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A Naval Postgraduate School em Monterey, na Califórnia, é uma escola de Pós-Graduação que pertence à Marinha dos Estados Unidos.

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Safety versus Secrecy

Volpano, Dennis
Fonte: Escola de Pós-Graduação Naval Publicador: Escola de Pós-Graduação Naval
Português
Safety and secrecy are formulated for a deterministic programming language. A safety property is defined as a set of program traces and secrecy is defined as a binary relation on traces, characterizing a form of Noninterference. Safety properties may have sound and complete execution monitors whereas secrecy ha.s no such monitor.

A Type-Based Approach to Program Security

Volpano, Dennis; Smith, Geoffrey
Fonte: Escola de Pós-Graduação Naval Publicador: Escola de Pós-Graduação Naval
Português
The article of record as published may be found at http://dx.doi.org/; This paper presents a type system which guarantees that well-typed programs in a procedural programming language satisfy a noninterference security property. With all program inputs and outputs classified at various security levels, the property basically states that a program output, classified at some level, can never change as a result of modifying only inputs classified at higher levels. Intuitively, this means the program does not “leak” sensitive data. The property is similar to a notion introduced years ago by Goguen and Meseguer to model secu- rity in multi-level computer systems [7]. We also give an algorithm for inferring and simplifying principal types, which document the security requirements of programs.

A user's guide to the brave new world of designing simulation experiment

Kleijnen, J.P.C.; Cioppa, T.M.; Sanchez, S.M.; Lucas, T.W.
Fonte: Escola de Pós-Graduação Naval Publicador: Escola de Pós-Graduação Naval
Português
The article of record as published may be located at http://dx.doi.org/10.1287/ijoc.1050.0136; SEED Center Paper; "(with online supplement)", included here as a 2nd bitstream.

From Mérida & CARSI to Obama's New Plan: Any Impact on the Gang Situation in Central America?

Matei, Florina Cristiana (Cris); Cortez, Michelle
Fonte: Escola de Pós-Graduação Naval Publicador: Escola de Pós-Graduação Naval
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
This copy is the final, peer-reviewed manuscript.; Since the end of the Cold War, the United States (US) has been supporting Latin America’s democracy and security through a series of diplomatic, social and security-related initiatives and programs.1 Fighting gangs has been part of these endeavors since the early 1990s, when the U.S. government became aware of the challenges posed domestically by gangs and enacted numerous anti-gang initiatives. This article examines efforts by the US to counter the gang problem in Central America, including the Central American Regional Security Initiative (CARSI) and the Mérida Initiative, as well as recent endeavors pursued by the Obama administration. The article also reviews the changes in Central American government attitudes toward fighting gangs, and assesses the impact (if any) of U.S. policies on the region’s security.

South China Sea warm pool detected from the Navy's Master Oceanographic Observational Data Set (MOODS); South China Sea warm pool detected from the Navy's Master Oceanographic Observational Data Set (MOODS)

Chen, J.M.; Tseng, Hsing-Chia; Chu, Peter C.; Chang, C.P.
Fonte: Escola de Pós-Graduação Naval Publicador: Escola de Pós-Graduação Naval
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Journal of Geophysical Research, American Geophysical Union; A South China Sea warm pool with sea surface temperature (SST) higher than 29.5 degrees C, recently reported by Chu and Chang [1995a, b] and Chu et al. [1997], appears in the central South China Sea (west of Luzon Island) in boreal spring, strengthens until the onset of the summer monsoon (mid-May), and then weakens and disappears at the end of May...

Saudi Arabia's Development Strategy: Comparative Advantage vs. Sustainable Growth

Looney, R.E.
Fonte: Escola de Pós-Graduação Naval Publicador: Escola de Pós-Graduação Naval
Tipo: Refereed Journal Article
Português
Orient, vol. 30, no. 1, 1989.

An Economic Assessment of Oman's Industrial Diversification Efforts

Looney, Robert E.
Fonte: Escola de Pós-Graduação Naval Publicador: Escola de Pós-Graduação Naval
Tipo: Refereed Journal Article
Português
Orient, vol. 32, no. 2, 1991.; Oman emerged from political isolation and economic backwardness on the accession of sultan Qaboos bin Said in July 1970. Oil had been discovered in commercial quantities in the interior of the country in 1964 and went into production in 1967. The first action of the new sultan was to orient the economy toward rapid economic growth and modernization.

