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Obesidade centralizada e stress psicossocial em mulheres de um município da grande São Paulo; Abdominal obesity and psychosocial stress on women from one cty of the great São Paulo

Bullentini, Berenice Edna
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 25/09/2008 Português
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Objetivo. Ao mesmo tempo em que a obesidade aumenta no mundo todo e se torna cada vez mais um problema de Saúde Pública, o stress aumenta no cotidiano das pessoas e na busca pela sobrevivência. Verificar a possível associação entre prevalências de obesidade centralizada e indicadores de stress é o objetivo desse trabalho. Métodos. Utilizam-se dados de um estudo transversal, com informações de 298 mulheres de 20 a 59 anos, moradoras de um município da Grande São Paulo, as quais responderam questionários especialmente elaborados para avaliar o stress psicológico. O diagnóstico de obesidade centralizada foi feito através da medida da circunferência da cintura (CC) e da razão cinturaquadril (RCQ). O stress psicológico foi medido em escores atribuídos às respostas dos questionários e classificado em 3 categorias: isento, resistência e exaustão. A análise estatística foi realizada mediante dois modelos de regressão linear generalizada múltipla entre a variável resposta obesidade centralizada em duas categorias (sim, não) e o stress psicológico em três fases (isento, resistência e exaustão), controlando-se as variáveis demográficas: idade e escolaridade. Resultados. As prevalências de obesidade centralizada foram semelhantes nos dois modelos...

Estudo genético de síndromes associadas à obesidade; Genetic studies of syndromes associated with obesity

Santos, Mauren Fernanda Moller dos
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 27/05/2014 Português
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A obesidade se tornou uma das maiores preocupações de saúde pública. É um distúrbio neuroendócrino, no qual fatores ambientais e genéticos agem em conjunto, levando ao excesso de armazenamento de energia na forma de gordura corporal. A síndrome de Prader-Willi (PWS) é a mais freqüente das síndromes que possui a obesidade como uma de suas características, com incidência de 1:25.000 nascimentos. É caracterizada por hipotonia neonatal com dificuldade de sucção, atraso do desenvolvimento neuropsicomotor (DNPM), hiperfagia, obesidade, baixa estatura em adolescentes, mãos e pés pequenos, hipogonadismo, distúrbios do sono, características faciais dismórficas, deficiência intelectual leve a moderada e comportamento obsessivo-compulsivo. Pacientes com atraso do DNPM e/ou dificuldade de aprendizado, distúrbios de comportamento, obesidade e/ou hiperfagia, com teste negativo para PWS, foram estudados com plataformas de SNP array, “The GeneChip® Mapping 500K Set” da Affymetrix, ou array-CGH, CytoSure ISCA 4x180k da OGT, para identificar genes relacionados a obesidade e hiperfagia, assim como, novas regiões genômicas implicadas na etiologia de síndromes genéticas associadas à obesidade. Dentre os 31 pacientes estudados...

High fat-induced obesity associated with insulin-resistance increases FGF-2 content and causes stromal hyperplasia in rat ventral prostate

Ribeiro, Daniele Lisboa; Pinto, Maria Etelvina; Maeda, Samantha Yuri; Taboga, Sebastiao Roberto; Goes, Rejane Maira
Fonte: Springer Publicador: Springer
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 577-588
Português
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Obesity affects sex hormone secretion, which can negatively influence prostatic structure, homeostasis, and disease. This investigation aimed to evaluate the repercussions of obesity induced by a high-fat diet on the rat prostate, with or without treatment with the aromatase inhibitor, Letrozole. Adult Wistar rats were fed a high-fat diet (20% saturated fat, O) for 15 weeks to induce obesity or received a balanced diet (4% fat, C). Then, a group of C and O rats were daily treated with Letrozole (1 mg/kg b.w. per day) for 2 weeks (CL and OL, respectively). Subsequently, ventral prostate was processed for analysis by transmission electron microscopy, immunohistochemistry, and Western blotting. Obesity decreased 70% of the testosterone plasma level. The prostate showed epithelial atrophy and dilated acini in the intermediate portion and epithelial wrinkling in the distal tips. The relative frequency of smooth muscle alpha-actin in the O group increased by 67%. Ultrastructurally, epithelial cells in obese animals presented altered secretory organelles, lipid droplets, and thicker subjacent fibromuscular layer. Letrozole treatment caused a partial restoration of the prostatic changes caused by obesity. Obesity increased the prostatic content of fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) by 150%...

