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Formal validation of automated policy refinement in the management of network security systems

ALBUQUERQUE, Joao Porto de; KRUMM, Heiko; GEUS, Paulo Licio de
Fonte: SPRINGER Publicador: SPRINGER
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Policy hierarchies and automated policy refinement are powerful approaches to simplify administration of security services in complex network environments. A crucial issue for the practical use of these approaches is to ensure the validity of the policy hierarchy, i.e. since the policy sets for the lower levels are automatically derived from the abstract policies (defined by the modeller), we must be sure that the derived policies uphold the high-level ones. This paper builds upon previous work on Model-based Management, particularly on the Diagram of Abstract Subsystems approach, and goes further to propose a formal validation approach for the policy hierarchies yielded by the automated policy refinement process. We establish general validation conditions for a multi-layered policy model, i.e. necessary and sufficient conditions that a policy hierarchy must satisfy so that the lower-level policy sets are valid refinements of the higher-level policies according to the criteria of consistency and completeness. Relying upon the validation conditions and upon axioms about the model representativeness, two theorems are proved to ensure compliance between the resulting system behaviour and the abstract policies that are modelled.

MAGMA a liquid software approach to fault tolerance, computer network security, and survivable /cScott A. Margulis.

Margulis, Scott A.
Fonte: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
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Approved for public release, distribution unlimited; The Next Generation Internet (NGI) will address increased multi-media Internet service demands, requiring consistent Quality of Service (QoS), similar to the legacy phone system. Server Agent-based Active network Management (SAAM) acts like a rush-hour traffic reporting helicopter. Upon routing request arrivals, SAAM server determines the best, least traffic/resistance route and assembles the routing path, freeing up ¡ʹlight-weight¡· routers to provide faster, more reliable, forwarding services. The SAAM server is a critical network node; therefore, it is imperative to make it extremely robust. With Margulis Agent-Based Mobile Application (MAGMAà EÌ ) liquid software, a SAAM server agent will remain inactive in resident memory of each router until it is stimulated by a message from the departing server. Then the agent will begin running a new server at a starting point determined from the prior server¡Šs recent state information or a pre-determined point if that state information is not available. MAGMAà EÌ will provide SAAM an increased fault tolerance and security against malicious attacks. Liquid software research has taken place since 1996 (University of Arizona/University of Pennsylvania); however...

Cybersecurity Considerations for Information Systems

Irvine, Cynthia E.
Fonte: Naval Postgraduate School (U.S). Publicador: Naval Postgraduate School (U.S).
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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The significant efficiencies possible through the use of information technology in public systems are alluring, however, as the value of the information stored electronically increases, computer systems become targets for abuse and attack. To ensure continued public confidence in these systems, managers need to understand the impact of security shortcomings in their automated systems. A high level taxonomy of threats to information systems is presented to provide a basis for security requirements. Fundamental concepts of computer security are reviewed. The costs and benefits of investment in cybersecurity will be introduced. The concept of organizational information policy, mechanisms for its enforcement, and the value of assurance and the notion of costs and benefits of investment in cybersecurity are presented.

Utilizing the Common Criteria for Advanced Student Research Projects

Nguyen, Thuy D.; Irvine, Cynthia E.
Fonte: IFIP International Federation for Information Processing, Volume 201, Security and Privacy in Dynamic Environments, eds. Fischer-Hubner, S., Rannenberg, K., Yngstrom, L., Lindskog, S., (Boston: Springer), pp. 317-328. Publicador: IFIP International Federation for Information Processing, Volume 201, Security and Privacy in Dynamic Environments, eds. Fischer-Hubner, S., Rannenberg, K., Yngstrom, L., Lindskog, S., (Boston: Springer), pp. 317-328.
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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In most computer science graduate programs, students must complete an advanced research project that demonstrates the students technical competence in both the theory and practice of the field. Information security is a specialization area of computer science whose research results have direct benefits to real world problems. The Common Criteria (CC) is an international standard for security evaluation of products. This paper describes the utilization of the CC paradigmatic framework for advanced student research projects focused on security engineering. Three CC-based efforts of varying levels of difficulty are presented and the suitability and benefits of applying the CC in this context are discussed.

