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Biologia larval de Pegoscapus tonduzi (Chalcidoidea: Agaonidae), polinizador de Ficus citrifolia (Moraceae); Larval biology of Pegoscapus tonduzi (Chalcidoidea, Agaonidae), polinator of Ficus citrifolia (Moraceae)

Jansen González, Sergio
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 09/03/2009 Português
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A interação mutualística, espécie-especifica, vespas de figo-figueiras envolve dois processos antagonísticos, predação de sementes e polinização, realizadas por vespas da família Agaonidae. Sabe-se que a larva da vespa se alimenta de tecido da semente durante seu desenvolvimento, mas o processo pelo qual isto ocorre é pouco conhecido, não se sabendo até que ponto a larva depende do desenvolvimento da semente. Neste trabalho foi estudada a biologia larval de Pegoscapus tonduzi, polinizadora de Ficus citrifolia (Moraceae). O estudo foi realizado em plantas de F. citrifolia presentes no campus da Universidade de São Paulo em Ribeirão Preto/SP, durante o período de julho de 2007 a agosto de 2008. Para tal, quatro coortes de vespas foram estudas, nas quais cerca de cinco figos foram coletados em intervalos de dois dias, ao longo do ciclo de desenvolvimento larval. Os figos foram dissecados para observação das larvas e para a obtenção de ovários/galhas da planta para o preparo de lâminas histológicas. Os resultados mostraram que o processo de predação de sementes realizado pelas larvas de P. tonduzi é elaborado, com o desenvolvimento larval intimamente relacionado aos processos embriogênicos da planta. O desenvolvimento larval apresenta quatro instares...

Arabidopsis thaliana as a Model Organism in Systems Biology

Van Norman, Jaimie M.; Benfey, Philip N.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 29/04/2009 Português
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Significant progress has been made in identification of genes and gene networks involved in key biological processes. Yet, how these genes and networks are coordinated over increasing levels of biological complexity, from cells to tissues to organs, remains unclear. To address complex biological questions, biologists are increasingly using high-throughput tools and systems biology approaches to examine complex biological systems at a global scale. A system is a network of interacting and interdependent components that shape the system’s unique properties. Systems biology studies the organization of system components and their interactions, with the idea that unique properties of that system can be observed only through study of the system as a whole. The application of systems biology approaches to questions in plant biology has been informative. In this review, we give examples of how systems biology is currently being used in Arabidopsis to investigate the transcriptional networks regulating root development, the metabolic response to stress, and the genetic regulation of metabolic variability. From these studies, we are beginning obtain sufficient data to generate more accurate models for system function. Further investigation of plant systems will require data gathering from specific cells and tissues...

Identification of Arabidopsis Mutants Impaired in the Systemic Regulation of Root Nitrate Uptake by the Nitrogen Status of the Plant1[C][W]

Girin, Thomas; El-Kafafi, El-Sayed; Widiez, Thomas; Erban, Alexander; Hubberten, Hans-Michael; Kopka, Joachim; Hoefgen, Rainer; Gojon, Alain; Lepetit, Marc
Fonte: American Society of Plant Biologists Publicador: American Society of Plant Biologists
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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Nitrate uptake by the roots is under systemic feedback repression by high nitrogen (N) status of the whole plant. The NRT2.1 gene, which encodes a NO3− transporter involved in high-affinity root uptake, is a major target of this N signaling mechanism. Using transgenic Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) plants expressing the pNRT2.1::LUC reporter gene (NL line), we performed a genetic screen to isolate mutants altered in the NRT2.1 response to high N provision. Three hni (for high nitrogen insensitive) mutants belonging to three genetic loci and related to single and recessive mutations were selected. Compared to NL plants, these mutants display reduced down-regulation of both NRT2.1 expression and high-affinity NO3− influx under repressive conditions. Split-root experiments demonstrated that this is associated with an almost complete suppression of systemic repression of pNRT2.1 activity by high N status of the whole plant. Other mechanisms related to N and carbon nutrition regulating NRT2.1 or involved in the control of root SO4− uptake by the plant sulfur status are not or are slightly affected. The hni mutations did not lead to significant changes in total N and NO3− contents of the tissues, indicating that hni mutants are more likely regulatory mutants rather than assimilatory mutants. Nevertheless...

