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Linking Up and Reaching Out in Bangladesh : Information and Communications Technology for Microfinance

Bagazonzya, Henry K; Safdar, Zaid; Abdullah, A.K.M; Niang, Cecile Thioro; Rahman, Aneeka
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Português
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This book presents a new paradigm for introducing technology in the microfinance industry of Bangladesh that could help ameliorate current constraints. Under the new paradigm, a centralized Information and communication technology (ICT) platform will be established to serve the microfinance industry of Bangladesh and technology will be deployed more rapidly to Microfinance Institutions (MFIs) in all parts of the microfinance value chain, from the head office to branch offices, loan officers, and clients. Unlike in the traditional paradigm, the technology needs of all MFIs will be pooled together in one central office. The central office will offer technology tools, services, and know-how to MFIs throughout the country. Several benefits will be achieved under this new paradigm: i) because all technology needs will be pooled in one place, the central office will be able to exploit economies of scale and offer technology services to MFIs at a lower cost; and ii) because their technology needs will be outsourced...

Does Financial Structure Matter for Poverty? Evidence from Developing Countries

Kpodar, Kangni; Singh, Raju Jan
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Português
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Although there has been research looking at the relationship between the structure of the financial system and economic growth, much less work has dealt with the importance of bank-based versus market-based financial systems for poverty and income distribution. Empirical evidence has indicated that the structure of the financial system has little relevance for economic growth, suggesting that the same could be true for poverty since growth is an important driver in reducing poverty. Some theories, however, claim that, by reducing information and transaction costs, the development of bank-based financial systems could exert a particularly large impact on the poor. This paper looks at a sample of 47 developing economies from 1984 through 2008. The results suggest that when institutions are weak, bank-based financial systems are better at reducing poverty and, as institutions develop, market-based financial systems can turn out to be beneficial for the poor.

The Germany-Serbia Remittance Corridor : Challenges of Establishing a Formal Money Transfer System

De Luna Martinez, José; Endo, Isaku; Barberis, Corrado
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
Português
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This report provides an overview of remittance flows from Germany to Serbia and analyzes why a large part of remittance transfers take place outside financial institutions. The study presents a series of recommendations on needed policy changes to facilitate the transfer of remittance flows from the informal channels to licensed or registered financial institutions, thereby maximizing the developmental impact of remittances, reducing remittances fees, improving data collection practices, and strengthening the regulation and supervision of the money transfer industry.

Finance and Economic Opportunity

Demirgüç-Kunt, Asli; Levine, Ross
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
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An influential body of theoretical research and an emerging line of empirical work suggest that the operation of the formal financial system affects the degree to which economic opportunities are defined by talent and initiative rather than by parental wealth and social connections. This paper discusses the theory of how financial markets influence economic opportunity and reviews recent empirical work on the relation between formal financial systems and poverty, income inequality, and economic opportunity. The authors consider recent efforts to measure the ability of households and small enterprises to access financial services, the impact of this access, and the mechanisms through which finance affects poverty and inequality. The authors argue that considerably more research is needed to identify which formal financial sector policies enhance the operation of the financial system in ways that expand the economic horizons of the economically disenfranchised.

Finance, Financial Sector Policies, and Long-Run Growth

Demirgüç-Kunt, Asli; Levine, Ross
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
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The first part of this paper reviews the literature on the relation between finance and growth. The second part of the paper reviews the literature on the historical and policy determinants of financial development. Governments play a central role in shaping the operation of financial systems and the degree to which large segments of the financial system have access to financial services. The paper discusses the relationship between financial sector policies and economic development.

Who Are the Unbanked?

Djankov, Simeon; Miranda, Pedro; Seira, Enrique; Sharma, Siddharth
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
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This paper uses nationally representative survey data from Mexico to compare households with savings accounts in formal financial institutions to their neighbors who do not have such accounts. The survey, which was conducted in 2005, contains information on nearly 5,000 households. The findings show that although neighboring banked and unbanked households have similar demographic and occupational profiles, the former are more educated and have markedly greater wealth. The median banked household spends 32 percent more per capita than the median unbanked household, and the median per capita wealth in banked households is 88 percent higher than that in unbanked households. The findings suggest that education levels, wealth, and unobserved household attributes that might be correlated with wealth and education play a major role in explaining who is banked.

