono (C) do solo foi determinado para o solo original de cerrado (controle) e em áreas convertidas há 37, 15 e 8 anos, além de duas áreas que receberam adição 22.684 e 16.845 kg ha-1de composto orgânico em 2006 (CRI) e 2010 (CRII), respectivamente. O estoque de C no solo foi maior na área Café 37 (91,34 Mg C ha-1) e o menor para o Cerrado (66...

Potencial de redução das emissões de CO2 e da energia incorporada na construção de moradias no Brasil mediante o incremento do uso de madeira.; Potential reducing of CO2 emissions and embodied energy in housing construction in Brazil by increasing the use of wood.

Garcia Punhagui, Katia Regina
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 23/09/2014 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.18%
El presente trabajo busca analizar si el aumento del uso de la madera para la construcción de viviendas puede mitigar las emisiones de dióxido de carbono y disminuir la energía incorporada del sector de la construcción civil en Brasil. El énfasis está en la esfera ambiental, aunque también considera los ámbitos social y económico, que pueden influir en la concepción y eficacia de políticas públicas. Se ha estudiado el ámbito histórico para comprender el desarrollo del parque de viviendas de madera en los últimos cuarenta años y los posibles factores que pueden haber influido en su disminución porcentual dentro del parque total de vivienda brasileño. Se ha explorado el ámbito social para conocer la opinión pública sobre el uso de la madera para la construcción de viviendas, así como los puntos débiles y fuertes del material en el concepto general de la sociedad. En el dominio económico se ha intentado caracterizar el sector maderero y de suministro de viviendas prefabricadas de madera, con la pretensión de apuntar las potencialidades y obstáculos para el desarrollo del mercado. La parte ambiental ha buscado estimar las emisiones de CO2 y energía incorporada de los productos de madera destinados a la construcción...

Estudo experimental da radiação térmica emitida por chamas laminares não pré-misturadas utilizando combustíveis de baixo poder calorífico; Experimental study of thermal radiation emitted by laminar non-premixed flames using low calorific value fuels

Kroeff, Filipe Cantelli
Fonte: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul Publicador: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul
Tipo: Trabalho de Conclusão de Curso Formato: application/pdf
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.15%
O presente trabalho tem como objetivo avaliar o comportamento da radiação térmica emitida por chamas laminares não pré-misturadas. A energia produzida pela chama pode ser transferida para o meio por diversos mecanismos, sendo um deles a radiação térmica. O principal propósito desta medição é estimar a parcela de radiação térmica emitida por chamas produzidas a partir de diferentes concentrações de gás natural e dióxido de carbono, a fim de simular combustíveis de baixo poder calorífico. Há casos onde a emissão de radiação térmica deve ser reduzida ao máximo, como em queimadores de rejeito, os flares, existentes em plataformas petrolíferas, a fim de minimizar possíveis danos a componentes sensíveis ao calor e aos operários. Por outro lado, a presença de fuligem é fundamental para a transferência de calor em caldeiras, pois é o principal meio participante na emissão de radiação térmica. Portanto, este estudo é fundamental para a redução das emissões associada ao aumento da segurança na indústria do petróleo. Um sensor de intensidade de radiação, chamado de radiômetro, foi empregado para realizar as medições da fração de energia radiante da chama. Os resultados permitem verificar que a fração radiante é inversamente proporcional à vazão de combustível e à concentração de dióxido de carbono. Além disso...

Carbon dioxide emissions after application of tillage systems for a dark red latosol in southern Brazil

La Scala, N.; Lopes, A.; Marques, J.; Pereira, G. T.
Fonte: Elsevier B.V. Publicador: Elsevier B.V.
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 163-166
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.18%
Soil tillage may influence CO2 emissions in agricultural systems. Agricultural soils are managed in several ways in Brazil, ranging from no tillage to intensive land preparation. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of common soil tillage treatments (disk harrow, reversible disk plow, rotary tiller and chisel plow tillage systems) on the intermediate CO2 emissions of a dark red latosol, located in southern Brazil. Different tillage systems produced significant differences in the CO2 emissions, and the results indicate that the chisel plow produced the highest soil carbon loss during the 15 days period after tillage treatments were performed. Emissions to the atmosphere increased as much as 74 g CO2 m(-2), at the end of a 2-week period, in the plot where the chisel plow treatment was applied, in comparison to the non-disturbed plot. The results indicate that the total increase on the intermediate term soil CO2 emissions due to tillage treatments in southern Brazil is comparable to that reported for the more humid and cooler regions. (C) 2001 Elsevier B.V. B.V All rights reserved.