Gradual Increase of miR156 Regulates Temporal Expression Changes of Numerous Genes during Leaf Development in Rice1[C][W][OA]

Xie, Kabin; Shen, Jianqiang; Hou, Xin; Yao, Jialing; Li, Xianghua; Xiao, Jinghua; Xiong, Lizhong
Fonte: American Society of Plant Biologists Publicador: American Society of Plant Biologists
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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The highly conserved plant microRNA, miR156, is an essential regulator for plant development. In Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), miR156 modulates phase changing through its temporal expression in the shoot. In contrast to the gradual decrease over time in the shoot (or whole plant), we found that the miR156 level in rice (Oryza sativa) gradually increased from young leaf to old leaf after the juvenile stage. However, the miR156-targeted rice SQUAMOSA-promoter binding-like (SPL) transcription factors were either dominantly expressed in young leaves or not changed over the time of leaf growth. A comparison of the transcriptomes of early-emerged old leaves and later-emerged young leaves from wild-type and miR156 overexpression (miR156-OE) rice lines found that expression levels of 3,008 genes were affected in miR156-OE leaves. Analysis of temporal expression changes of these genes suggested that miR156 regulates gene expression in a leaf age-dependent manner, and miR156-OE attenuated the temporal changes of 2,660 genes. Interestingly, seven conserved plant microRNAs also showed temporal changes from young to old leaves, and miR156-OE also attenuated the temporal changes of six microRNAs. Consistent with global gene expression changes...

New Technologies for 21st Century Plant Science

Ehrhardt, David W.; Frommer, Wolf B.
Fonte: American Society of Plant Biologists Publicador: American Society of Plant Biologists
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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Plants are one of the most fascinating and important groups of organisms living on Earth. They serve as the conduit of energy into the biosphere, provide food, and shape our environment. If we want to make headway in understanding how these essential organisms function and build the foundation for a more sustainable future, then we need to apply the most advanced technologies available to the study of plant life. In 2009, a committee of the National Academy highlighted the “understanding of plant growth” as one of the big challenges for society and part of a new era which they termed “new biology.” The aim of this article is to identify how new technologies can and will transform plant science to address the challenges of new biology. We assess where we stand today regarding current technologies, with an emphasis on molecular and imaging technologies, and we try to address questions about where we may go in the future and whether we can get an idea of what is at and beyond the horizon.

A showcase of future plant biology: moving towards next-generation plant genetics assisted by genome sequencing and systems biology

Lee, Insuk
Fonte: BioMed Central Publicador: BioMed Central
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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A report on the Cold Spring Harbor Asia conference on Genome Assisted Biology of Crops and Model Plant Systems Meeting, held in Suzhou, China, April 21–25, 2014.

Plant glyco-biotechnology on the way to synthetic biology

Loos, Andreas; Steinkellner, Herta
Fonte: Frontiers Media S.A. Publicador: Frontiers Media S.A.
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 08/10/2014 Português
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Plants are increasingly being used for the production of recombinant proteins. One reason is that plants are highly amenable to glycan engineering processes and allow the production of therapeutic proteins with increased efficacies due to optimized glycosylation profiles. Removal and insertion of glycosylation reactions by knock-out/knock-down approaches and introduction of glycosylation enzymes have paved the way for the humanization of the plant glycosylation pathway. The insertion of heterologous enzymes at exactly the right stage of the existing glycosylation pathway has turned out to be of utmost importance. To enable such precise targeting chimeric enzymes have been constructed. In this short review we will exemplify the importance of correct targeting of glycosyltransferases, we will give an overview of the targeting mechanism of glycosyltransferases, describe chimeric enzymes used in plant N-glycosylation engineering and illustrate how plant glycoengineering builds on the tools offered by synthetic biology to construct such chimeric enzymes.

