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Admissible Trading Strategies under Transaction Costs

Schachermayer, Walter
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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16.74%
A well known result in stochastic analysis reads as follows: for an $\mathbb{R}$-valued super-martingale $X = (X_t)_{0\leq t \leq T}$ such that the terminal value $X_T$ is non-negative, we have that the entire process $X$ is non-negative. An analogous result holds true in the no arbitrage theory of mathematical finance: under the assumption of no arbitrage, a portfolio process $x+(H\cdot S)$ verifying $x+(H\cdot S)_T\geq 0$ also satisfies $x+(H\cdot S)_t\geq 0,$ for all $0 \leq t \leq T$. In the present paper we derive an analogous result in the presence of transaction costs. A counter-example reveals that the consideration of transaction costs makes things more delicate than in the frictionless setting.; Comment: Paper has been expanded by inserting section 2 The num\'eraire-free setting

One-Factor Term Structure without Forward Rates

Goodman, Victor; Kim, Kyounghee
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
16.74%
We construct a no-arbitrage model of bond prices where the long bond is used as a numeraire. We develop bond prices and their dynamics without developing any model for the spot rate or forward rates. The model is arbitrage free and all nominal interest rates remain positive in the model. We give examples where our model does not have a spot rate; other examples include both spot and forward rates.

A Market Test for the Positivity of Arrow-Debreu Prices

d'Aspremont, Alexandre
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
16.74%
We derive tractable necessary and sufficient conditions for the absence of buy-and-hold arbitrage opportunities in a perfectly liquid, one period market. We formulate the positivity of Arrow-Debreu prices as a generalized moment problem to show that this no arbitrage condition is equivalent to the positive semidefiniteness of matrices formed by the market price of tradeable securities and their products. We apply this result to a market with multiple assets and basket call options.; Comment: New version, fixes a few minor errors and typos

Pricing Queries Approximately Optimally

Syrgkanis, Vasilis; Gehrke, Johannes
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
16.74%
Data as a commodity has always been purchased and sold. Recently, web services that are data marketplaces have emerged that match data buyers with data sellers. So far there are no guidelines how to price queries against a database. We consider the recently proposed query-based pricing framework of Koutris et al and ask the question of computing optimal input prices in this framework by formulating a buyer utility model. We establish the interesting and deep equivalence between arbitrage-freeness in the query-pricing framework and envy-freeness in pricing theory for appropriately chosen buyer valuations. Given the approximation hardness results from envy-free pricing we then develop logarithmic approximation pricing algorithms exploiting the max flow interpretation of the arbitrage-free pricing for the restricted query language proposed by Koutris et al. We propose a novel polynomial-time logarithmic approximation pricing scheme and show that our new scheme performs better than the existing envy-free pricing algorithms instance-by-instance. We also present a faster pricing algorithm that is always greater than the existing solutions, but worse than our previous scheme. We experimentally show how our pricing algorithms perform with respect to the existing envy-free pricing algorithms and to the optimal exponentially computable solution...

When roll-overs do not qualify as num\'eraire: bond markets beyond short rate paradigms

Klein, Irene; Schmidt, Thorsten; Teichmann, Josef
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 30/09/2013 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
16.74%
We investigate default-free bond markets where the standard relationship between a possibly existing bank account process and the term structure of bond prices is broken, i.e. the bank account process is not a valid num\'eraire. We argue that this feature is not the exception but rather the rule in bond markets when starting with, e.g., terminal bonds as num\'eraires. Our setting are general c\`adl\`ag processes as bond prices, where we employ directly methods from large financial markets. Moreover, we do not restrict price process to be semimartingales, which allows for example to consider markets driven by fractional Brownian motion. In the core of the article we relate the appropriate no arbitrage assumptions (NAFL), i.e. no asymptotic free lunch, to the existence of an equivalent local martingale measure with respect to the terminal bond as num\'eraire, and no arbitrage opportunities of the first kind (NAA1) to the existence of a supermartingale deflator, respectively. In all settings we obtain existence of a generalized bank account as a limit of convex combinations of roll-over bonds. Additionally we provide an alternative definition of the concept of a num\'eraire, leading to a possibly interesting connection to bubbles. If we can construct a bank account process through roll-overs...

Pricing and Hedging GLWB in the Heston and in the Black-Scholes with Stochastic Interest Rate Models

Goudenege, Ludovic; Molent, Andrea; Zanette, Antonino
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 09/09/2015 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
16.74%
Valuing Guaranteed Lifelong Withdrawal Benefit (GLWB) has attracted significant attention from both the academic field and real world financial markets. As remarked by Forsyth and Vetzal the Black and Scholes framework seems to be inappropriate for such long maturity products. They propose to use a regime switching model. Alternatively, we propose here to use a stochastic volatility model (Heston model) and a Black Scholes model with stochastic interest rate (Hull White model). For this purpose we present four numerical methods for pricing GLWB variables annuities: a hybrid tree-finite difference method and a hybrid Monte Carlo method, an ADI finite difference scheme, and a standard Monte Carlo method. These methods are used to determine the no-arbitrage fee for the most popular versions of the GLWB contract, and to calculate the Greeks used in hedging. Both constant withdrawal and optimal withdrawal (including lapsation) strategies are considered. Numerical results are presented which demonstrate the sensitivity of the no-arbitrage fee to economic, contractual and longevity assumptions.

