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Impact of droughts on water provision in managed alpine grasslands in two climatically different regions of the Alps

Leitinger, Georg; Ruggenthaler, Romed; Hammerle, Albin; Lavorel, Sandra; Schirpke, Uta; Clement, Jean-Christophe; Lamarque, Pénélope; Obojes, Nikolaus; Tappeiner, Ulrike
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Text
Publicado em 01/12/2015 Português
This study analyzes the impact of droughts, compared with average climatic conditions, on the supporting ecosystem service water provision in sub-watersheds in managed alpine grasslands in two climatically different regions of the Alps, Lautaret (French Alps) and Stubai (Austrian Alps). Soil moisture was modelled in the range of 0–0.3 m. At both sites, current patterns showed that the mean seasonal soil moisture was (1) near field capacity for grasslands with low management intensity and (2) below field capacity for grasslands with higher land-use intensity. Soil moisture was significantly reduced by drought at both sites, with lower reductions at the drier Lautaret site. At the sub-watershed scale, soil moisture spatial heterogeneity was reduced by drought. Under drought conditions, the evapotranspiration to precipitation ratios at Stubai was slightly higher than those at Lautaret, indicating a dominant ‘water spending’ strategy of plant communities. Regarding catchment water balance, deep seepage was reduced by drought at Stubai more strongly than at Lautaret. Hence, the observed ‘water spending’ strategy at Stubai might have negative consequences for downstream water users. Assessing the water provision service for alpine grasslands provided evidence that...

Three-beam Doppler optical coherence tomography using a facet prism telescope and MEMS mirror for improved transversal resolution

Haindl, R.; Trasischker, W.; Baumann, B.; Pircher, M.; Hitzenberger, C.K.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Text
Publicado em //2015 Português
An improved three-beam Doppler optical coherence tomography system was developed. It utilizes a custom-made three-facet prism telescope to improve the transversal resolution at the sample. Furthermore, a two-axis gimbal-less MEMS mirror is used to minimize off-pivot beam movement at the pupil of the eye, enabling circular scanning for in vivo retinal measurements. We demonstrate the system’s abilities for in vitro circular scanning to measure absolute flow and to reconstruct the full velocity vector on a bifurcation flow phantom. Moreover, in vivo retinal measurements using circular scanning around vessel bifurcations of healthy human volunteers were performed. Measurements of the absolute mean flow and its orientation are in good agreement with the expected values for in vitro measurements. For in vivo measurements, the in- and outflow of blood for retinal vessel bifurcations show an excellent agreement, demonstrating the reliability of the technique.

Spinocerebellar ataxia 28: a novel AFG3L2 mutation in a German family with young onset, slow progression and saccadic slowing

Zühlke, Christine; Mikat, Barbara; Timmann, Dagmar; Wieczorek, Dagmar; Gillessen-Kaesbach, Gabriele; Bürk, Katrin
Fonte: BioMed Central Publicador: BioMed Central
Tipo: Text
Publicado em 16/12/2015 Português

Occupational exposure to blood borne pathogens among healthcare workers: a cross-sectional study of a registry in Colombia

Pérez-Diaz, Carlos; Calixto, Omar-Javier; Faccini-Martínez, Álvaro A.; Bravo-Ojeda, Juan S.; Botero-García, Carlos A.; Uribe-Pardo, Erika; Mantilla-Florez, Yesid F.; Benitez, Fabian; Duran, Ada; Osorio, Johana
Fonte: BioMed Central Publicador: BioMed Central
Tipo: Text
Publicado em 16/12/2015 Português

Development and characterization of microsatellite markers in the African deciduous tree Terminalia superba (Combretaceae)1

Demenou, Boris B.; Migliore, Jérémy; Tosso, Felicien; Kaymak, Esra; Hardy, Olivier J.
Fonte: Botanical Society of America Publicador: Botanical Society of America
Tipo: Text
Publicado em 09/12/2015 Português

Development of EST-SSR markers in Barringtonia racemosa (Lecythidaceae) and cross-amplification in related species1