Integrated network analysis and effective tools in plant systems biology

Fukushima, Atsushi; Kanaya, Shigehiko; Nishida, Kozo
Fonte: Frontiers Media S.A. Publicador: Frontiers Media S.A.
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 04/11/2014 Português
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One of the ultimate goals in plant systems biology is to elucidate the genotype-phenotype relationship in plant cellular systems. Integrated network analysis that combines omics data with mathematical models has received particular attention. Here we focus on the latest cutting-edge computational advances that facilitate their combination. We highlight (1) network visualization tools, (2) pathway analyses, (3) genome-scale metabolic reconstruction, and (4) the integration of high-throughput experimental data and mathematical models. Multi-omics data that contain the genome, transcriptome, proteome, and metabolome and mathematical models are expected to integrate and expand our knowledge of complex plant metabolisms.

Plant Omics Data Center: An Integrated Web Repository for Interspecies Gene Expression Networks with NLP-Based Curation

Ohyanagi, Hajime; Takano, Tomoyuki; Terashima, Shin; Kobayashi, Masaaki; Kanno, Maasa; Morimoto, Kyoko; Kanegae, Hiromi; Sasaki, Yohei; Saito, Misa; Asano, Satomi; Ozaki, Soichi; Kudo, Toru; Yokoyama, Koji; Aya, Koichiro; Suwabe, Keita; Suzuki, Go; Aoki,
Fonte: Oxford University Press Publicador: Oxford University Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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Comprehensive integration of large-scale omics resources such as genomes, transcriptomes and metabolomes will provide deeper insights into broader aspects of molecular biology. For better understanding of plant biology, we aim to construct a next-generation sequencing (NGS)-derived gene expression network (GEN) repository for a broad range of plant species. So far we have incorporated information about 745 high-quality mRNA sequencing (mRNA-Seq) samples from eight plant species (Arabidopsis thaliana, Oryza sativa, Solanum lycopersicum, Sorghum bicolor, Vitis vinifera, Solanum tuberosum, Medicago truncatula and Glycine max) from the public short read archive, digitally profiled the entire set of gene expression profiles, and drawn GENs by using correspondence analysis (CA) to take advantage of gene expression similarities. In order to understand the evolutionary significance of the GENs from multiple species, they were linked according to the orthology of each node (gene) among species. In addition to other gene expression information, functional annotation of the genes will facilitate biological comprehension. Currently we are improving the given gene annotations with natural language processing (NLP) techniques and manual curation. Here we introduce the current status of our analyses and the web database...

Transgenic approaches to altering carbon and nitrogen partitioning in whole plants: assessing the potential to improve crop yields and nutritional quality

Yadav, Umesh P.; Ayre, Brian G.; Bush, Daniel R.
Fonte: Frontiers Media S.A. Publicador: Frontiers Media S.A.
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 22/04/2015 Português
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The principal components of plant productivity and nutritional value, from the standpoint of modern agriculture, are the acquisition and partitioning of organic carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) compounds among the various organs of the plant. The flow of essential organic nutrients among the plant organ systems is mediated by its complex vascular system, and is driven by a series of transport steps including export from sites of primary assimilation, transport into and out of the phloem and xylem, and transport into the various import-dependent organs. Manipulating C and N partitioning to enhance yield of harvested organs is evident in the earliest crop domestication events and continues to be a goal for modern plant biology. Research on the biochemistry, molecular and cellular biology, and physiology of C and N partitioning has now matured to an extent that strategic manipulation of these transport systems through biotechnology are being attempted to improve movement from source to sink tissues in general, but also to target partitioning to specific organs. These nascent efforts are demonstrating the potential of applied biomass targeting but are also identifying interactions between essential nutrients that require further basic research. In this review...

Cell biology of plant–oomycete interactions

Hardham, Adrienne R
Fonte: Wiley Publicador: Wiley
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 9 pages
Português
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The last 4 years have seen significant advances in our understanding of the cellular processes that underlie the infection of plants by a range of biotrophic and necrotrophic oomycete pathogens. Given that oomycete and fungal pathogens must overcome the same sets of physical and chemical barriers presented by plants, it is not surprising that many aspects of oomycete infection strategies are similar to those of fungal pathogens. A major difference, however, centres on the role of motile oomycete zoospores in actively moving the pathogen to favourable infection sites. Recent studies have shown that the plant defence response to invading oomycetes is similar to that mounted against fungi, but biochemical differences between oomycete and fungal surface molecules must have implications for plant recognition of and defence against oomycete pathogens. The aim of this short review is to provide a cell biological framework within which emerging data on the molecular basis of oomycete–plant interactions may be placed.