Strengthening Legislatures : Implications from Industrial Countries

Messick, Richard E.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
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With more developing and post-communist states embracing democracy, improving the performance of their congresses, parliaments, and other legislative assemblies has become a must. These bodies make laws, hold the executive branch accountable, and represent citizen interests. Good governance demands that each of these tasks be done well. Thus aid agencies have begun supporting programs that train legislators and their staff, provide computers and buildings, and otherwise strengthen the legislative branch of government. But while some programs have succeeded, the overall results have been disappointing. One reason is that many programs have ignored a key principle of public sector reform: success requires changing the incentives facing public officials (World Bank 2000). More effective legislative aid programs will require donors to understand what motivates legislators and how those incentives can be altered. This note surveys the main factors shaping incentives for legislators in industrial countries and suggests how these factors can inform legislative reform in developing and transition economies.

Expanding Housing Finance in Uganda : Task 2. Study to Examine the Use of Retail Funds for Mortgage Lending

Hanouch, Michel; Ketley, Richard; Kramer, Jessica; Wiese, Christo
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
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The objective of the First Initiative Project in Uganda is to expand the access of households to housing finance, especially modest and lower income households, by introducing new and innovative housing loan products, by introducing innovative loan products combined with affordable housing designs. The project has delivered two studies to the Bank of Uganda: i) a study addressing the financial and banking sector context for housing finance, liquidity and liquidity management, and the resultant potential for use of retail funds for mortgage lending; and ii) a feasibility study for housing finance pilots targeted at modest and lower income households, seeking to introduce innovative loan products combined with lower cost house design in a planned urban setting. This paper, business and sustainability plan for affordable housing finance pilot projects, provides supporting technical detail for the feasibility study for design of pilot projects for modest and lower income households, including the need for more liquidity for lenders involved in lending to lower income households. Two types of pilot projects have been developed: one for starter homes for modest income households and one for an incrementally built home for low-modest income households. The recommended loan products include a down-market or...

Tunisia Agricultural Finance Study : Main Summary Report

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Português
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The Tunisia agricultural finance study was carried out in response to a request made in December 2009 by the Tunisian Ministry of Agriculture (MoA) for support for a study on the key constraints in agricultural finance. Technical and financial support was specifically requested for: (i) a comprehensive diagnostic analysis of the current mechanisms and problems of financing of the agricultural sector in Tunisia, including those by financial institutions and from budget resources, foreign direct investment, and insurance; (ii) a comparison of the Tunisian experience with successful experiences made in other comparable countries; and (iii) the formulation of concrete proposals. The diagnostic part was also requested to include the regulations pertaining to agricultural credit, other constraints impeding the development of agricultural finance, such as costs, profitability, professional organizations, extension services, research etc., and to look at the indebtedness of smallholders. It was also requested that the recommendations help to: (i) better define the objectives to be achieved in terms of financing of agriculture; (ii) increase the participation of the financial sector in financing agriculture; (iii) help identify need for support by different types of farmers; (iv) identify new instruments geared at qualitative and technological changes; (v) reduce the indebtedness of farmers; and (vi) help improve the subsidies for agricultural investment. There are two main written outputs of the Tunisia agricultural finance study. The experts working on the study have compiled a great deal of detailed background information diagnosing the current situation...

Review of State-Owned Banks in Belarus

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
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This note reviews state-owned banks in Belarus and offers recommendations on how to strengthen them. It covers the Belarusbank, Belagroprombank, Belinvestbank, and Paritetbank (the public banks), and the recently established Development Bank of Belarus (DBB). Recommendations focus on corporate governance, funding, ownership function, mandate, lending models, and regulation and supervision. The note is based on information provided by the public banks, the Ministry of Finance, and the NBRB. However, due to their unavailability, the team did not hold meetings with the DBB and the Ministry of Economy. Thus, the analyses concerning the DBB are based on the review of its law as well as on discussions with the Ministry of Finance and the NBRB. The note is organized as follows: after this introduction, section two presents an overview of the public banks in Belarus and the role that they play in the local economy; section three discusses the details of Lending under Government Programs (LGP) and the importance for the public banks of the funding attached to these programs; section four analyzes the key features of the DBB...