Suporte social como prevenção em saude mental e obesidade : intervenções atraves de atividades ludicas no cenario escolar; Social support as mental health and obesity prevention : interventions through school setting play activities

James Jose de Novaes
Fonte: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp Publicador: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 13/02/2006 Português
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Várias pesquisas mostram que nos próximos 20 anos metade da população mundial terá sobrepeso em função da crescente prevalência deste distúrbio e da carência de medidas preventivas eficazes para a coletividade. Este contínuo aumento da obesidade tem levado a um crescimento de problemas orgânicos na população, além de problemas na esfera psíquica relacionados a auto-estima e a imagem corporal. Alguns pesquisadores indicam como principal fator do aumento da obesidade, a compulsão alimentar em decorrência de ansiedade. Por outro lado, a ausência de medidas preventivas na área de saúde mental, tem levado os distúrbios mentais a tornarem-se o maior problema em saúde coletiva atualmente nos países desenvolvidos. Foi verificado que intervenções através de atividades lúdicas como suporte social, possibilitam uma diminuição no risco de desenvolvimento de psicopatologia e um aumento dos fatores de proteção em um período curto de aplicação, o que aumenta a possibilidade desta intervenção promover resultados preventivos ao longo prazo. Foram escolhidas 2 categorias de atividades lúdicas como programa de prevenção primária para este estudo: a Arte Terapia e a Arte Capoeira. As crianças foram dividas em 3 grupos de intervenção...

Medicalização da obesidade : a epidemia em noticia; Obesity medicalization : epidemic in the news

Simone Pallone de Figueiredo
Fonte: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp Publicador: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 26/11/2009 Português
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Este trabalho analisa como a obesidade, a exemplo de outros comportamentos, passou para o domínio da medicina, sendo interpretada como doença, sujeita a atenção de médicos, tratamentos, com ou sem o auxílio de medicamentos ou outros procedimentos desse campo, em um processo que se dá o nome de medicalização. É um processo construído socialmente do qual fazem parte profissionais da área da saúde, representantes de governos, do mercado e como se vê neste estudo, a imprensa. O estudo traça um panorama da situação da obesidade no Brasil, EUA e em países europeus, mostrando algumas medidas de ordem política que esses países têm adotado na tentativa de conter o avanço da obesidade. Mostra, também, a existência de um estigma da obesidade que não está relacionado apenas à questão da saúde, mas à busca de um padrão de beleza estabelecido, que leva um grande número de pessoas, em especial as mulheres, às práticas embelezadoras que vão dos exercícios físicos e dietas às cirurgias plásticas e distúrbios alimentares. A partir da análise de 305 matérias publicadas no jornal Folha de S. Paulo no período de 1998 a 2008, o estudo investiga o papel da imprensa como partícipe deste processo. Do total de textos analisados...

O aumento do fator de necrose tumoral-a induzido pela obesidade leva ao desenvolvimento do câncer de cólon em camundongos = : Obesity-induced increase in tumor necrosis factor-a leads to development of colon cancer in mice; Obesity-induced increase in tumor necrosis factor-a leads to development of colon cancer in mice

Marcelo Benedito da Silva Flores
Fonte: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp Publicador: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 29/10/2012 Português
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O câncer colorretal é um dos maiores problemas de saúde em todo o mundo acometendo 1 milhão de pessoas por ano. O índice de morte associado a essa doença é de aproximadamente 33% no mundo desenvolvido. A associação entre a obesidade e o risco para o desenvolvimento desse câncer é observada tanto em homens quanto em mulheres. A inflamação e a hiperinsulinemia, condições verificadas na obesidade podem contribuir, a princípio, para o risco de desenvolvimento do câncer colorretal. O fator de necrose tumoral alfa (TNF-alfa) é um dos mais importantes mediadores da resposta inflamatória e sua alta expressão pelo tecido adiposo é verificada nas condições de obesidade tanto em modelos animais quanto em humanos. O TNF-alfa contribui para a desregulação da via da sinalização insulínica através da fosforilação em serina dos substratos do receptor desse hormônio (IRS) mediada pela ativação de quinases como c-jun N terminal quinase (JNK) e da quinase inibidora do fator nuclear NF-kB (IKK). A ativação dessas quinases induz a fosforilação inibitória do substrato 1 do receptor de insulina (IRS-1) através da serina 307 (Ser307). Esse mecanismo reduz a ativação da via da fosfatidilinositol 3-quinase (PI3K)/Akt e da proteína alvo da rapamicina em mamíferos (mTOR) mediada pela insulina. TNF-alfa foi...