Xie, Hongxian; Yuan, Yang; Fang, Xiaoting; Liu, Ying; Yang, Chao; Jin, Jianhua; Tan, Fengxiao; Huang, Yelin
Fonte: Botanical Society of America Publicador: Botanical Society of America
Tipo: Text
Publicado em 04/12/2015 Português

Development of microsatellite markers for the endangered Pedicularis ishidoyana (Orobanchaceae) using next-generation sequencing1

Cho, Won-Bum; Choi, In-Su; Choi, Byoung-Hee
Fonte: Botanical Society of America Publicador: Botanical Society of America
Tipo: Text
Publicado em 14/12/2015 Português

Characterization of nuclear microsatellite markers for Rumex bucephalophorus (Polygonaceae) using 454 sequencing1

Viruel, Juan; Ortiz, Pedro L.; Arista, Montserrat; Talavera, María
Fonte: Botanical Society of America Publicador: Botanical Society of America
Tipo: Text
Publicado em 15/12/2015 Português

Glutaredoxin 5 regulates osteoblast apoptosis by protecting against oxidative stress

Linares, Gabriel R.; Xing, Weirong; Govoni, Kristen E.; Chen, Shin-Tai; Mohan, Subburaman
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Text
Português
There is now increasing evidence which suggests an important role for reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the pathogenesis of osteoporosis. However, little is known on the molecular components of the oxidative stress pathway or their functions in bone. In this study, we evaluated the role and mechanism of action of glutaredoxin (Grx) 5, a protein that is highly expressed in bone. Osteoblasts were transfected with Grx5 siRNA and treated with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). Grx5 siRNA treatment increased apoptosis while Grx5 overexpression protected MC3T3-E1 cells against H2O2 induced apoptosis and ROS formation. Grx5 deficiency results in impaired biogenesis of Fe–S cluster in yeast. Accordingly, activity of mitochondrial aconitase, whose activity is dependent on Fe–S cluster, decreased in Grx5 siRNA treated cells. Since reduced formation of Fe–S cluster would lead to increased level of free iron, a competitive inhibitor of manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD), we measured MnSOD activity in Grx5 deficient osteoblasts and found MnSOD activity was significantly reduced. The consequence of long term inhibition of Grx5 on osteoblast apoptosis was evaluated using lentiviral shRNA technology. Grx5 shRNA cells exhibited higher caspase activity and cardiolipin oxidation in the presence of H2O2. MnSOD activity was rescued by the addition of MnCl2 to Grx5 shRNA osteoblasts in the presence of H2O2. Our findings are consistent with the hypothesis that Grx5 is an important determinant of osteoblast apoptosis and acts via a molecular pathway that involves regulation of ROS production...

A Primer Series on -Omic Technologies for the Practice of Epidemiology

Khoury, Muin J.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Text
Português

Reducing the burden of disease and death from familial hypercholesterolemia: A call to action

Knowles, Joshua W.; O'Brien, Emily C.; Greendale, Karen; Wilemon, Katherine; Genest, Jacques; Sperling, Laurence S.; Neal, William A.; Rader, Daniel J.; Khoury, Muin J.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Text
Português
Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) is a genetic disease characterized by substantial elevations of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, unrelated to diet or lifestyle. Untreated FH patients have 20 times the risk of developing coronary artery disease, compared with the general population. Estimates indicate that as many as 1 in 500 people of all ethnicities and 1 in 250 people of Northern European descent may have FH; nevertheless, the condition remains largely undiagnosed. In the United States alone, perhaps as little as 1% of FH patients have been diagnosed. Consequently, there are potentially millions of children and adults worldwide who are unaware that they have a life-threatening condition. In countries like the Netherlands, the United Kingdom, and Spain, cascade screening programs have led to dramatic improvements in FH case identification. Given that there are currently no systematic approaches in the United States to identify FH patients or affected relatives, the patient-centric nonprofit FH Foundation convened a national FH Summit in 2013, where participants issued a “call to action” to health care providers, professional organizations, public health programs, patient advocacy groups, and FH experts, in order to bring greater attention to this potentially deadly...