The Opportunities of Digitizing Payments

Klapper, Leora; Singer, Dorothe
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
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The G20 s focus on financial inclusion directly contributes to its core goal of achieving strong, sustainable, and balanced growth. Studies show that broader access to and participation in the financial system can reduce income inequality, boost job creation, accelerate consumption, increase investments in human capital, and directly help poor people manage risk and absorb financial shocks.

Zambia Economic Brief, December 2014, Issue 4 : Financial Services - Reaching Every Zambian

World Bank Group
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
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Zambia s economy is estimated to grow around 6.0 percent in 2014, slower than the 6.7 percent in the previous two years. Growth comes from a bumper maize harvest; rapid expansion in the construction industry supported in part by public investment in roads; and continued strong growth in services. Following the large fiscal deficit of 6.6 percent in 2013, the economy experienced turbulence during the first half of the year when the kwacha depreciated sharply against the U.S. dollar and other currencies, and inflation pressure increased. However, in response to policy actions, the kwacha stabilized subsequently and regained about half of the lost value, and inflation pressure also ebbed. Average inflation in 2014 is expected to be around 7.8 percent, higher than the targeted 6.5 percent and the 2013 average of 7.0 percent.

Developing Scalable and Transparent Benefit Payment Systems in Myanmar

Stokkel, Inge
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Relatório
Português
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Similar to other low-income countries, in Myanmar social protection benefits are usually provided through direct cash or food distribution. With the rapid development of the financial and telecommunications market in the country, there is the potential for a gradual transition to electronic payment systems for current and future social protection transfers, once adequate legal and regulatory frameworks are in place. This will make the delivery of payments cheaper, quicker, safer, and more transparent. In addition, increasing the connectivity of the people of Myanmar, especially the poor and vulnerable, to financial services will not only accelerate povertyreduction but also promote inclusive economic growth.

A man on a bicycle riding away from the Black River post office and bank, Saint Elizabeth, Jamaica; The Bryant Slides Collection; The Bryant Slides Collection, Jamaica

Unknown ( Photographer )
Fonte: Universidade da Flórida Publicador: Universidade da Flórida
Tipo: still image Formato: 35 mm
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The slides were taken on collecting trips sponsored by the William L. Bryant Foundation, where books, music and art indigenous to the regions were gathered. The are organized by geographical location.; A man on a bicycle riding away from the Black River post office and bank. The building houses a branch of the Government Savings Bank and the post office. The Government Savings Bank was established in 1870 and was opened daily. With the act of the 23rd of June 1973, the assets of the bank were used to establish the Workers Savings and Loan Bank. On the 31st of October 1671, Jamaica became the first British colony to establish a post office. This two story building has a zinc roof with fretwork and also sends telegraphs. Black River is part of a protected National Heritage District in Saint Elizabeth, Jamaica. Slide labeled Jam. Black River (S.).

South Africa Economic Update : Focus on Financial Inclusion

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Economic Updates and Modeling; Economic & Sector Work
Português
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Conditions in global financial markets have eased since mid-2012, reflecting improvements in fiscal sustainability and the establishment of mutual support mechanisms in the European Union (EU), even as the global economic recovery remains fragile and susceptible to downside risks. South Africa's growth slowed from 3.5 percent in 2011 to 2.5 percent in 2012, reflecting primarily the sluggish external environment and domestic labor strife. Growth declined in 8 of the 10 major subsectors. Researchers, policymakers, and other financial sector stakeholders are becoming more interested in the transformative power of financial inclusion. In South Africa, expanding access to financial services for individuals and small enterprises could reduce the country's persistent income inequality and stimulate growth. South Africa, as Africa's only G20 member and as one of the BRICS, plays an influential global role, and progress in financial inclusion could thus have an important demonstration effect. While formal financial institutions offer an array of financial services...