Public Sector Deficits and Private Investment: A Test of the Crowding- out Hypothesis in Pakistan's Manufacturing Industry

Looney, R.E.
Fonte: Escola de Pós-Graduação Naval Publicador: Escola de Pós-Graduação Naval
Tipo: Refereed Journal Article
Português
Pakistan Development Review, Autumn 1995.; The purpose of the analysis below is to assess whether this public sector crowding out of investment in manufacturing has been a major factor affecting the pattern of private capital formation in that sector. The results of modified Granger Causality test suggest that expanded public investment in infrastructure has not played an important role in stimulating private investment in industry. If anything, it appears that private investment has stimulated a follow-on expansion in infrastructure. Instead of crowding in (i.e., a positive feedback effect) additional private investment, infrastructure investment appears to have led to larger deficits and domestic borrowing. In turn, these financial developments have dampened the flows of private capital into the important large-scale manufacturing sector. On the other hand, financial crowding-out of private investment in large-scale manufacturing is a distinct possibility; but it may not be a simple, straight-forward process. The results obtained also suggest that private investment in large-scale manufacturing has suffered from real crowding-out associated with the government's noninfrastructural investment programme. Finally, it should be noted that neither financial nor real crowding-out seems to occur in other areas of private investment. Clearly...

The Role of Infrastructure in Pakistan's Economic Development: 1972- 1991

Looney, R.E.
Fonte: Escola de Pós-Graduação Naval Publicador: Escola de Pós-Graduação Naval
Tipo: Refereed Journal Article
Português
Pakistan Economic and Social Review, Summer, 1992.; For most of the 1980s, the Pakistan economy performed well, with Gross Domestic Product (GDP) increasing by over 6 per cent per annum. However, the latter part of the decade was characterized by increasing fiscal and external deficits, infrastructure deficiencies and disruptions in production. In 1989 the Government initiated a three-year structural adjustment program with the assistance of the International Monetary Fund (IMF). The program sought to redress the growing macroimbalances. resulting from large fiscal deficits, and to increase productivity through major structural reforms in the real as well as the financial sectors.

Pakistan's Textile Sector: Competitive Pressures and Patterns of Relative Efficiency

Looney, R.E.
Fonte: Escola de Pós-Graduação Naval Publicador: Escola de Pós-Graduação Naval
Tipo: Refereed Journal Article
Português
Pakistan Economic and Social Review, Summer 1994.; The textile industry in Pakistan is one of great significance for its contribution to employment and exports. The production of cotton textiles predominates, despite the existence of a large jute industry, and increasingly important carpet industry and synthetic textiles. Although the share of textiles in manufacturing value added fell from 32.4 percent in 1977 to around 15 percent in recent years, the industry still employs 28 percent of the total labor force and accounts for around 60 percent of the country's total exports (United Nations 1990, p. 53). Capital investment in the sector accounts for around 28 percent of total national investment (and 37 percent of foreign currency investment in 1991).

Constraints on Pakistan's Industrial Development: A Test of the Infrastructural Bottleneck Hypothesis

Looney, Robert E.; Fredericksen, P.C.
Fonte: Escola de Pós-Graduação Naval Publicador: Escola de Pós-Graduação Naval
Tipo: Refereed Journal Article
Português
This paper examines the infrastructural investment bottleneck hypothesis for Pakistan: have shortages in infrastructure investment constrained manufacturing output in Pakistan, as recently suggested by the World Bank? Using Granger causality techniques, we find evidence that the hypothesis does hold true for Pakistan, although the general pattern between public sector investment and manufacturing output is one of little coordination between the two sectors.

Leading Sectors in Economic Development: The Role of Manufacturing in Pakistan's Recent Expansion

Looney, R.E.
Fonte: Escola de Pós-Graduação Naval Publicador: Escola de Pós-Graduação Naval
Tipo: Refereed Journal Article
Português
South Asia, vol. XVII, no. 2, 1995.; One of the more rapidly growing ares of economic research involves identifying the major factors contributing to national economic growth and expansion. For the advanced market economies a consensus has emerged that measured technological change explains a significant share of total economic growth as well as growth in labour productivity.

Reducing Dependence Through Investment in Human Capital: An Assessment of Oman's Development Strategy

Looney, R.E.
Fonte: Escola de Pós-Graduação Naval Publicador: Escola de Pós-Graduação Naval
Tipo: Refereed Journal Article
Português
Socio-Economic Planning Sciences, vol 24, no1, 1990.; The purpose of this paper is to assess Oman's post-1970 efforts at developing its human capital. In addition, estimates are made of the factors most likely to interfere with the country's progress in this area. The main findings of the study are that while impressive gains in education have been made, this progress may be threatened by the government's excessive military expenditure plans. While defense expenditures do not appear to compete with education for budgetary allocations, there is the possibility that the military's competition for non-financial resources might slow down job creation in such sectors as manufacturing to the extent that the demand for education by Omani nationals is reduced.

