Página 8 dos resultados de 197 itens digitais encontrados em 0.017 segundos

Doutrina e legislação: os bastidores da política dos militares no Brasil (1964-1985); Doctrine and law: the wings of the militaries' policy in Brazil

França, Andréa da Conceição Pires
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 23/11/2009 Português
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Este trabalho tenta traçar o caminho da formulação da legislação vigente no Brasil entre os anos de 1964 e 1969, marcando as tensões circunscritas à elaboração da nova ordem estabelecida pelo regime militar. Entender sob que relações de força estas leis foram pensadas é fundamental para desvendar os bastidores da política que estabeleceu as regras desse novo ordenamento social, principalmente no que diz respeito à questão repressiva. Para isso foi preciso entender as correntes de pensamento preponderantes naquele momento histórico e as políticas que a mantinham: o anticomunismo, a política desenvolvimentista, a relação com os EUA desde o fim da Segunda Guerra, a formação dos membros das Forças Armadas, entre outras questões, tais como: quem exercia maior impacto no exercício cotidiano de proteção da lei e da ordem? A ideologia vigente ou a cultura paternalista? Quais interesses eram defendidos, os do Estado? Os corporativos? Os individuais? Todos ao mesmo tempo? O desenvolvimento de tal pesquisa abordará aspetos tanto macro, quanto micro-sociais. Por um lado analisamos quais os impactos da Doutrina de Segurança Nacional na legislação implementada durante a ditadura militar, principalmente pela imposição do Executivo. Por outro lado...

O módulo de jogos no Colégio de Aplicação João XXIII: um estudo de caso

Santos, Kátia Diniz Coutinho
Fonte: Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP) Publicador: Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP)
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: 158 f. : il.
Português
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Pós-graduação em Educação - FCT; A presente pesquisa, vinculada à Linha de Pesquisa: ―Práticas e Processos Formativos em Educação‖, tem como objetivo geral investigar e analisar o emprego do ―jogo‖, no contexto educacional e parte do pressuposto de que o jogo é uma atividade existente no âmbito do Ensino Fundamental do Colégio de Aplicação João XXIII, da rede de ensino Federal de Juiz de Fora/MG. Fator este que gera questionamentos sobre os limites e as possibilidades do emprego dessa atividade como recurso pedagógico. A pesquisa estabelece como objetivos específicos: investigar e analisar o emprego do ―jogo‖, por uma professora do 4º ano do Ensino Fundamental que atua com 14 alunos; levantar as opiniões das professoras e dos alunos sobre o emprego de ―jogo‖ no contexto escolar; e em quais aspectos os jogos são importantes para a formação dos educandos. A pesquisa é de natureza qualitativa, cuja abordagem é o estudo de caso, considerando que a investigação se debruça sobre uma realidade específica e peculiar. Para tanto, a investigação contempla análise bibliográfica, procedimentos de observação e entrevista semiestruturada com a professora da turma e com a professora mentora do projeto; com 09 alunos emprega o grupo focal para coleta de dados. A importância desta pesquisa está voltada para a compreensão de processos que se passam no interior do colégio...

A modelagem matemática e a realidade do mundo cibernético

Dalla Vecchia, Rodrigo
Fonte: Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP) Publicador: Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP)
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 275 f. : il., tabs.
Português
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Pós-graduação em Educação Matemática - IGCE; Este trabalho investiga a Modelagem Matemática com o mundo cibernético, aqui entendido como qualquer ambiente produzido com as Tecnologias Digitais. Para tanto, percorre-se um caminho que procura sustentação teórica tanto em aspectos discutidos no âmbito da Modelagem Matemática, quanto em campos que não necessariamente dizem respeito a essa região de inquérito. Como desdobramento desse caminho, tem-se a construção de uma visão teórica de Modelagem Matemática que, além de potencialmente sustentar o mundo cibernético como dimensão de abrangência, permite compreender as ações dos sujeitos quando estão construindo modelos que se atualizam nesse espaço específico. O estudo, desenvolvido sob uma perspectiva qualitativa, é resultado não somente do entrelaçamento teórico, como também dos dados produzidos no decorrer da pesquisa, os quais provieram da construção de jogos eletrônicos feitos por oito estudantes do curso de graduação em Licenciatura Matemática. O principal software utilizado nas construções dos jogos eletrônicos foi o Scratch, que é uma linguagem de programação desenvolvida pelo Massachusetts Institute of Technology. A presente pesquisa...