The primary sources of carbon loss during the crop-establishment period in a subtropical Oxisol under contrasting tillage systems

Pes, Luciano Z.; Amado, Telmo J. C.; La Scala, Newton; Bayer, Cimelio; Fiorin, Jackson E.
Fonte: Elsevier B.V. Publicador: Elsevier B.V.
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 163-171
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.19%
Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq); Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior (CAPES); The physical protection of mineralizable carbon (C) in aggregates has been identified as the primary mechanism of soil C stabilization. Therefore, it is possible to hypothesize that the disruption of aggregate by soil tillage is a key process driving C losses during the crop-establishment period. However, these findings are based on studies performed in temperate soils. Limited information is available for studies performed in subtropical and tropical soils, especially in Oxisols, which are rich in oxides that provides chemical C stabilization. This study was performed in southern Brazil in a long-term soil-management experiment carried out in a clay Typic Haplorthox in Cruz Alta (RS). During the 22nd year of the experiment, carbon dioxide (CO2-C) emissions, temperature, and soil moisture were intensively evaluated over a 21-day summer crop-establishment period using a closed infrared CO2-flux chamber. The cropping system investigated was an intensive crop rotation following the soil input of winter-cover crops (black oat (Avena strigosa Schreb) + common vetch (Vicia sativa L) under two contrasting tillage systems...

Avaliação da mitigação das emissões de CO2 para uma refinaria de petróleo no Brasil; Assessment of CO2 emissions mitigation for a Brazilian oil refinery

Wai Nam Chan
Fonte: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp Publicador: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 23/02/2015 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.21%
Atualmente o setor de refino de petróleo é responsável por cerca de 5% do total das emissões de CO2 relacionadas ao uso de energia no Brasil. O objetivo principal desta tese é avaliar as opções de mitigação de CO2 e seus respectivos custos para a REPLAN, que é a maior refinaria nacional. A revisão bibliográfica, a obtenção de informações adicionais na refinaria e a análise crítica das informações obtidas possibilitaram realizar uma prospecção de tecnologias de mitigação de emissões de CO2 para a indústria de refino. Através da utilização do conceito de Custo Marginal de Abatimento foi possível realizar a análise econômica das opções de mitigação de CO2 existentes na REPLAN. Os resultados mostram que melhorias de eficiência energética e substituição de combustível representam as estratégias mais promissoras para a redução das emissões de CO2 no curto prazo. Os custos de abatimento estimados são negativos (média de -130 US$/t CO2), o que significa que as medidas já são atrativas e poderiam ser implementadas imediatamente. Entretanto, o potencial global de redução é relativamente baixo (0,23 milhão de t CO2/ano, ou 6% do total das emissões). É mostrado ainda que a técnica de captura e armazenamento de carbono (CCS) oferece potencial para reduções mais significativas de emissões no longo prazo (até 1...

Carbon capture and storage in the power sector of Portugal and Spain

Fritz, Lukas
Fonte: Universidade de Lisboa Publicador: Universidade de Lisboa
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado
Publicado em //2011 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.2%
Tese de mestrado integrado em Engenharia da Energia e do Ambiente, apresentada à Universidade de Lisboa, através da Faculdade de Ciências, 2011; Portugal e Espanha são ainda caracterizados por uma forte dependência nos combustíveis fósseis. No ano de 2007, cerca de 67% da produção eléctrica total em Portugal foi gerada por centrais convencionais baseadas em combustíveis fósseis. Devido a esta forte dependência nos combustíveis fósseis, verificada quer no sector energético português, quer no espanhol, as emissões de CO2 resultantes assumem valores elevados. De forma a ser possível limitar as alterações climáticas a um nível aceitável, minimizando o seu impacto, torna-se necessário definir o cap do aumento da temperatura a 2 graus Celsius, em relação ao nível pré-industrial. A fim de alcançar este ambicioso objectivo, as emissões de dióxido de carbono nos países industrializados, incluindo Portugal e Espanha, têm de ser reduzidas em pelo menos 80% até 2050. As alterações necessárias incluem um aumento acentuado da produção energética com base em fontes renováveis, rigorosas medidas para a eficiência energética e a introdução de tecnologias CCS para centrais de carvão e de gás. O objectivo do presente estudo foi analisar a necessidade bem como a viabilidade técnica e económica das tecnologias CCS no sector energético em Portugal e Espanha...