An assessment of vulnerabilities for ship-based control systems

Bensing, Richard G.
Fonte: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: xx,171 p. : col. ill. ;
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Approved for public release, distribution unlimited; Growing asymmetric threats, such as international terrorism, have replaced the hostile nation-state as the adversary of choice. As embodied by the September 11 attacks, the United States now faces enemies that seek to create havoc and disruption in nontraditional ways. This new adversarial paradigm makes the protection of the critical infrastructure of the nation even more important than ever. Unfortunately, this is the nation's soft underbelly. Computer-based control systems form the heart of the critical infrastructure, and these control systems are riddled with rampant vulnerabilities. A combination of industry apathy, physical challenges, and the growing reliance on the Internet by has exacerbated these vulnerabilities. The critical infrastructure of a Navy warship is just as vital to the operation of the vessel as the national infrastructure is to the operation of the nation. Unfortunately, a ship's infrastructure is similarly permeated with control systems, which have similar weaknesses and face similar threats as their civilian counterparts. This thesis examines the importance of the critical infrastructure on both the national and shipboard scale. Threats and vulnerabilities are established...

Steganography and collusion in cryptographic protocols

Lepinski, Matthew (Matthew Baker), 1978-
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 62 leaves
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Steganography, the hiding of covert messages inside innocuous communication, is an active area of cryptographic research. Recent research has shown that provably undetectable steganography is possible in a wide variety of settings. We believe that the existence of such undetectable steganography will have far reaching implications. In this thesis, we investigate the impact of steganography on the design of cryptographic protocols. In particular, we show that that all existing cryptographic protocols allow malicious players to collude and coordinate their actions by steganographicly hiding covert messages inside legitimate protocol traffic. Such collusion is devastating in many settings, and thus we argue that it's elimination is an important direction for cryptographic research. Defeating such steganographic collusion requires not only new cryptographic protocols, but also a new notion of protocol security. Traditional notions of protocol security attempt to minimize the injuries to privacy and correctness inflicted by malicious participants who collude during run-time. They do not, however, prevent malicious parties from colluding and coordinating their actions in the first place! We therefore put forward the notion of a collusion-free protocol which guarantees that no set of players can use the protocol to maliciously coordinate their actions.; (cont.) As should be expected...

A Survey on Cloud Computing Security

Modares, Hero; Salleh, Rosli; Moravejosharieh, Amirhosein; Keshavarz, Hassan; Shahgoli, Majid Talebi
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 24/06/2012 Português
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Computation encounter the new approach of cloud computing which maybe keeps the world and possibly can prepare all the human's necessities. In other words, cloud computing is the subsequent regular step in the evolution of on-demand information technology services and products. The Cloud is a metaphor for the Internet and is a concept for the covered complicated infrastructure; it also depends on sketching in computer network diagrams. In this paper we will focus on concept of cloud computing, cloud deployment models, cloud security challenges encryption and data protection, privacy and security and data management and movement from grid to cloud.

Refining Data Security in Infrastructure Networks Support of Multipath Routing

Karnavel, K.; shalini, L.; Ramananthini, M.
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 12/07/2013 Português
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An infrastructure network is a self-organizing network with help of Access Point (AP) of wireless links connecting nodes to another. The nodes can communicate without an ad hoc. They form an uninformed topology (BSS/ESS), where the nodes play the role of routers and are free to move randomly. Infrastructure networks proved their efficiency being used in different fields but they are highly vulnerable to security attacks and dealing with this is one of the main challenges of these networks at present. In recent times some clarification are proposed to provide authentication, confidentiality, availability, secure routing and intrusion avoidance in infrastructure networks. Implementing security in such dynamically changing networks is a hard task. Infrastructure network characteristics should be taken into consideration to be clever to design efficient solutions. Here we spotlight on civilizing the flow transmission privacy in infrastructure networks based on multipath routing. Certainly, we take benefit of the being of multiple paths between nodes in an infrastructure network to increase the confidentiality robustness of transmitted data with the help of Access Point. In our approach the original message to secure is split into shares through access point that are encrypted and combined then transmitted along different disjointed existing paths between sender and receiver. Even if an intruder achieve something to get one or more transmitted distribute the likelihood that the unique message will be reconstituted is very squat.; Comment: arXiv admin note: substantial text overlap with arXiv:1307.3402