Public good provision - Why people do (not) contribute? An experimental exploration

Lopes, H.; Castro Caldas, J. M.; Costa, A.; Carvalho, L. F.; Gusmão, J. G.; Leão, J.; Rodrigues, J.; Cordeiro dos Santos, A.
Fonte: Dinâmia Publicador: Dinâmia
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento
Publicado em //2004 Português
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In public good provision situations, individual members of a group have a choice of contributing or not contributing to the provision of a good from which all benefit, including those who chose not to do so. In such a context, theories of rational choice predict that individuals will try to “free ride” on the contribution of others – they will attempt to enjoy the good without contributing, leading thus to the under or no provision of the good. However, contrary to rational choice theory or classical game theoretical predictions, people tend to voluntarily contribute to the provision of public goods. In fact, there is by now an impressive accumulation of empirical findings from experimental and field studies corroborating this conclusion1. The results obtained in experimental studies may be summarised by the following stylised facts: (a) experimental subjects contribute considerable amounts of their endowments in oneshot game situations; (b) in repeated games the level of contribution is high in the first round but contributions seem to unravel over time; (c) the levels of contribution heavily depend on the context in which the interaction takes place (namely, on the (im)possibility of face-to-face communication among experimental subjects). Given the evidence gathered...

Differences in Game Statistics Between Winning and Losing Rugby Teams in the Six Nations Tournament

Ortega, Enrique; Villarejo, Diego; Palao, José M.
Fonte: Asist Group Publicador: Asist Group
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 01/12/2009 Português
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The objective of the present study was to analyze the differences in rugby game statistics between winning and losing teams. The data from 58 games of round robin play from the Six Nations tournament from the 2003-2006 seasons were analyzed. The groups of variables studied were: number of points scored, way in which the points were scored; way teams obtained the ball and how the team used it; and technical and tactical aspects of the game. A univariate (t-test) and multivariate (discriminant) analysis of data was done. Winning teams had average values that were significantly higher in points scored, conversions, successful drops, mauls won, line breaks, possessions kicked, tackles completed, and turnovers won. Losing teams had significantly higher averages for the variables scrums lost and line-outs lost. The results showed that: a) in the phases of obtaining the ball and more specifically in scrummage and line-out, winning teams lose fewer balls than losing teams (winning teams have an efficacy of 90% in both actions); b) the winning team tends to play more with their feet when they obtain the ball, to utilize the maul as a way of attacking, and to break the defensive line more often than the losing team does; and c) On defence, winning teams recovered more balls and completed more tackles than losing teams...

Internet gaming addiction: current perspectives

Kuss, Daria J
Fonte: Dove Medical Press Publicador: Dove Medical Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 14/11/2013 Português
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In the 2000s, online games became popular, while studies of Internet gaming addiction emerged, outlining the negative consequences of excessive gaming, its prevalence, and associated risk factors. The establishment of specialized treatment centers in South-East Asia, the US, and Europe reflects the growing need for professional help. It is argued that only by understanding the appeal of Internet gaming, its context, and neurobiologic correlates can the phenomenon of Internet gaming addiction be understood comprehensively. The aim of this review is to provide an insight into current perspectives on Internet gaming addiction using a holistic approach, taking into consideration the mass appeal of online games, the context of Internet gaming addiction, and associated neuroimaging findings, as well as the current diagnostic framework adopted by the American Psychiatric Association. The cited research indicates that the individual’s context is a significant factor that marks the dividing line between excessive gaming and gaming addiction, and the game context can gain particular importance for players, depending on their life situation and gaming preferences. Moreover, the cultural context is significant because it embeds the gamer in a community with shared beliefs and practices...

As culturas infantis no espa?o e tempo do recreio: constituindo singularidade sobre a crian?a