A survey of cellulose biosynthesis in higher plants

Bessueille, L.; Bulone, V.
Fonte: Japanese Society for Plant Cell and Molecular Biology Publicador: Japanese Society for Plant Cell and Molecular Biology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2008 Português
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Cellulose plays a central role in plant development and its biosynthesis represents one of the most important biochemical processes in plant biology. However, the corresponding molecular mechanisms are not well understood, despite the progress made in the past years in the identification of genes that code for the catalytic subunits of the cellulose synthases and other proteins potentially involved in cellulose formation. A major bottleneck is the high instability of the cellulose synthase complexes and their location in the plasma membrane. Additional efforts are currently being made to unravel the mechanisms of cellulose biosynthesis. Indeed, understanding how cellulose is formed and how its crystallinity is achieved is relevant not only for studying plant development, but also for improving the digestibility of the plant biomass, which is foreseen as an alternative to fossil fuels for the production of energy. This review summarizes the major unanswered questions related to the process of cellulose biosynthesis, and describes the recent progress that has been made in the area through the combination of biochemical approaches and molecular genetics.; Laurence Bessueille, Vincent Bulone

Die Rolle von Bienen und anderen Blütenbesuchern in der Reproduktionsbiologie der Bromelien Aechmea nudicaulis und Vriesea friburgensis im Atlantischen Regenwald Südbrasiliens; The role of bees and other flower visitors for the reproductive biology of the bromeliads Aechmea nudicaulis and Vriesea friburgensis in the Atlantic rain forest of southern Brazil

Schmid, Simone Stephanie
Fonte: Universidade de Tubinga Publicador: Universidade de Tubinga
Tipo: Dissertação
Português
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Im Rahmen des Projektes „Interne Dynamik des Regenwaldes: spezifische Tier-Pflanze-Interaktionen“ des deutsch-brasilianische Kooperationsprogramms „Mata Atlantica“ habe ich exemplarisch an zwei Modellorganismen, den Bromelienarten Aechmea nudicaulis und Vriesea friburgensis, deren Blüten- und Bestäubungsbiologie sowie für ihre Fortpflanzung relevante Tier-Pflanze-Interaktionen studiert. Im Wesentlichen sollte geklärt werden, welches reproduktive System bei den beiden Bromelien vorliegt und wer die effektiven Bestäuber dieser Pflanzen sind. Dazu wurden die Blühperiode und phänotypische Blütenmerkmale untersucht sowie die Zusammensetzung und das tageszeitliche Sekretionsmuster des Nektars analysiert. Für beide Bromelienarten wurden umfassende Besucherspektren aufgenommen. Die Beobachtungen wurden in zwei unterschiedlichen Habitaten und an unterschiedlichen Breitengraden durchgeführt. Blütensyndrome sind Kombinationen von Blütencharakteristiken wie morphologischen Merkmalen (Größe, Form, Farbe), angebotenen Belohnungen (Pollen, Nektar) und der Blühphenologie (Jahreszeit, Tageszeit). Diese Merkmalskombinationen werden als Anpassungen zur Anlockung bestimmer Blütenbesucher angesehen. Das Blütensyndrom ist im Fall von Aechmea nudicaulis bimodal und für zwei unterschiedliche funktionale Gruppen von Bestäubern attraktiv. Bei Vriesea friburgensis zeigen die Blüten stärker ornithophile Merkmale...