Socio-Economic Tradeoffs in Saudi Arabia's Third Five Year Plan (1980- 1985)

Looney, R.E.
Fonte: Escola de Pós-Graduação Naval Publicador: Escola de Pós-Graduação Naval
Tipo: Refereed Journal Article
Português
Socio-Economic Planning Sciences, vol. 20, no. 4, 1986.

Mexico's Fiscal Crisis

Looney, R.E.
Fonte: Escola de Pós-Graduação Naval Publicador: Escola de Pós-Graduação Naval
Tipo: Refereed Journal Article
Português
Socio-Economic Planning Sciences, vol. 21, no.6, 1987.; Mexico's current crisis has its origins in a number of structural conditions that developed in the 1970s. This paper examines one of these structural impediments, the country's fiscal disequilibrium. An empirical analysis of the country's tax structure indicates that there is ample scope for major tax reforms geared to introducing more responsiveness into the country's tax collection system. Given that the government will have to reduce its budget deficit to comply with IMF stabilization requirements, the analysis indicates tax reform rather than expenditure reduction would be the most efficient policy in achieving this objective.

Socio-Economic Constraints on Jamaica's Stabilization Efforts: The Importance of Supply-Side Programs

Looney, R.E.
Fonte: Escola de Pós-Graduação Naval Publicador: Escola de Pós-Graduação Naval
Tipo: Refereed Journal Article
Português
Socio-Economic Planning Sciences, vol. 21, no. 6, 1987.; Recently, there has been considerable interest in alternative stabilization programs in developing countries. This paper examines the possibility of implementing this type of program in a country that traditionally has had considerable difficulty in complying with International Monetary Fund programs. The macro-economic simulations of Jamaica's economy clearly show that successful supply-side policies could have mitigated the adverse income effects of stabilization associated with the standard IMF approach to stabilization.

Dubai's Economic System

Looney, Robert. E.
Fonte: Escola de Pós-Graduação Naval Publicador: Escola de Pós-Graduação Naval
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
The Milken Institute Review, Fourth Quarter 2006.; It seemed a routine business deal, though surely a large one by any standard: P&O Group of Britain (including P&O’s assets in the United States) was being acquired by Dubai Ports World, the fast-growing Dubai port operator, for $6.8 billion. Overnight, the transaction became Topic A in the U.S. Congress and Fox News. Dubai, the Persian Gulf destination probably best known in America as Michael Jackson’s next stop after Neverland, was front-page news.

Saudi Arabia's Industrialization Strategy: A Question of Comparative Advantage

Looney, Robert. E.
Fonte: Escola de Pós-Graduação Naval Publicador: Escola de Pós-Graduação Naval
Tipo: Parte de Livro
Português
in Elie Kedourie and Sylvia G. Ham eds. Essays on the Economic History of the Middle East, London: Frank Cass, 1988).

An Economic Assessment of Bahrain's Attempts at Industrial Diversification

Looney, Robert. E.
Fonte: Escola de Pós-Graduação Naval Publicador: Escola de Pós-Graduação Naval
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Industrial Bank of Kuwait, IBK Paper No. 33, September, 1989; Having discovered oil before its rich neighbors, Bahrain's economic growth since the 1920s has been and is fueled by oil. Partly as a result of its trading and pearling traditions, partly because of its more developed educational system and partly because of its small size and the foreseeble depletion of its oil resources, Bahrain was one of the first Gulf states to industrialize and by far the most innovative in attracting foreign participation, including regional participation, in its industrial development.

An Appraisal of Saudi Arabia's Growth Prospects

Looney, Robert. E.
Fonte: Escola de Pós-Graduação Naval Publicador: Escola de Pós-Graduação Naval
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Industrial Bank of Kuwait, IBK Papers No. 13, April 1984; Almost ten years ago the presentation of the eleventh annual report of the Saudi Arabian Monetary Agency included this quotation from the Koran: "Verily, never will God change the condition of a people until they change it themselves." Throughout the third plan, more than in any of its precursors, it is this theme of change and responsive participation in change which is dominant as exemplified in the introductory statement of development philosophy: "strategic priority to structural change rather than to growth" and "the spontaneous response from society to the opportunities offered by development."