SOUZA, Ana Paula Vieira e
Fonte: Universidade Federal do Pará Publicador: Universidade Federal do Pará
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado
Português
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Esta pesquisa teve como objetivo investigar as culturas infantis no recreio e seguiu a linha s?cio-hist?rica que entende a crian?a como sujeito hist?rico e social produtor de cultura. Objetivei como foco principal apreender as culturas infantis das crian?as da escola p?blica do munic?pio de Bel?m por meio da emiss?o de enunciados discursivos no seu hor?rio de recreio, as culturas produzidas no universo atual da inf?ncia. A abordagem discursiva foi a perspectiva adotada no processo de investiga??o, pois permitiu depreender o significado e sentido que as crian?as atribuem ao tempo escolar destinado ao recreio; historiar como o tempo do recreio foi sendo estabelecido pela legisla??o brasileira, de um modo geral, e pelos documentos do Estado do Par? e da cidade de Bel?m, em particular. 93 crian?as participaram do estudo na faixa et?ria de 09 a 11 anos das s?ries 3 e 4 do Ensino Fundamental. Utilizei como instrumentos de recolha de dados a observa??o explorat?ria e o question?rio. As an?lises foram organizadas em 07 eixos tem?ticos que emergiram dos enunciados das crian?as. O aporte te?rico para as an?lises dos dados coletados fundamentou-se na perspectiva hist?rica e nas teoriza??es de Mikhail Bakhtin sobre discurso, as intera??es dial?gicas e a constitui??o do sujeito. Os fundamentos te?ricos sobre a inf?ncia e as culturas infantis vieram de Sarmento e Pinto...

Essays in networks and applied microeconomic theory

HUREMOVIC, Kenan
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf; digital
Português
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This thesis contains three papers which examine the role of networks and social structure in different modes of socio-economic interactions. The first chapter focuses on purely competitive strategic bilateral interactions - contests. I analyse situations in which agents, embedded in a network, simultaneously play interrelated bilateral contest games with their neighbours. The network structure uniquely determines the behaviour of agents in the equilibrium. I also study the formation of such networks, finding that the complete k-partite network is the unique stable network topology. This implies that agents will endogenously sort themselves in partitions of friends, competing with members of other partitions. The model provides a micro-foundation for the structural balance concept in social psychology, and the main results go in line with theoretical and empirical findings from other disciplines, including international relations, sociology and biology. The second chapter is joint work with my supervisor Fernando Vega-Redondo. We study a competitive equilibrium model on a production network of firms, identifying the measure of centrality in the network that determines the profit of a firm, and network structures that maximize social welfare. The significant part of this chapter focuses on how the network mediates the effects of revenue distortions on profits of firms and social welfare. The results are that the effects of distortions propagate both upstream and downstream through the network. The centrality of the affected firm determines the magnitude of the downstream effect...

Rice University football player Courtney Hall # 56

Fonte: Rice University Publicador: Rice University
Português
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Black and white photograph of Rice Owls football player Courtney Hall, in scrimmage during a game, accompanied by text headlining his achievement and entry into the Rice Athletic Hall of Fame.; Caption reads: COURTNEY HALL (class of 1990) has always done things at a very young age. He graduated high school (as a National Merit Scholarship semifinalist at Banning High in Wilmington, Calif.) at the tender age of 16. He began his senior season at Rice still a teenager, and despite having played in the NFL for one season in the meantime, came back to school to receive his degree in a double major of managerial studies and economics by age 21. And by age 27, he became one of the youngest people ever inducted in the Rice Athletic Hall of Fame when he joined the prestigious club in October, 1995. Rice has always had an outstanding tradition of offensive lineman, but Hall may end up being called the school’s greatest. A four-year letterman for the Owls from 1985-1988, he became one of the only Owls ever to start all 44 games in his career. He earned first-team all-SWC honors in both 1987 and 1988 and later became the school’s only representative on the conference all-decade team for the 1980’s. He joined fellow hall of fame members Weldon Humble and Wash Underwood as a two-time winner for the George Martin team MVP award...

Rice University Owls football player Roland Jackson

Fonte: Rice University Publicador: Rice University
Português
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Black and white photograph of Rice University Owls football player Roland Jackson, accompanied by text headlining his achievement and entry into the Rice Athletic Hall of Fame.; Caption reads: One of the greatest running backs to wear the Blue and Gray, T. Roland Jackson also has brought honor to his alma mater be [sic] becoming a highly successful executive in the oil business since getting his B.S. from Rice in May of 1963. He became the founder and president of Pozos International Drilling Services Company in February of 1979. His office and home are in Conroe, but Roland has served various companies in the oil drilling game in such far flung places as Scotland, Bermuda, Argentina, Nigeria, Nicaragua, and in the Gulf of Mexico. He was first employed by Ocean Drilling and Exploration Company in 1963, right out of Rice, as a drilling engineer. We are proud of his success since graduation from Rice. He has come a long way since he was born January 5, 1940 in Ruston, Louisiana. Roland has a special remembrance for his uncle, R.L. Akin, who used to take him to see the Rice Owls play football when he was a little boy, and so inspired him to play for Rice. He became an All-Southwest Conference running back for Rice, and played for two Owl major bowl teams in the same calendar year. The 1060 club (SWC runnerup) played Ole Miss in the Jan. 1...