On a Heath-Jarrow-Morton approach for stock options

Kallsen, Jan; Krühner, Paul
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
16.74%
This paper aims at transferring the philosophy behind Heath-Jarrow-Morton to the modelling of call options with all strikes and maturities. Contrary to the approach by Carmona and Nadtochiy (2009) and related to the recent contribution Carmona and Nadtochiy (2012) by the same authors, the key parametrisation of our approach involves time-inhomogeneous L\'evy processes instead of local volatility models. We provide necessary and sufficient conditions for absence of arbitrage. Moreover we discuss the construction of arbitrage-free models. Specifically, we prove their existence and uniqueness given basic building blocks.

The fundamental theorem of asset pricing under proportional transaction costs

Roux, Alet
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 15/10/2007 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
16.74%
We extend the fundamental theorem of asset pricing to a model where the risky stock is subject to proportional transaction costs in the form of bid-ask spreads and the bank account has different interest rates for borrowing and lending. We show that such a model is free of arbitrage if and only if one can embed in it a friction-free model that is itself free of arbitrage, in the sense that there exists an artificial friction-free price for the stock between its bid and ask prices and an artificial interest rate between the borrowing and lending interest rates such that, if one discounts this stock price by this interest rate, then the resulting process is a martingale under some non-degenerate probability measure. Restricting ourselves to the simple case of a finite number of time steps and a finite number of possible outcomes for the stock price, the proof follows by combining classical arguments based on finite-dimensional separation theorems with duality results from linear optimisation.

D-Brane solutions under market panic

Pincak, R.
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 30/06/2013 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
16.74%
The relativistic quantum mechanic approach is used to develop a stock market dynamics. The relativistic is conceptional here as the meaning of big external volatility or volatility shock on a financial market. We used a differential geometry approach with the parallel transport of the prices to obtain a direct shift of the stock price movement. The prices are represented here as electrons with different spin orientation. Up and down orientations of the spin particle are likened here as an increase or a decrease of stock prices. The paralel transport of stock prices is enriched about Riemann curvature which describes some arbitrage opportunities in the market. To solve the stock-price dynamics, we used the Dirac equation for bispinors on the spherical brane-world. We found that when a spherical brane is abbreviated to the disk on the equator, we converge to the ideal behaviour of financial market where Black Scholes as well as semi-classical equations are sufficient. Full spherical brane-world scenarios can descibe a non-equilibrium market behaviour were all arbitrage opportunities as well as transaction costs are take into account.; Comment: 11 pages, 3 figures. arXiv admin note: text overlap with arXiv:hep-th/0412306, arXiv:physics/0205053...

Model-independent Superhedging under Portfolio Constraints

Fahim, Arash; Huang, Yu-Jui
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
16.74%
In a discrete-time market, we study model-independent superhedging, while the semi-static superhedging portfolio consists of {\it three} parts: static positions in liquidly traded vanilla calls, static positions in other tradable, yet possibly less liquid, exotic options, and a dynamic trading strategy in risky assets under certain constraints. By considering the limit order book of each tradable exotic option and employing the Monge-Kantorovich theory of optimal transport, we establish a general superhedging duality, which admits a natural connection to convex risk measures. With the aid of this duality, we derive a model-independent version of the fundamental theorem of asset pricing. The notion "finite optimal arbitrage profit", weaker than no-arbitrage, is also introduced. It is worth noting that our method covers a large class of Delta constraints as well as Gamma constraint.; Comment: 29 pages

Financial instability from local market measures

Bardoscia, Marco; Livan, Giacomo; Marsili, Matteo
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
16.74%
We study the emergence of instabilities in a stylized model of a financial market, when different market actors calculate prices according to different (local) market measures. We derive typical properties for ensembles of large random markets using techniques borrowed from statistical mechanics of disordered systems. We show that, depending on the number of financial instruments available and on the heterogeneity of local measures, the market moves from an arbitrage-free phase to an unstable one, where the complexity of the market - as measured by the diversity of financial instruments - increases, and arbitrage opportunities arise. A sharp transition separates the two phases. Focusing on two different classes of local measures inspired by real markets strategies, we are able to analytically compute the critical lines, corroborating our findings with numerical simulations.; Comment: 17 pages, 4 figures

BSDEs driven by a multi-dimensional martingale and their applications to market models with funding costs

Nie, Tianyang; Rutkowski, Marek
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
16.74%
We establish some well-posedness and comparison results for BSDEs driven by one- and multi-dimensional martingales. On the one hand, our approach is largely motivated by results and methods developed in Carbone et al. (2008) and El Karoui and Huang (1997). On the other hand, our results are also motivated by the recent developments in arbitrage pricing theory under funding costs and collateralization. A new version of the comparison theorem for BSDEs driven by a multi-dimensional martingale is established and applied to the pricing and hedging BSDEs studied in Bielecki and Rutkowski (2014) and Nie and Rutkowski (2014). This allows us to obtain the existence and uniqueness results for unilateral prices and to demonstrate the existence of no-arbitrage bounds for a collateralized contract when both agents have non-negative initial endowments.