Sistema ubiquitina-proteassoma no hipotálamo : implicações para a gênese da obesidade; Ubiquitin-proteasome system in the hypothalamus : implications for the genesis of obesity

Letícia Martins Ignácio de Souza
Fonte: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp Publicador: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 05/02/2013 Português
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Dentre os fatores ambientais que contribuem para o desenvolvimento de obesidade, o consumo de dietas ricas em ácidos graxos saturados desempenha o papel mais importante. Estudos recentes realizados por vários grupos, inclusive o nosso, revelam que ácidos graxos saturados presentes na dieta levam ao desenvolvimento de resistência hipotalâmica à ação dos hormônios leptina e insulina, fenômeno este fundamental para que ocorra a quebra no equilíbrio entre ingestão e gasto calórico. Até o momento caracterizaram-se dois mecanismos moleculares potencialmente envolvidos na iniciação do processo que resulta na disfunção hipotalâmica na obesidade, a ativação de TLR4 e a indução de estresse de retículo endoplasmático, ambos levando a uma resposta inflamatória local e, eventualmente, a apoptose neuronal. Estudos recentes têm revelado que frente a situações que oferecem risco de dano celular, ativa-se um mecanismo de controle de tráfico e degradação protéica chamado sistema ubiquitina-proteassoma (UPS). O acúmulo de agregados protéicos positivos para ubiquitina pode gerar toxicidade celular e regular a plasticidade neuronal. Também a modulação de componentes do UPS pode gerar neurodegeneração hipotalâmica e fenótipo obeso em animais experimentais. Neste estudo aventamos a hipótese que durante períodos prolongados de obesidade a ativação anômala do UPS contribuiria para a perpetuação do quadro de obesidade. De fato...

Obesity and poverty in the media: a case study from a Brazilian newspaper

Carvalho, Mónica
Fonte: International Association for Media and Communication Research Publicador: International Association for Media and Communication Research
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2010 Português
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In the last decades obesity has become one of the main concerns in public health. According to WHO by 2015 there will be 700 million obese adults. This scenario reflects on news-making, particularly the way the media continuously stresses the problem of obesity, considered a serious illness, even a world epidemic. Furthermore, this issue leads to the socioeconomic apparatuses or dispositifs of risk control. These dispositifs are expressed by individual practices of self control towards a larger emphasis on minimum intervention of State. In Brazil, the statistics show that overweight and obesity have also grown significantly. Moreover, poverty, a social problem earlier linked to hunger and underweight, is now one of the faces of obesity in that country, a scenario not so different of rich countries. The relationship between obesity and poverty is related to a kind of scarcity of some nutritional components, access and knowledge of what is healthy or unhealthy. Also, there is a scarcity of options in the circumstances that making choices is considered an essential condition for controlling obesity. The purpose of this paper is to present some conclusions of my doctoral thesis aimed at researching the role of power dynamics in constructing the relationship between obesity and poverty as legitimate discourse by the media...