Context dependent species interaction outcomes in ant-plant protection mutualisms

Chamberlain, Scott Alan
Fonte: Universidade Rice Publicador: Universidade Rice
Português
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We often study the outcomes of species interactions, whether they be predation, competition, or mutualism, at one site in a single year. However, we increasingly recognize that species interaction outcomes are not static, but context dependent by varying along many ecological axes. Here, I asked to what extent and along what axes are ant-plant protection interactions, in which plants provide rewards for ants that in turn defend plants from herbivores, context dependent. First, a meta-analytic summary of published studies on ant-plant protection interactions revealed that interaction outcomes are on average mutualistic, and context dependency occurred due to plant reward type (domatia vs food bodies vs extrafloral nectaries), ant species richness, and latitude. Second, in a case study in the Sonoran Desert, extrafloral nectar production caused context dependent mutualistic and antagonistic ant-plant interactions, despite largely commensalistic interaction outcomes. These results suggest some ecological axes resulting in context dependency in mutualisms.

AffyTrees: Facilitating Comparative Analysis of Affymetrix Plant Microarray Chips

Frickey, Tancred; Benedito, Vagner Augusto; Udvardi, Michael; Weiller, Georg
Fonte: American Society of Plant Biologists Publicador: American Society of Plant Biologists
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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Microarrays measure the expression of large numbers of genes simultaneously and can be used to delve into interaction networks involving many genes at a time. However, it is often difficult to decide to what extent knowledge about the expression of genes

Determining drought sensitivity of the Amazon forest: does plant hydraulics matter?

Powell, Thomas L.
Fonte: Harvard University Publicador: Harvard University
Tipo: Thesis or Dissertation; text Formato: application/pdf
Português
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Climate change is projected to cause significant shifts in precipitation patterns across the Amazon basin. This dissertation is designed to address key uncertainties surrounding our ability to predict the fate of the Amazon rainforest in a drier climate. The second chapter is an assessment of the ability of four leading dynamic vegetation models—CLM3.5, ED2, IBIS and JULES—to replicate observation from two long-term ecosystem-scale drought experiments in the eastern Brazilian Amazon. This analysis revealed that these four models can reliably predict plant and ecosystem carbon fluxes under the present climate, but still require substantial development for predicting the consequences of severe drought. These four models were not parameterized to mechanistically represent soil water-stress or the competitive differences in plant hydraulics that exist between tree species. Therefore, chapter three is a field-based study designed to quantify the range of variation in two plant hydraulic traits—xylem-P50 and turgor loss point (TLP)—that exists in mature tropical trees. The field measurements were made on four genera common to both experimental study sites. Each genus was categorized a prior into one of four plant functional types: early- versus late-successional that were each subdivided into drought-tolerant versus intolerant. Xylem-P50 and TLP occurred at water potentials that were 0.7 to 1.1 MPa and 0.75 MPa higher...

Speciation due to hybrid necrosis in plant-pathogen models

Ispolatov, I.; Doebeli, Michael
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 21/04/2009 Português
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We develop a model for speciation due to postzygotic incompatibility generated by autoimmune reactions. The model is based on predator-prey interactions between a host plants and their pathogens. Such interactions are often frequency-dependent, so that pathogen attack is focused on the most abundant plant phenotype, while rare plant types may escape pathogen attack. Thus, frequency dependence can generate disruptive selection, which can give rise to speciation if distant phenotypes become reproductively isolated. Based on recent experimental evidence from {\it Arabidopsis}, we assume that at the molecular level, incompatibility between strains is caused by epistatic interactions between two proteins in the plant immune system, the guard and the guardee. Within each plant strain, immune reactions occur when the guardee protein is modified by a pathogen effector, and the guard subsequently binds to the guardee, thus precipitating an immune response. However, when guard and guardee proteins come from phenotypically distant parents, a hybrid's immune system can be triggered by erroneous interactions between these proteins even in the absence of pathogen attack, leading to severe autoimmune reactions in hybrids. Our model shows how phenotypic variation generated by frequency-dependent host-pathogen interactions can lead to postzygotic incompatibility between extremal types...