Mauritius : Financial Sector Assessment

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Financial Sector Assessment Program (FSAP); Economic & Sector Work
Português
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This Financial Sector Assessment (FSA) is the joint IMF-World Bank work, based on the context of the Financial Sector Assessment Program (FSAP), intended to identify strengths, and vulnerabilities, as well as development needs of the financial sector. The report thus summarizes main findings, and policy recommendations as follows. Mauritius has been remarkably successful in achieving rapid growth, and substantial diversification of a formerly mono-agricultural economy. However, maintaining the past high rates of growth, and employment will pose a major challenge. The trade preferences on which two of the pillars of the economy are founded are being eroded, forcing the sugar and textile industries, to significantly improve their competitiveness, or lose market share to larger, lower-cost producers. In partnership with the private sector, the government is taking decisive measures to build a knowledge economy based on higher value-added services, notably in information and communication technologies. They have also adopted programs to modernize...

Enhancing Financial Capability and Inclusion in Mozambique : A Demand-Side Assessment

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Working Paper; Publications & Research
Português
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The key findings and recommendations presented in this report cover 4 main areas: financial inclusion, financial capability, relationship between financial inclusion and capability, and financial consumer protection. The remaining chapters are structured as follows. Chapter one explores the financial inclusion landscape in Mozambique. Chapter two gives an overview of Mozambicans' levels of financial capability, in particular about their financial knowledge, attitudes and behaviors. The relationship between financial capability and inclusion is discussed in chapter three. The last chapter investigates if the products which financially included individuals use are effectively meeting their needs.

Enhancing Financial Capability and Inclusion in Mozambique : A Demand-Side Assessment; Fortalecendo a Capacidade e a Inclusão Financeira em Moçambique : Avaliação ao Lado da Demanda

World Bank Group
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research; Publications & Research :: Working Paper
Português
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The key findings and recommendations presented in this report cover 4 main areas: financial inclusion, financial capability, relationship between financial inclusion and capability, and financial consumer protection. The remaining chapters are structured as follows. Chapter one explores the financial inclusion landscape in Mozambique. Chapter two gives an overview of Mozambicans' levels of financial capability, in particular about their financial knowledge, attitudes and behaviors. The relationship between financial capability and inclusion is discussed in chapter three. The last chapter investigates if the products which financially included individuals use are effectively meeting their needs.

Improving Payment Mechanisms in Cash-Based Safety Net Programs

del Ninno, Carlo; Subbarao, Kalanidhi; Kjellgren, Annika; Quintana, Rodrigo
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Working Paper
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.21%
Cash transfers have proliferated in the past decade as key policy instruments to tackle vulnerability and inequality. Payment mechanisms (PMs), the backbone of cash transfers, are the channels through which cash travels from the funding source to the hands of beneficiaries. In theory, the harmonization of payment flows in PMs with other program processes is critical to delivering the right benefit to the right people at the right time while minimizing costs. In reality, however, PMs tend to remain disconnected, rendering payments inefficient and plagued by error, fraud and corruption. In recent years, program operators, financial institutions, and technology innovators have developed strategies for streamlining payment flows. These innovations, if properly integrated into program management through a Management Information System (MIS) and supported by rigorous outreach, can not only promote efficiency and transparency but also ensure effectiveness. This paper provides a framework for integrating PMs within program management. It walks the reader through seven basic steps to process payments. It does so by articulating the flow of beneficiary information and funds from the point of beneficiary enrollment to payment reconciliation and grievance redress. It also looks at the framework through the lenses of different cash transfer interventions and the cases of Kenya...

Memoranda booklet (soft cover) compliments of the Canadian Bank of Commerce, St. Catharines Branch

Fonte: Brock University Publicador: Brock University
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Memoranda booklet (soft cover) compliments of the Canadian Bank of Commerce, St. Catharines Branch. Only one page has writing on it. It appears to be a shopping list, n.d.