Central obesity and dietary intake in HIV/AIDS patients

Jaime,Patrícia Constante; Florindo,Alex Antonio; Latorre,Maria do Rosário Dias de Oliveira; Segurado,Aluísio Augusto Cotrim
Fonte: Faculdade de Saúde Pública da Universidade de São Paulo Publicador: Faculdade de Saúde Pública da Universidade de São Paulo
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/08/2006 Português
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OBJECTIVE: To assess the association between dietary intake and central obesity among people living with HIV/AIDS and receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted involving 223 adult individuals in the city of São Paulo city in 2002. The study population was classified according to central obesity, defined as waist-to-hip ratio >0.95 for men and >0.85 for women. The dietary variables studied were energy consumption (in calories and calories/kilo of body weight), macronutrients (in grams and % of energy intake), total fiber (grams) and fruit and vegetables intake (grams). The potential confounders examined were sex, skin color, age, schooling, income, body mass index, physical activity, smoking habits, peripheral CD4+ T lymphocyte count and length of protease inhibitor use. The multiple logistic regression model was performed in order to evaluate the association between central obesity and dietary intake. RESULTS: The prevalence of central obesity was 45.7% and it was associated with greater consumption of lipids: for every increase of 10g of lipid intake the odds of central obesity increased 1.28 times. Carbohydrate consumption showed negative association (OR=0.93) with central obesity after adjustment for control variables. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that the amount of carbohydrates and lipids in the diet...

Diagnosis of overweight and obesity in adolescents from the 1993 Pelotas Birth Cohort Study, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil: comparison of two diagnostic criteria

Vieira,Maria de Fátima Alves; Araújo,Cora Luiza Pavin; Neutzling,Marilda Borges; Hallal,Pedro Curi; Menezes,Ana Maria Baptista
Fonte: Escola Nacional de Saúde Pública Sergio Arouca, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz Publicador: Escola Nacional de Saúde Pública Sergio Arouca, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/12/2007 Português
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Various cut-off points for body mass index have been proposed to assess nutritional status in adolescents. The aim of this study was to compare two methods for evaluating overweight and obesity. In 2004-5, 4,452 adolescents from the 1993 Pelotas (Brazil) birth cohort study were evaluated, representing 87.5% of the original cohort. Overweight and obesity were evaluated using the methods proposed by the World Health Organization (WHO) and International Obesity Task Force (IOTF). Prevalence of overweight was similar when comparing the two methods (WHO: 23.2%; IOTF: 21.6%). Prevalence of obesity was higher according to the WHO criterion (total sample: 11.6%; boys: 15.1%; girls: 8.2%) as compared to IOTF (total sample: 5.0%; boys: 5.6%; girls: 4.4%). The kappa statistic was around 0.9 for determining overweight and 0.4 for obesity. The IOTF classification showed high specificity in comparison to the WHO criterion for determining overweight and obesity. However, sensitivity was high for overweight but low for obesity. Our data show that the IOTF classification underestimates the prevalence of obesity in early adolescence.

Translational research into gut microbiota: new horizons on obesity treatment: updated 2014

Tsukumo,Daniela M.; Carvalho,Bruno M.; Carvalho Filho,Marco A.; Saad,Mário J. A.
Fonte: Sociedade Brasileira de Endocrinologia e Metabologia Publicador: Sociedade Brasileira de Endocrinologia e Metabologia
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/04/2015 Português
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Obesity is currently a pandemic of worldwide proportions affecting millions of people. Recent studies have proposed the hypothesis that mechanisms not directly related to the human genome could be involved in the genesis of obesity, due to the fact that, when a population undergoes the same nutritional stress, not all individuals present weight gain related to the diet or become hyperglycemic. The human intestine is colonized by millions of bacteria which form the intestinal flora, known as gut flora. Studies show that lean and overweight human may present a difference in the composition of their intestinal flora; these studies suggest that the intestinal flora could be involved in the development of obesity. Several mechanisms explain the correlation between intestinal flora and obesity. The intestinal flora would increase the energetic extraction of non-digestible polysaccharides. In addition, the lipopolysaccharide from intestinal flora bacteria could trigger a chronic sub-clinical inflammatory process, leading to obesity and diabetes. Another mechanism through which the intestinal flora could lead to obesity would be through the regulation of genes of the host involved in energy storage and expenditure. In the past five years data coming from different sources established causal effects between intestinal microbiota and obesity/insulin resistance...