Rice Institute Owls track runner Tom Cox

Fonte: Rice University Publicador: Rice University
Português
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Black and white photograph of Rice Institute Owls track and field athlete Tom Cox, class of 1950, accompanied by text headlining his achievement and entry into the Rice Athletic Hall of Fame.; Caption reads: One of a long line of great track stars for the Owls in the days when the name was “The Rice Institute.” Tom Cox was an exceptional 440 dash man who ran to national fame under the late great coach, Emmett Brunson…”Brun” always claimed Tom was “robbed” of an NCAA championship in the 440 when he was apparently fouled at the start, finished a close second, but the foul was not called…Nevertheless, Cox won numerous honors, even if just missing a perhaps deserved national title…He was All-American in track both in 1949 and 1950…He was the stellar anchorman of Rice mile relay foursomes that set meet records at the Texas Relays, Kansas Relays, the Southwest Conference meet…This Rice graduate of 1950 was named Outstanding Track Performer of the Gulf AAU area in 1950, and was nominated for the famed Sullivan Award…He was named to the U.S. team for the Pan American Games in 1951 in South America, but declined to go into U.S. Navy service as a line officer during the Korean conflict...After that, he returned to his home town of Dallas to begin a business career…He is now a C.P.A. in Dallas...

Visual simulation of deformable models; Visuelle Simulation deformierbarer Objekte

Hauth, Michael
Fonte: Universität Tübingen Publicador: Universität Tübingen
Tipo: Dissertation; info:eu-repo/semantics/doctoralThesis
Português
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Computer animations are an essential part of today's visual production pipeline, for feature animated films and video games. By moving from static to dynamic scenes, immersion in virtual environments is greatly enhanced. Most of these animations however are concerning rigid or articulated bodies, and are generated manually by an artist or off-line. The interactive animation of deformable objects still is a challenging task, requiring high computational resources. Moreover, interactive environments for dressing up with virtual clothing or training surgeons on unaccustomed procedures pose higher requirements on fidelity as simple plausibility, which we denote by visual simulation. This thesis presents a framework for the visual simulation of deformable objects, which is fast enough to be integrated into virtual environments. The modelling of these objects is based on continuum mechanics, yielding a better accuracy than the techniques commonly used in graphics. An important aspect of modelling are material laws. Measurements have shown viscoelasticity to be a distinctive characteristic of biological soft tissue, the hysteresis of cloth is a well known observation in standard Kawabata experiments. We introduce the modelling of viscoelasticity to graphics...

How and Why Parents Guide the Media Use of Young Children

Nikken, Peter; Schols, Marjon
Fonte: Springer US Publicador: Springer US
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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Children use electronic screens at ever younger ages, but there is still little empirical research on how and why parents mediate this media use. In line with Vygotsky’s zone of proximal development, we explored whether children’s media skills and media activities, next to parents’ attitudes about media for children, and several child and parent-family characteristics, predicted parental mediation practices. Furthermore, we investigated children’s use and ownership of electronic screens in the bedroom in relationship to the child’s media skills. Data from an online survey among 896 Dutch parents with young children (0–7 years) showed that children’s use and ownership of TV, game consoles, computers and touchscreens, primarily depended on their media skills and age, not on parent’s attitudes about media for children. Only touchscreens were used more often by children, when parents perceived media as helpful in providing moments of rest for the child. In line with former studies, parents consistently applied co-use, supervision, active mediation, restrictive mediation, and monitoring, depending on positive and negative attitudes about media. The child’s media skills and media activities, however, had stronger relationships with parental mediation styles...

A Test of Evolutionary Policing Theory with Data from Human Societies

Kümmerli, Rolf
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 01/09/2011 Português
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In social groups where relatedness among interacting individuals is low, cooperation can often only be maintained through mechanisms that repress competition among group members. Repression-of-competition mechanisms, such as policing and punishment, seem to be of particular importance in human societies, where cooperative interactions often occur among unrelated individuals. In line with this view, economic games have shown that the ability to punish defectors enforces cooperation among humans. Here, I examine a real-world example of a repression-of-competition system, the police institutions common to modern human societies. Specifically, I test evolutionary policing theory by comparing data on policing effort, per capita crime rate, and similarity (used as a proxy for genetic relatedness) among citizens across the 26 cantons of Switzerland. This comparison revealed full support for all three predictions of evolutionary policing theory. First, when controlling for policing efforts, crime rate correlated negatively with the similarity among citizens. This is in line with the prediction that high similarity results in higher levels of cooperative self-restraint (i.e. lower crime rates) because it aligns the interests of individuals. Second...