Targeting and depletion of circulating leukocytes and cancer cells by lipophilic antibody-modified erythrocytes

Mukthavaram, Rajesh; Shi, Guixin; Kesari, Santosh; Simberg, Dmitri
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Text
Português
There is a great interest in targeting and selective ablation of populations of circulating cells for research or therapeutic purposes. Red blood cells (RBCs) are readily available and fully biocompatible long-circulating intravascular carriers (natural life is 120 days) that are amenable to chemical modifications, drug loading and reinjection. Here we demonstrate that using our previously described lipophilic ligand painting strategy, red blood cells (RBCs) could be in one step converted into targeted entities that selectively seek and bind various cells in vitro and in vivo. In vitro, RBCs modified with lipophilic anti-EpCAM or anti-CD45 antibodies efficiently bound to cancer cells and leukocytes, forming characteristic rosettes. In vivo, intravenously injected RBCs painted with anti-CD45 antibody immediately associated with CD45 positive cells in blood, forming RBC-leukocyte rosettes. Moreover, anti-CD45-modified RBCs, but not the same amount of anti-CD45 antibody or anti-CD45-lipid conjugate (1–2 μg/mouse), depleted over 50% of CD45+ leukocytes from circulation, with main clearance organs of leukocytes being liver and spleen with no visible deposition in kidneys and lungs. Anti-CD20 (Rituximab)-painted RBCs efficiently (over 90%) depleted CD19+/CD20+/CD45+ human lymphoma cells in mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) JeKo-1 model...

Teacher Narratives and Student Engagement: Testing Narrative Engagement Theory in Drug Prevention Education

Miller-Day, Michelle; Hecht, Michael L.; Krieger, Janice L.; Pettigrew, Jonathan; Shin, YoungJu; Graham, John
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Text
Português
Testing narrative engagement theory, this study examines student engagement and teachers’ spontaneous narratives told in a narrative-based drug prevention curriculum. The study describes the extent to which teachers share their own narratives in a narrative-based curriculum, identifies dominant narrative elements, forms and functions, and assesses the relationships among teacher narratives, overall lesson narrative quality, and student engagement. One hundred videotaped lessons of the keepin’ it REAL drug prevention curriculum were coded and the results supported the claim that increased narrative quality of a prevention lesson would be associated with increased student engagement. The quality of narrativity, however, varied widely. Implications of these results for narrative-based prevention interventions and narrative pedagogy are discussed.

Collaborative Cancer Epidemiology in the 21st Century: the Model of Cancer Consortia

Burgio, Michael R.; Ioannidis, John P.A.; Kaminski, Brett M.; DeRycke, Eric; Rogers, Scott; Khoury, Muin J.; Seminara, Daniela
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Text
Português
During the last two decades, epidemiology has undergone a rapid evolution toward collaborative research. The proliferation of multi-institutional, interdisciplinary consortia has acquired particular prominence in cancer research. Herein, we describe the characteristics of a network of 49 established cancer epidemiology consortia (CEC) currently supported by the Epidemiology and Genomics Research Program (EGRP) at the National Cancer Institute (NCI). This collection represents the largest disease-based research network for collaborative cancer research established in population sciences. We describe the funding trends, geographic distribution and areas of research focus. The CEC have been partially supported by 201 grants and yielded 3876 publications between 1995 and 2011. We describe this output in terms of interdisciplinary collaboration and translational evolution. We discuss challenges and future opportunities in the establishment and conduct of large-scale team science within the framework of CEC, review future prospects for this approach to large scale, interdisciplinary cancer research and describe a model for the evolution of an integrated Network of Cancer Consortia optimally suited to address and support 21st century epidemiology.