Intakes of Dairy Products and Calcium and Obesity in Korean Adults: Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (KNHANES) 2007-2009

Lee, Hae-Jeung; Cho, Jang-ik; Lee, Hye-Seung H.; Kim, Cho-il; Cho, Eunyoung
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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Background: The possible effects of dairy product intake against obesity have been suggested in animal studies; however, the association is still not well established in epidemiological studies. Few studies in Asian countries with relatively low intake of dairy products exist. Objective: We investigated the association between dairy products and calcium intake and obesity in Korean population with relatively low intake of dairy products. Subjects and Methods Our study population consisted of adults (n = 7173) aged 19–64 among participants of the 2007, 2008 and 2009 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey who had not made any attempt of intentional weight loss. Dietary intake data from food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) and 24-hour recall were used. Dairy products included milk and yogurt in the FFQ. Obesity was defined as BMI≥25 kg/m2. Results: Higher frequency of dairy product intake was associated with a reduced prevalence of obesity (OR = 0.63; 95% CI = 0.45–0.89 for ≥2 times/day vs. ≤1 time/month; p for trend = 0.003) using the intake data from FFQ. Similarly, high frequency of milk or yogurt intake had an inverse association with obesity. The association between milk and yogurt intake and obesity was similar when the intake from 24-hour recall was examined. Higher calcium intake from dairy products as well as total dietary calcium intake was associated with a decreased prevalence of obesity (OR = 0.83; 95% CI = 0.71–0.98 for highest vs. lowest quintile of dairy calcium intake; p for trend = 0.02...

Moderate daily exercise activates metabolic flexibility to prevent prenatally induced obesity

Miles, J.; Huber, K.; Thompson, N.; Davison, M.; Breier, B.
Fonte: Endocrine Soc Publicador: Endocrine Soc
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2009 Português
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Obesity and its associated comorbidities are of major worldwide concern. It is now recognized that there are a number of metabolically distinct pathways of obesity development. The present paper investigates the effect of moderate daily exercise on the underlying mechanisms of one such pathway to obesity, through interrogation of metabolic flexibility. Pregnant Wistar rats were either fed chow ad libitum or undernourished throughout pregnancy, generating control or intrauterine growth restricted (IUGR) offspring, respectively. At 250 d of age, dual-emission x-ray absorptiometry scans and plasma analyses showed that moderate daily exercise, in the form of a measured amount of wheel running (56 m/d), prevented the development of obesity consistently observed in nonexercised IUGR offspring. Increased plasma C-peptide and hepatic atypical protein kinase Czeta levels explained increased glucose uptake and increased hepatic glycogen storage in IUGR offspring. Importantly, whereas circulating levels of retinol binding protein 4 were elevated in obese, nonexercised IUGR offspring, indicative of glucose sparing without exercise, retinol binding protein 4 levels were normalized in the exercised IUGR group. These data suggest that IUGR offspring have increased flexibility of energy storage and use and that moderate daily exercise prevents obesity development through activation of distinct pathways of energy use. Thus...

Loss-of-function mutations in SIM1 contribute to obesity and Prader-Willi-like features

Bonnefond, A.; Raimondo, A.; Stutzmann, F.; Ghoussaini, M.; Ramachandrappa, S.; Bersten, D.; Durand, E.; Vatin, V.; Balkau, B.; Lantieri, O.; Raverdy, V.; Pattou, F.; Van Hul, W.; Van Gaal, L.; Peet, D.; Weill, J.; Miller, J.; Horber, F.; Goldstone, A.; D
Fonte: Amer Soc Clinical Investigation Inc Publicador: Amer Soc Clinical Investigation Inc
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2013 Português
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Sim1 haploinsufficiency in mice induces hyperphagic obesity and developmental abnormalities of the brain. In humans, abnormalities in chromosome 6q16, a region that includes SIM1, were reported in obese children with a Prader-Willi–like syndrome; however, SIM1 involvement in obesity has never been conclusively demonstrated. Here, SIM1 was sequenced in 44 children with Prader-Willi–like syndrome features, 198 children with severe early-onset obesity, 568 morbidly obese adults, and 383 controls. We identified 4 rare variants (p.I128T, p.Q152E, p.R581G, and p.T714A) in 4 children with Prader-Willi–like syndrome features (including severe obesity) and 4 other rare variants (p.T46R, p.E62K, p.H323Y, and p.D740H) in 7 morbidly obese adults. By assessing the carriers’ relatives, we found a significant contribution of SIM1 rare variants to intra-family risk for obesity. We then assessed functional effects of the 8 substitutions on SIM1 transcriptional activities in stable cell lines using luciferase gene reporter assays. Three mutations showed strong loss-of-function effects (p.T46R, p.H323Y, and p.T714A) and were associated with high intra-family risk for obesity, while the variants with mild or no effects on SIM1 activity were not associated with obesity within families. Our genetic and functional studies demonstrate a firm link between SIM1 loss of function and severe obesity associated with...