Digital Investigation of Security Attacks on Cardiac Implantable Medical Devices

Ellouze, Nourhene; Rekhis, Slim; Allouche, Mohamed; Boudriga, Noureddine
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 16/10/2014 Português
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A Cardiac Implantable Medical device (IMD) is a device, which is surgically implanted into a patient's body, and wirelessly configured using an external programmer by prescribing physicians and doctors. A set of lethal attacks targeting these devices can be conducted due to the use of vulnerable wireless communication and security protocols, and the lack of security protection mechanisms deployed on IMDs. In this paper, we propose a system for postmortem analysis of lethal attack scenarios targeting cardiac IMDs. Such a system reconciles in the same framework conclusions derived by technical investigators and deductions generated by pathologists. An inference system integrating a library of medical rules is used to automatically infer potential medical scenarios that could have led to the death of a patient. A Model Checking based formal technique allowing the reconstruction of potential technical attack scenarios on the IMD, starting from the collected evidence, is also proposed. A correlation between the results obtained by the two techniques allows to prove whether a potential attack scenario is the source of the patient's death.; Comment: In Proceedings AIDP 2014, arXiv:1410.3226

Secure ARP and Secure DHCP Protocols to Mitigate Security Attacks

Issac, B.
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 16/10/2014 Português
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For network computers to communicate to one another, they need to know one another's IP address and MAC address. Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) is developed to find the Ethernet address that map to a specific IP address. The source computer broadcasts the request for Ethernet address and eventually the target computer replies. The IP to Ethernet address mapping would later be stored in an ARP Cache for some time duration, after which the process is repeated. Since ARP is susceptible to ARP poisoning attacks, we propose to make it unicast, centralized and secure, along with a secure design of DHCP protocol to mitigate MAC spoofing. The secure protocol designs are explained in detail. Lastly we also discuss some performance issues to show how the proposed protocols work.; Comment: 12 pages. available in Issac, B. (2009). Secure ARP and Secure DHCP Protocols to Mitigate Security Attacks, International Journal of Network Security (IJNS), ISSN 1816-353X (print), ISSN 1816-3548 (online), 8(1), 102-113

NEMESYS: Enhanced Network Security for Seamless Service Provisioning in the Smart Mobile Ecosystem

Gelenbe, Erol; Gorbil, Gokce; Tzovaras, Dimitrios; Liebergeld, Steffen; Garcia, David; Baltatu, Madalina; Lyberopoulos, George
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 23/05/2013 Português
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As a consequence of the growing popularity of smart mobile devices, mobile malware is clearly on the rise, with attackers targeting valuable user information and exploiting vulnerabilities of the mobile ecosystems. With the emergence of large-scale mobile botnets, smartphones can also be used to launch attacks on mobile networks. The NEMESYS project will develop novel security technologies for seamless service provisioning in the smart mobile ecosystem, and improve mobile network security through better understanding of the threat landscape. NEMESYS will gather and analyze information about the nature of cyber-attacks targeting mobile users and the mobile network so that appropriate counter-measures can be taken. We will develop a data collection infrastructure that incorporates virtualized mobile honeypots and a honeyclient, to gather, detect and provide early warning of mobile attacks and better understand the modus operandi of cyber-criminals that target mobile devices. By correlating the extracted information with the known patterns of attacks from wireline networks, we will reveal and identify trends in the way that cyber-criminals launch attacks against mobile devices.; Comment: Accepted for publication in Proceedings of the 28th International Symposium on Computer and Information Sciences (ISCIS'13); 9 pages; 1 figure

Cyber-Physical Security: A Game Theory Model of Humans Interacting over Control Systems