Development of GCP Ontology for Sharing Crop Information

Rosemary Shrestha; Ramil Mauleon; Reinhard Simon; Jayashree Balaji; Stephanie Channelière; Adriana Alercia; Martin Senger; Kevin Manansala; Thomas Metz; Guy Davenport; Richard Bruskiewich; Graham McLaren; Elizabeth Arnaud
Fonte: Nature Preceedings Publicador: Nature Preceedings
Tipo: Poster
Português
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The Generation Challenge Programme (GCP – "http://www.generationcp.org":http://www.generationcp.org) is a globally distributed crop research consortium directed toward crop improvement through the application of comparative biology and genetic resources characterization to plant breeding. GCP adopted the development paradigm of a ‘model-driven architecture’ to achieve the interoperability and integration of diverse GCP data types that are available through distributed data sources and consumed by end-user data analysis tools. Its objective is to ensure semantic compatibility across the Consortium that will lead to the creation of robust global public goods from GCP research results. The GCP scientific domain model is an object model that encapsulates key crop science concepts and is documented using Unified Modeling Language (see GCP Models on "http://pantheon.generationcp.org/index.php":http://pantheon.generationcp.org/index.php). At the core of the GCP architecture is a scientific domain model, which is heavily parameterized with GCP-indexed ontology terms. The GCP-indexed ontology reuses established international standards where available, converts other publicly available controlled vocabularies into formally managed ontology...

p-hydroxybenzoic acid inhibited photosynthetic efficiency, yield and non-photochemical fluorescence quenching in Lactuca sativa

M. Iftikhar Hussain; Luis Gonzalez; Manuel Joaquin Reigosa
Fonte: Nature Preceedings Publicador: Nature Preceedings
Tipo: Poster
Português
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The p-hydroxybenzoic acid (BA) is a widespread phenolic compound often cited as allelochemical [1], released into soil by root exudates of _Avena fatua_ [2], leaf leachates, and decomposed plant tissues of _Triticum aestivum_ L. [3]. Because of the herbicidal potential of BA on crops [4] and weed species [5], commercially available BA was tested on photosynthetic efficiency, yield and non-photochemical fluorescence quenching in _Lactuca sativa_ in a glass house study. The stock solution (3mM) of BA was made in Methanol: Water (20:80). Methanol was evaporated in a rotary vaporizer and stock solution was adjusted to concentration of 1.5 mM. Lettuce (_Lactuca sativa_ L. cv. Great Lakes California) seeds were grown in perlite culture in plastic pots, irrigated with 500 ml 1:1 Hoagland solution/pot, twice in a week in controlled glass house, having temperature: 18/8 oC (day/night) and 12/12 h (light/darkness) photoperiod and 80 % relative humidity. One-month-old seedlings were treated with 1.5 mM concentration of BA and chlorophyll fluorescence measurements were performed with portable, pulse-modulated instrument fluorescence monitoring system (FMS) (Hansatech, Norfolk, England) by the method of Weiss and Reigosa [6]. Total protein was quantified by using the Spectrophotometric Bradford [7] assays using commercial bovine serum albumin as standard. Allelochemical BA reduced quantum efficiency (Fv/Fm) in lettuce seedlings on all days but the effect was stronger on the fifth and sixth day. Effective quantum yield (Ф PSII) of photosystem II was significantly decreased by BA during third...

Plant metabolomics: A new frontier in phytochemical analysis

Tugizimana,Fidele; Piater,Lizelle; Dubery,Ian
Fonte: South African Journal of Science Publicador: South African Journal of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2013 Português
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The primary and secondary metabolites found in plant cells are the final recipients of biological information flow. In turn, their levels can influence gene expression and protein stability. Qualitative and quantitative measurements of these metabolites reflect the cellular state under defined conditions, and yield critical insights into the cellular processes that control the biochemical phenotype of the cell, tissue or whole organism. Metabolomics differs from traditional targeted phytochemical analysis in various fundamental aspects; for example, it is a data-driven approach with predictive power that aims to assess all measurable metabolites without any pre-conception or pre-selection. As such, metabolomics is providing new dimensions in the study of systems biology, enabling the in-depth understanding of the intra- and extracellular interactions of plant cells. Metabolomics is also developing into a valuable tool that can be used to monitor and assess gene function, and to characterise post-genomic processes from a broad perspective. Here, we give an overview of the fundamental analytical technologies and subsequent multivariate data analyses involved in plant metabolomics as a research tool to study various aspects of plant biology.