Food supply and the obesity scourge: is there a relationship?

Mwanri, L.; Foley, W.; Coveney, J.; Muller, R.; Verity, F.; Ward, P.; Carter, P.; Mohr, P.; Taylor, A.
Fonte: Scientific Research Publishing Publicador: Scientific Research Publishing
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2012 Português
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This paper reviews literature on the relationship between food supply and obesity. The focus is on the supply, cost, and variety of food through various types of food outlets and the impact of these factors on obesity in developed countries. The article reveals complex relationships between food supply factors and obesity. A numer of factors related to lifestyles including the mobility of populations and the use of motor vehicles greatly reduce the impact of the local environment on family and individual eating patterns. However, obesity is also affected by factors such as the type and density of food outlets, the cost of food, the travel distance and means of transport to the food outlet. While the relationship between food supply and obesity in the literature reveals complex and mixed findings, this paper concludes obesity is complex and food supply is only part of this phenomenon’s predictors. Because the relationship between food supply and obesity is mediated by such multiple and complex factors including population behaviours, beliefs, lifestyles, knowledge and both food and physical environments; multiple strategies including policy development and other strategies aimed at manipulating food environments, physical environments...

Baby Boomers and Generation X in Australia: health differences and the influence of work and workplace, with a focus on obesity.

Pilkington, Rhiannon Megan
Fonte: Universidade de Adelaide Publicador: Universidade de Adelaide
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Publicado em //2014 Português
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The increase in obesity prevalence seen in Australia since the 1970s and the rise in comorbid chronic conditions –particularly diabetes, pose a significant problem for society and government in terms of consequences for government spending on health, workforce participation, economic growth and quality of life. Baby Boomers, born from 1946 to 1965 and Generation Xers born from 1966 to 1980 together form over half of Australia’s total population and nearly 75% of the working population. Their continued health into older age is essential if the nation is to cope with the quadrupling of the 85 plus population by 2050. This research explores generational differences in health status and the influence of work and workplace on health, irrespective of age. The aim of this is to highlight risk factors for the development of obesity and comorbid conditions, as well as specific groups that can be targeted by programs and policies to improve the health of Australia’s population. Using National Australian data, in Chapter 6 we explore the sociodemographic and health profile of Baby Boomers in 1989/90 and Generation X in 2007/08, in order to determine differences when the generations were of the same age of 25 to 44 years. This study illustrates that while Generation X are higher educated and have lower levels of smoking...

Physical Activity Attenuates the Influence of FTO Variants on Obesity Risk: A Meta-Analysis of 218,166 Adults and 19,268 Children

Kilpel??inen, Tuomas O.; Ruiz, Jonatan R.
Fonte: Public Library of Science (PLOS) Publicador: Public Library of Science (PLOS)
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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36.55%
[Background] The FTO gene harbors the strongest known susceptibility locus for obesity. While many individual studies have suggested that physical activity (PA) may attenuate the effect of FTO on obesity risk, other studies have not been able to confirm this interaction. To confirm or refute unambiguously whether PA attenuates the association of FTO with obesity risk, we meta-analyzed data from 45 studies of adults (n = 218,166) and nine studies of children and adolescents (n = 19,268). [Methods and Findings] All studies identified to have data on the FTO rs9939609 variant (or any proxy [r2>0.8]) and PA were invited to participate, regardless of ethnicity or age of the participants. PA was standardized by categorizing it into a dichotomous variable (physically inactive versus active) in each study. Overall, 25% of adults and 13% of children were categorized as inactive. Interaction analyses were performed within each study by including the FTO??PA interaction term in an additive model, adjusting for age and sex. Subsequently, random effects meta-analysis was used to pool the interaction terms. In adults, the minor (A???) allele of rs9939609 increased the odds of obesity by 1.23-fold/allele (95% CI 1.20???1.26), but PA attenuated this effect (pinteraction = 0.001). More specifically...