Carbon sequestration and greenhouse gases emissions in soil under sewage sludge residual effects

Pitombo,Leonardo Machado; Carmo,Janaina Braga do; Maria,Isabela Clerici de; Andrade,Cristiano Alberto de
Fonte: São Paulo - Escola Superior de Agricultura "Luiz de Queiroz" Publicador: São Paulo - Escola Superior de Agricultura "Luiz de Queiroz"
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/02/2015 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.16%
The large volume of sewage sludge (SS) generated with high carbon (C) and nutrient content suggests that its agricultural use may represent an important alternative to soil carbon sequestration and provides a potential substitute for synthetic fertilizers. However, emissions of CH4 and N2O could neutralize benefits with increases in soil C or saving fertilizer production because these gases have a Global Warming Potential (GWP) 25 and 298 times greater than CO2, respectively. Thus, this study aimed to determine C and N content as well as greenhouse gases (GHG) fluxes from soils historically amended with SS. Sewage sludge was applied between 2001 and 2007, and maize (Zea mays L.) was sowed in every year between 2001 and 2009. We evaluated three treatments: Control (mineral fertilizer), 1SS (recommended rate) and 2SS (double rate). Carbon stocks (0-40 cm) were 58.8, 72.5 and 83.1 Mg ha–1in the Control, 1SS and 2SS, respectively, whereas N stocks after two years without SS treatment were 4.8, 5.8, and 6.8 Mg ha–1, respectively. Soil CO2 flux was highly responsive to soil temperature in SS treatments, and soil water content greatly impacted gas flux in the Control. Soil N2O flux increased under the residual effects of SS, but in 1SS...

Earthquake triggering and large-scale geologic storage of carbon dioxide

Zoback, Mark D.; Gorelick, Steven M.
Fonte: National Academy of Sciences Publicador: National Academy of Sciences
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.2%
Despite its enormous cost, large-scale carbon capture and storage (CCS) is considered a viable strategy for significantly reducing CO2 emissions associated with coal-based electrical power generation and other industrial sources of CO2 [Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (2005) IPCC Special Report on Carbon Dioxide Capture and Storage. Prepared by Working Group III of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, eds Metz B, et al. (Cambridge Univ Press, Cambridge, UK); Szulczewski ML, et al. (2012) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 109:5185–5189]. We argue here that there is a high probability that earthquakes will be triggered by injection of large volumes of CO2 into the brittle rocks commonly found in continental interiors. Because even small- to moderate-sized earthquakes threaten the seal integrity of CO2 repositories, in this context, large-scale CCS is a risky, and likely unsuccessful, strategy for significantly reducing greenhouse gas emissions.

State and Trends of Carbon Pricing 2015

Kossoy, Alexandre; Peszko, Grzegorz; Oppermann, Klaus; Prytz, Nicolai; Klein, Noemie; Blok, Kornelis; Lam, Long; Wong, Lindee; Borkent, Bram
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
Tipo: Serial
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.17%
The report is a one stop shop for learning about key developments and prospects of existing and emerging carbon initiatives. A challenging international carbon market has not stopped the development of domestic carbon pricing initiatives. Today, about 40 national and over 20 sub-national jurisdictions responsible for almost one fourth of global greenhouse gas emissions are putting a price on carbon. Together, these initiatives cover the equivalent of almost 6 gigatons of carbon dioxide, or about 12% of global emissions.

The Indonesia Carbon Capture Storage Capacity Building Program; CCS for Coal-fired Power Plants in Indonesia

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Working Paper; Publications & Research :: Working Paper; Publications & Research
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.21%
In order to meet the growing Indonesian demand for electricity, while also constraining carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions, future coal power plants may have to include CO2 capture equipment with storage of that CO2. This study set out to define and evaluate the conditions under which fossil fuel power plants can be deemed as carbon capture and storage (CCS) ready (CCS-R). It considers the technical, economic, and institutional implications of CO2 capture and storage for candidate power plants in South Sumatra and West Java. The potential to sell captured CO2 for enhanced oil recovery (EOR) in South Sumatra is reviewed.