Backhaus, Scott; Bent, Russell; Bono, James; Lee, Ritchie; Tracey, Brendan; Wolpert, David; Xie, Dongping; Yildiz, Yildiray
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 15/04/2013 Português
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Recent years have seen increased interest in the design and deployment of smart grid devices and control algorithms. Each of these smart communicating devices represents a potential access point for an intruder spurring research into intruder prevention and detection. However, no security measures are complete, and intruding attackers will compromise smart grid devices leading to the attacker and the system operator interacting via the grid and its control systems. The outcome of these machine-mediated human-human interactions will depend on the design of the physical and control systems mediating the interactions. If these outcomes can be predicted via simulation, they can be used as a tool for designing attack-resilient grids and control systems. However, accurate predictions require good models of not just the physical and control systems, but also of the human decision making. In this manuscript, we present an approach to develop such tools, i.e. models of the decisions of the cyber-physical intruder who is attacking the systems and the system operator who is defending it, and demonstrate its usefulness for design.; Comment: 8 pages, 7 figures, IEEE Transactions on Smart Grids pending

Classical Knowledge for Quantum Security

D'Hondt, Ellie; Sadrzadeh, Mehrnoosh
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 26/08/2008 Português
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We propose a decision procedure for analysing security of quantum cryptographic protocols, combining a classical algebraic rewrite system for knowledge with an operational semantics for quantum distributed computing. As a test case, we use our procedure to reason about security properties of a recently developed quantum secret sharing protocol that uses graph states. We analyze three different scenarios based on the safety assumptions of the classical and quantum channels and discover the path of an attack in the presence of an adversary. The epistemic analysis that leads to this and similar types of attacks is purely based on our classical notion of knowledge.; Comment: extended abstract, 13 pages

Combining behavioural types with security analysis

Bartoletti, Massimo; Castellani, Ilaria; Deniélou, Pierre-Malo; Dezani-Ciancaglini, Mariangiola; Ghilezan, Silvia; Pantovic, Jovanka; Pérez, Jorge A.; Thiemann, Peter; Toninho, Bernardo; Vieira, Hugo Torres
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 08/10/2015 Português
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Today's software systems are highly distributed and interconnected, and they increasingly rely on communication to achieve their goals; due to their societal importance, security and trustworthiness are crucial aspects for the correctness of these systems. Behavioural types, which extend data types by describing also the structured behaviour of programs, are a widely studied approach to the enforcement of correctness properties in communicating systems. This paper offers a unified overview of proposals based on behavioural types which are aimed at the analysis of security properties.

A logical reconstruction of SPKI

Halpern, Joseph Y.; van der Meyden, Ron
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 19/08/2002 Português
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SPKI/SDSI is a proposed public key infrastructure standard that incorporates the SDSI public key infrastructure. SDSI's key innovation was the use of local names. We previously introduced a Logic of Local Name Containment that has a clear semantics and was shown to completely characterize SDSI name resolution. Here we show how our earlier approach can be extended to deal with a number of key features of SPKI, including revocation, expiry dates, and tuple reduction. We show that these extensions add relatively little complexity to the logic. In particular, we do not need a nonmonotonic logic to capture revocation. We then use our semantics to examine SPKI's tuple reduction rules. Our analysis highlights places where SPKI's informal description of tuple reduction is somewhat vague, and shows that extra reduction rules are necessary in order to capture general information about binding and authorization.; Comment: This is an updated version of a paper that appears in the Proceedings of the 14th IEEE Computer Security Foundations Workshop. It will appear in a special issue of the Journal of Computer Security devoted to papers from that conference

Q-A: Towards the Solution of Usability-Security Tension in User Authentication

Al-Ameen, Mahdi Nasrullah; Haque, S M Taiabul; Wright, Matthew
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 27/07/2014 Português
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Users often choose passwords that are easy to remember but also easy to guess by attackers. Recent studies have revealed the vulnerability of textual passwords to shoulder surfing and keystroke loggers. It remains a critical challenge in password research to develop an authentication scheme that addresses these security issues, in addition to offering good memorability. Motivated by psychology research on humans' cognitive strengths and weaknesses, we explore the potential of cognitive questions as a way to address the major challenges in user authentication. We design, implement, and evaluate Q-A, a novel cognitive-question-based password system that requires a user to enter the letter at a given position in her answer for each of six personal questions (e.g. "What is the name of your favorite childhood teacher?"). In this scheme, the user does not need to memorize new, artificial information as her authentication secret. Our scheme offers 28 bits of theoretical password space, which has been found sufficient to prevent online brute-force attacks. Q-A is also robust against shoulder surfing and keystroke loggers. We conducted a multi-session in-lab user study to evaluate the usability of Q-A; 100% of users were able to remember their Q-A password over the span of one week...