Gender differences in the association between tooth loss and obesity among older adults in Brazil

Singh,Ankur; Peres,Marco Aurélio; Peres,Karen Glazer; Bernardo,Carla de Oliveira; Xavier,Andre; D’Orsi,Eleonora
Fonte: Faculdade de Saúde Pública da Universidade de São Paulo Publicador: Faculdade de Saúde Pública da Universidade de São Paulo
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2015 Português
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OBJECTIVE To analyze if differences according to gender exists in the association between tooth loss and obesity among older adults.METHODS We analyzed data on 1,704 older adults (60 years and over) from the baseline of a prospective cohort study conducted in Florianopolis, SC, Southern Brazil. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to assess the association between tooth loss and general and central obesity after adjustment for confounders (age, gender, skin color, educational attainment, income, smoking, physical activity, use of dentures, hypertension, and diabetes). Linear regressions were also assessed with body mass index and waist circumference as continuous outcomes. Interaction between gender and tooth loss was further assessed.RESULTS Overall mean body mass index was 28.0 kg/m2. Mean waist circumference was 96.8 cm for males and 92.6 cm for females. Increasing tooth loss was positively associated with increased body mass index and waist circumference after adjustment for confounders. Edentates had 1.4 (95%CI 1.1;1.9) times higher odds of being centrally obese than individuals with a higher number of teeth; however, the association lost significance after adjustment for confounders. In comparison with edentate males...

The effect of paternal obesity on sperm function, embryo development and subsequent pregnancy outcomes.

Bakos, Hassan
Fonte: Universidade de Adelaide Publicador: Universidade de Adelaide
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Publicado em //2010 Português
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Obesity and its health consequences are an increasing health burden for Australian society, with more than seven million adults in Australia being overweight or obese. According to the Burden of Disease and Injury in Australia (BoD) study, high body mass was responsible for 7.5% of the total burden of disease and injury and is increasing. It is now clear that maternal obesity reduces fertility, in part through actions on the egg, which affect the health of the resultant pregnancy. However, the potential role of male obesity in infertility has been essentially ignored. This is surprising, as the male gamete contributes half of the genetic material of the embryo. Further-more, sperm function constitutes the single most common cause of infertility. Therefore, factors influencing the health of the sperm and the underlying mechanisms behind any pathology are paramount. The overall aim of this thesis was to determine the relationship between paternal obesity and male fertility. A novel and unique animal model was developed to elucidate the effects of paternal obesity on embryo development and pregnancy. Results showed that paternal obesity has negative effects on both sperm quality as well as embryo development and quality. To confirm the results seen in the mouse...

The food retail environment surrounding Canadian schools and its impact on overweight and obesity

Seliske, Laura Marie
Fonte: Quens University Publicador: Quens University
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 1637756 bytes; application/pdf
Português
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Background: The prevalence of overweight and obesity in Canadian youth has increased considerably over the past few decades. In spite of considerable efforts, individual-level behavioural modification strategies have not been successful at preventing and treating obesity in youth. Research is emerging that has shifted attention to the environmental-level determinants of obesity. There is some evidence that the number and types of food retailers in a given neighbourhood may impact obesity risk in the individuals living in that neighbourhood, but little is known about the impact of the food retail environment on Canadian youth. Objectives: 1) To describe the food environment surrounding the school neighbourhoods of Canadian youth (grades 6 to 10), and, determine whether access to food retailers around schools differs by area-level SES. 2) To determine whether the number and type of food retailers surrounding schools is related to the overweight status of the students attending those schools. Each of these objectives was explored in a separate manuscript. Methods: A trend test was performed to determine if exposure to food retailers varied by neighbourhood socioeconomic status (SES) for 188 schools across Canada. Logistic regression was performed using a multilevel modeling approach to determine if an association existed between exposure to food retailers and overweight and obesity in the 7...