Geologic carbon dioxide sequestration from the Mexican oil industry : an action plan

Lacy, Rodolfo
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 86 p.; 4949666 bytes; 4953679 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.2%
Climate change has become an important focus of international environmental negotiations. In response, global energy corporations have been looking for practical ways of reducing their industrial carbon dioxide (CO₂) emissions. Capturing massive quantities of CO₂ from flue gases (at large stationary sources) and storing them in geologic formations is a technically feasible and ecologically convenient way to close the "fossil fuel life cycle." CO₂ can be injected into mature oil reservoirs to enhance their productivity at the same time as it is being stored. Indeed, carbon capture and storage (CCS) technologies - combined with enhanced oil recovery operations (EOR) - offer a very attractive strategy for mitigating the adverse global impacts of energy production. The potential of this strategy may be crucial to the future development of the oil and electricity industries in signatory countries to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). These signatories and their major corporations have research initiatives underway to deploy and test CCS-EOR. If these projects are successful, they will make it easier to achieve compliance with Kyoto Protocol emissions target and provide an impetus for the Clean Development Mechanism (part of the Kyoto Protocol) to support CCS. Mexico...

A systems perspective for assessing carbon dioxide capture and storage opportunities; Systems perspective for assessing CO₂ capture and storage opportunities

Singh, Nisheeth, 1973-
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 89 p.
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.2%
Even as the acceptance of the fossil fuel greenhouse effect theory continues to grow amongst academics, statesmen and plebeians alike, the early adopters have already engaged in pre-emptive research activities aimed at mitigating the effects of such greenhouse gases. The focus of one such effort is on the capture and storage of CO₂ (carbon dioxide) from anthropogenic fixed source emissions. This effort can be broken down into a few broad categories such as terrestrial, ocean and geologic sequestration. Geologic sequestration refers to all activities geared towards the capture and storage of CO₂ under the surface of the earth in diverse 'reservoirs' such as deep saline formations, depleted oil and gas wells and unmineable coal seams to name a few. This investigation develops a systems perspective for assessing carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS) opportunities within the realm of geologic sequestration. While multiple concurrent research activities continue to explore CCS opportunities from various perspectives, efforts at a systems analysis of the overall picture are just beginning. A systems view describing methodologies to integrate a variety of CCS data to assess potential sequestration opportunities is at the heart of this study. It is based on research being conducted at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) under sponsorship of the United States Department of Energy (DOE). Using a Geographic Information System (GIS) and publicly available data...

Autotrophic Carbon Dioxide Fixation via the Calvin-Benson-Bassham Cycle by the Denitrifying Methanotroph “Candidatus Methylomirabilis oxyfera”

Rasigraf, Olivia; Kool, Dorien M.; Jetten, Mike S. M.; Sinninghe Damsté, Jaap S.; Ettwig, Katharina F.
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /04/2014 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.2%
Methane is an important greenhouse gas and the most abundant hydrocarbon in the Earth's atmosphere. Methanotrophic microorganisms can use methane as their sole energy source and play a crucial role in the mitigation of methane emissions in the environment. “Candidatus Methylomirabilis oxyfera” is a recently described intra-aerobic methanotroph that is assumed to use nitric oxide to generate internal oxygen to oxidize methane via the conventional aerobic pathway, including the monooxygenase reaction. Previous genome analysis has suggested that, like the verrucomicrobial methanotrophs, “Ca. Methylomirabilis oxyfera” encodes and transcribes genes for the Calvin-Benson-Bassham (CBB) cycle for carbon assimilation. Here we provide multiple independent lines of evidence for autotrophic carbon dioxide fixation by “Ca. Methylomirabilis oxyfera” via the CBB cycle. The activity of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (RubisCO), a key enzyme of the CBB cycle, in cell extracts from an “Ca. Methylomirabilis oxyfera” enrichment culture was shown to account for up to 10% of the total methane oxidation activity. Labeling studies with whole cells in batch incubations supplied with either 13CH4 or [13C]bicarbonate revealed that “Ca. Methylomirabilis oxyfera” biomass and lipids became significantly more enriched in 13C after incubation with 13C-labeled bicarbonate (and unlabeled methane) than after incubation with 13C-labeled methane (and unlabeled bicarbonate)...