Development of 4-methoxy-7-nitroindolinyl (MNI)-caged auxins which are extremely stable in planta

Hayashi, Ken-ichiro; Kusaka, Naoyuki; Yamasaki, Soma; Zhao, Yunde; Nozaki, Hiroshi
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Text
Português
Phytohormone auxin is a master regulator in plant growth and development. Regulation of cellular auxin level plays a central role in plant development. Auxin polar transport system modulates an auxin gradient that determines plant developmental process in response to environmental conditions and developmental programs. Photolabile caged auxins allow optical control of artificial auxin gradients at cellular resolution. Especially, two-photon uncaging system achieves high spatiotemporal control of photolysis reaction at two-photon cross-section. However, the development of caged versions of auxin has been limited by the instability of the caged auxins to higher plant metabolic activities. Here, we describe the synthesis and application of highly stable caged auxins, 4-methoxy-7-nitroindolinyl (MNI)-caged auxins. Natural auxin, indole 3-acetic acid, and two synthetic auxins, 1-NAA and 2,4-D were caged by MNI caging group. MNI-caged auxins showed a high stability in planta and a rapid release the original auxin when photolyzed. We demonstrated that optical control of auxin-responsive gene expression and auxin-related physiological responses by using MNI-caged auxins. We anticipate that MNI-caged auxins will be an effective tool for high-resolution control of endogenous auxin level.

Serum Bile Acids Are Higher in Humans With Prior Gastric Bypass: Potential Contribution to Improved Glucose and Lipid Metabolism

Patti, Mary-Elizabeth; Houten, Sander M.; Bianco, Antonio C.; Bernier, Raquel; Larsen, P. Reed; Holst, Jens J.; Badman, Michael K.; Maratos-Flier, Eleftheria; Mun, Edward C.; Pihlajamaki, Jussi; Auwerx, Johan; Goldfine, Allison B.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Text
Português
The multifactorial mechanisms promoting weight loss and improved metabolism following Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (GB) surgery remain incompletely understood. Recent rodent studies suggest that bile acids can mediate energy homeostasis by activating the G-protein coupled receptor TGR5 and the type 2 thyroid hormone deiodinase. Altered gastrointestinal anatomy following GB could affect enterohepatic recirculation of bile acids. We assessed whether circulating bile acid concentrations differ in patients who previously underwent GB, which might then contribute to improved metabolic homeostasis. We performed cross-sectional analysis of fasting serum bile acid composition and both fasting and post-meal metabolic variables, in three subject groups: (i) post-GB surgery (n = 9), (ii) without GB matched to preoperative BMI of the index cohort (n = 5), and (iii) without GB matched to current BMI of the index cohort (n = 10). Total serum bile acid concentrations were higher in GB (8.90 ± 4.84 µmol/l) than in both overweight (3.59 ± 1.95, P = 0.005, Ov) and severely obese (3.86 ± 1.51, P = 0.045, MOb). Bile acid subfractions taurochenodeoxycholic, taurodeoxycholic, glycocholic, glycochenodeoxycholic, and glycodeoxycholic acids were all significantly higher in GB compared to Ov (P < 0.05). Total bile acids were inversely correlated with 2-h post-meal glucose (r = −0.59...

Deiodinase-mediated thyroid hormone inactivation minimizes thyroid hormone signaling in the early development of fetal skeleton

Capelo, Luciane P.; Beber, Eduardo H.; Huang, Stephen A.; Zorn, Telma M.T.; Bianco, Antonio C.; Gouveia, Cecília H.A.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Text
Português
Thyroid hormone (TH) plays a key role on post-natal bone development and metabolism, while its relevance during fetal bone development is uncertain. To study this, pregnant mice were made hypothyroid and fetuses harvested at embryonic days (E) 12.5, 14.5, 16.5 and 18.5. Despite a marked reduction in fetal tissue concentration of both T4 and T3, bone development, as assessed at the distal epiphyseal growth plate of the femur and vertebra, was largely preserved up to E16.5. Only at E18.5, the hypothyroid fetuses exhibited a reduction in femoral type I and type X collagen and osteocalcin mRNA levels, in the length and area of the proliferative and hypertrophic zones, in the number of chondrocytes per proliferative column, and in the number of hypertrophic chondrocytes, in addition to a slight delay in endochondral and intramembranous ossification. This suggests that up to E16.5, thyroid hormone signaling in bone is kept to a minimum. In fact, measuring the expression level of the activating and inactivating iodothyronine deiodinases (D2 and D3) helped understand how this is achieved. D3 mRNA was readily detected as early as E14.5 and its expression decreased markedly (~ 10-fold) at E18.5, and even more at 14 days after birth (P14). In contrast...