ADTool: Security Analysis with Attack-Defense Trees (Extended Version)

Kordy, Barbara; Kordy, Piotr; Mauw, Sjouke; Schweitzer, Patrick
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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The ADTool is free, open source software assisting graphical modeling and quantitative analysis of security, using attack-defense trees. The main features of the ADTool are easy creation, efficient editing, and automated bottom-up evaluation of security-relevant measures. The tool also supports the usage of attack trees, protection trees and defense trees, which are all particular instances of attack-defense trees.; Comment: This is an extended version of the tool demonstration paper accepted for publication at the 10th International Conference on Quantitative Evaluation of SysTems (QEST 2013)

Interdependent Defense Games: Modeling Interdependent Security under Deliberate Attacks

Chan, Hau; Ceyko, Michael; Ortiz, Luis E.
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 16/10/2012 Português
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We propose interdependent defense (IDD) games, a computational game-theoretic framework to study aspects of the interdependence of risk and security in multi-agent systems under deliberate external attacks. Our model builds upon interdependent security (IDS) games, a model due to Heal and Kunreuther that considers the source of the risk to be the result of a fixed randomizedstrategy. We adapt IDS games to model the attacker's deliberate behavior. We define the attacker's pure-strategy space and utility function and derive appropriate cost functions for the defenders. We provide a complete characterization of mixed-strategy Nash equilibria (MSNE), and design a simple polynomial-time algorithm for computing all of them, for an important subclass of IDD games. In addition, we propose a randominstance generator of (general) IDD games based on a version of the real-world Internet-derived Autonomous Systems (AS) graph (with around 27K nodes and 100K edges), and present promising empirical results using a simple learning heuristics to compute (approximate) MSNE in such games.; Comment: Appears in Proceedings of the Twenty-Eighth Conference on Uncertainty in Artificial Intelligence (UAI2012)

Modeling Adversaries in a Logic for Security Protocol Analysis

Halpern, Joseph Y.; Pucella, Riccardo
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Logics for security protocol analysis require the formalization of an adversary model that specifies the capabilities of adversaries. A common model is the Dolev-Yao model, which considers only adversaries that can compose and replay messages, and decipher them with known keys. The Dolev-Yao model is a useful abstraction, but it suffers from some drawbacks: it cannot handle the adversary knowing protocol-specific information, and it cannot handle probabilistic notions, such as the adversary attempting to guess the keys. We show how we can analyze security protocols under different adversary models by using a logic with a notion of algorithmic knowledge. Roughly speaking, adversaries are assumed to use algorithms to compute their knowledge; adversary capabilities are captured by suitable restrictions on the algorithms used. We show how we can model the standard Dolev-Yao adversary in this setting, and how we can capture more general capabilities including protocol-specific knowledge and guesses.; Comment: 23 pages. A preliminary version appeared in the proceedings of FaSec'02

Cooperative Automated Worm Response and Detection Immune Algorithm

Kim, Jungwon; Wilson, William; Aickelin, Uwe; McLeod, Julie
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 13/01/2010 Português
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The role of T-cells within the immune system is to confirm and assess anomalous situations and then either respond to or tolerate the source of the effect. To illustrate how these mechanisms can be harnessed to solve real-world problems, we present the blueprint of a T-cell inspired algorithm for computer security worm detection. We show how the three central T-cell processes, namely T-cell maturation, differentiation and proliferation, naturally map into this domain and further illustrate how such an algorithm fits into a complete immune inspired computer security system and framework.; Comment: 14 pages, 2 figures, 2 tables, 4th International Conference on Artificial Immune Systems (ICARIS)