Contributors of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere in Europe

Teodorescu, Iuliana; Tsokos, Chris
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 30/12/2013 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.16%
Carbon dioxide, along with atmospheric temperature are interacting to cause what we have defined as global warming. In the present study we develop a statistical model using real data to identify the attributable variables (risk factors) that cause the CO2 emissions in the atmosphere in Europe. Some scientists believe that there are more than nineteen attributable variables that cause the CO2 in our atmosphere. However, our study has identified only three individual risk factors and five interactions among the attributable variables that cause almost all the CO2 emissions in the atmosphere in Europe. We rank the risk factors and interactions according to the amount of CO2 they generate. In addition, we compare the present findings of the European data with a similar study for the Continental United States [1, 2]. For example, in the US, liquid fuels ranks number one, while in Europe is gas fuels. In fact, liquid fuels in Europe is the least contributable variable of CO2 in the atmosphere, and gas fuels ranks seventh.

Duke University Health System Demand Response Prospectus

Ong, Justin; Yuan, Michelle
Fonte: Universidade Duke Publicador: Universidade Duke
Tipo: Masters' project
Publicado em 25/04/2014 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.21%
The Duke University Health System Demand Response Prospectus is a client-based Masters Project that explores the profitability and environmental impacts of enrolling Duke University Health System and Duke University into Duke Energy’s PowerShare demand response program. Demand response programs are mechanisms used by utilities to decrease energy demand during high-usage periods (e.g. hot days when air conditioning use is highest) by incentivizing their customers to reduce grid consumption for a limited time. This temporary demand reduction results in cost savings to utilities because it allows them to avoid using their most inefficient and expensive power plants. In our project, we analyze the economic, environmental, and regulatory feasibility of using Duke University and Duke Medicine emergency generators in a Duke Energy demand response program called PowerShare, more specifically the Generator Curtailment Option. Duke Carbon Offset Initiative credits, a Duke University funding mechanism to reduce carbon dioxide emissions, were also considered as a potential revenue source. In order to conduct the analysis, an MS Excel and Visual Basic model was created to calculate the impacts of enrollment. The model provided to the client was designed to offer an easy user interface to quickly conduct the analyses. It was also specially designed to offer the flexibility to incorporate future changes in the energy market and user preferences. The model results indicated that...

Attracting Investment to REDD+: Capitalizing on Co-Benefits?

Poirson, Evan; Hartman, Ashley; Hoagland, Chris; Yu, Michael
Fonte: Universidade Duke Publicador: Universidade Duke
Tipo: Masters' project
Publicado em 25/04/2014 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.18%
At its inception in 2007, the United Nations-sponsored Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation (REDD+) mechanism had one primary goal: to mitigate carbon dioxide emissions from the global forest sector, which currently account for approximately 10% of global carbon emissions. REDD+ has undergone various modifications to its scope and approach in the succeeding nine years, but little has yet come from subsequent UN climate negotiations in the way of creating an obligatory financing scheme that would require participation from actors in developed countries. Today, dozens of preliminary REDD+ projects are operational across the world, but these projects receive strictly voluntary funding from a suite of public and private actors, including national governments and companies engaged in social responsibility practices. Despite some successes in this voluntary realm and promises of REDD+ advancement at recent negotiations, it has become clear that without assured funding – and pending an international financing mechanism for REDD+ – projects face an increasingly difficult environment for attaining capital resources. Scaling up the mechanism will be virtually impossible without addressing the imbalance between supply and demand for REDD+ credits in the voluntary stage. Code REDD...

Freight transportation and the environment: Using geographic information systems to inform goods movement policy

Ghosh, Arindam
Fonte: Rochester Instituto de Tecnologia Publicador: Rochester Instituto de Tecnologia
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.16%
The freight transportation sector is a major emitter of the greenhouse gas carbon dioxide (CO2) which has been recognized by numerous experts and science organizations as a significant contributor to climate change. The purpose of this thesis is to develop a a framework for obtaining the freight flows for containerized goods movement through the U.S. marine, highway, and rail systems and to estimate CO2 emissions associated with the freight traffic along interstate corridors that serve the three major U.S. ports on the West Coast, namely the port of Los Angeles and Long Beach, the Port of Oakland and the Port of Seattle. This thesis utilizes the Geospatial Intermodal Freight Transportation (GIFT) model, which is a Geographic Information Systems (GIS) based model that links the U.S. and Canadian water, rail, and road transportation networks through intermodal transfer facilities, The inclusion of environmental attributes of transportation modes (trucks, locomotives, vessels) traversing the network is what makes GIFT a unique tool to aid policy analysts and decision makers to understand the environmental, economic, and energy impacts of intermodal freight transportation. In this research, GIFT is used to model the volumes of freight flowing between multiple origins and destinations...