Effective recovery of highly purified CD326+ tumor cells from lavage fluid of patients treated with a novel cell-free and concentrated ascites reinfusion therapy (KM-CART)

Kimura, Yukino; Harada, Yui; Yasuda, Noriko; Ishidao, Takefumi; Yusa, Seiichi; Matsusaki, Keisuke; Yonemitsu, Yoshikazu
Fonte: Springer International Publishing Publicador: Springer International Publishing
Tipo: Text
Publicado em 17/12/2015 Português
For the production of tumor-specific vaccines, including dendritic cell (DC) vaccines, the tumor cells themselves are an ideal source. Floating tumor cells in the ascites fluid from patients with malignant ascites are a good candidate source, but it is not easy to obtain pure tumor cells from ascites because of various types of cell contamination as well as protein aggregates. We here report an effective method to recover pure tumor cells from malignant ascites. We used lavage fluid from 13 patients with malignant ascites who were treated with modified cell-free and concentrated ascites reinfusion therapy (KM-CART). Cellular components were separated from the lavage fluid by centrifugation, enzymatic digestion and hemolysis. Tumor cells were purified by depleting CD45+ leukocytes with antibody-conjugated magnetic beads. The tumor cell lysate was extracted by freeze-and-thaw cycles. The mean obtained total cell number was 7.50 × 107 cells (range 4.40 × 106–2.48 × 108 cells). From this fraction, 6.39 × 106 (range 3.23 × 105–2.53 × 107) CD45− cells were collected, and the tumor cell purity was over 80 % defined as CD45−CD326+. A sufficient amount of tumor lysate, average  = 2416 μg (range 25–8743 μg)...

Neurosurgical management of adult diffuse low grade gliomas in Canada: a multi-center survey

Khan, Osaama H.; Mason, Warren; Kongkham, Paul N.; Bernstein, Mark; Zadeh, Gelareh
Fonte: Springer US Publicador: Springer US
Tipo: Text
Português
Adult diffuse low-grade gliomas are slow growing, World Health Organization grade II lesions with insidious onset and ultimate anaplastic transformation. The timing of surgery remains controversial with polarized practices continuing to govern patient management. As a result, the management of these patients is variable. The goal of this questionnaire was to evaluate practice patterns in Canada. An online invitation for a questionnaire including diagnostic, preoperative, perioperative, and postoperative parameters and three cases with magnetic resonance imaging data with questions to various treatment options in these patients was sent to practicing neurosurgeons and trainees. Survey was sent to 356 email addresses with 87 (24.7 %) responses collected. The range of years of practice was less than 10 years 36 % (n = 23), 11–20 years 28 % (n = 18), over 21 years 37 % (n = 24). Twenty-two neurosurgery students of various years of training completed the survey. 94 % (n = 47) of surgeons and trainees (n = 20) believe that we do not know the “right treatment”. 90 % of surgeons do not obtain formal preoperative neurocognitive assessments. 21 % (n = 13) of surgeons and 23 % of trainees (n = 5) perform a biopsy upon first presentation. A gross total resection was believed to increase progression free survival (surgeons: 75 %...

Chronic widespread bodily pain is increased among individuals with history of fracture: findings from UK Biobank

Walker-Bone, Karen; Harvey, Nicholas C.; Ntani, Georgia; Tinati, Tannaze; Jones, Gareth T.; Smith, Blair H.; Macfarlane, Gary J.; Cooper, Cyrus
Fonte: Springer London Publicador: Springer London
Tipo: Text
Português