Agnostic Learning of Monomials by Halfspaces is Hard

Feldman, Vitaly; Guruswami, Venkatesan; Raghavendra, Prasad; Wu, Yi
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 03/12/2010 Português
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We prove the following strong hardness result for learning: Given a distribution of labeled examples from the hypercube such that there exists a monomial consistent with $(1-\eps)$ of the examples, it is NP-hard to find a halfspace that is correct on $(1/2+\eps)$ of the examples, for arbitrary constants $\eps > 0$. In learning theory terms, weak agnostic learning of monomials is hard, even if one is allowed to output a hypothesis from the much bigger concept class of halfspaces. This hardness result subsumes a long line of previous results, including two recent hardness results for the proper learning of monomials and halfspaces. As an immediate corollary of our result we show that weak agnostic learning of decision lists is NP-hard. Our techniques are quite different from previous hardness proofs for learning. We define distributions on positive and negative examples for monomials whose first few moments match. We use the invariance principle to argue that regular halfspaces (all of whose coefficients have small absolute value relative to the total $\ell_2$ norm) cannot distinguish between distributions whose first few moments match. For highly non-regular subspaces, we use a structural lemma from recent work on fooling halfspaces to argue that they are ``junta-like'' and one can zero out all but the top few coefficients without affecting the performance of the halfspace. The top few coefficients form the natural list decoding of a halfspace in the context of dictatorship tests/Label Cover reductions. We note that unlike previous invariance principle based proofs which are only known to give Unique-Games hardness...

Predicting the NFL using Twitter

Sinha, Shiladitya; Dyer, Chris; Gimpel, Kevin; Smith, Noah A.
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 25/10/2013 Português
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We study the relationship between social media output and National Football League (NFL) games, using a dataset containing messages from Twitter and NFL game statistics. Specifically, we consider tweets pertaining to specific teams and games in the NFL season and use them alongside statistical game data to build predictive models for future game outcomes (which team will win?) and sports betting outcomes (which team will win with the point spread? will the total points be over/under the line?). We experiment with several feature sets and find that simple features using large volumes of tweets can match or exceed the performance of more traditional features that use game statistics.; Comment: Presented at ECML/PKDD 2013 Workshop on Machine Learning and Data Mining for Sports Analytics

Combinatorial Optimization Algorithms via Polymorphisms

Brown-Cohen, Jonah; Raghavendra, Prasad
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 07/01/2015 Português
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An elegant characterization of the complexity of constraint satisfaction problems has emerged in the form of the the algebraic dichotomy conjecture of [BKJ00]. Roughly speaking, the characterization asserts that a CSP {\Lambda} is tractable if and only if there exist certain non-trivial operations known as polymorphisms to combine solutions to {\Lambda} to create new ones. In an entirely separate line of work, the unique games conjecture yields a characterization of approximability of Max-CSPs. Surprisingly, this characterization for Max-CSPs can also be reformulated in the language of polymorphisms. In this work, we study whether existence of non-trivial polymorphisms implies tractability beyond the realm of constraint satisfaction problems, namely in the value-oracle model. Specifically, given a function f in the value-oracle model along with an appropriate operation that never increases the value of f , we design algorithms to minimize f . In particular, we design a randomized algorithm to minimize a function f that admits a fractional polymorphism which is measure preserving and has a transitive symmetry. We also reinterpret known results on MaxCSPs and thereby reformulate the unique games conjecture as a characterization of approximability of max-CSPs in terms of their approximate polymorphisms.

Bounded Rationality, Strategy Simplification, and Equilibrium

Chen, Hubie
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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It is frequently suggested that predictions made by game theory could be improved by considering computational restrictions when modeling agents. Under the supposition that players in a game may desire to balance maximization of payoff with minimization of strategy complexity, Rubinstein and co-authors studied forms of Nash equilibrium where strategies are maximally simplified in that no strategy can be further simplified without sacrificing payoff. Inspired by this line of work, we introduce a notion of equilibrium whereby strategies are also maximally simplified, but with respect to a simplification procedure that is more careful in that a player will not simplify if the simplification incents other players to deviate. We study such equilibria in two-player machine games in which players choose finite automata that succinctly represent strategies for repeated games; in this context, we present techniques for establishing that an outcome is at equilibrium and present results on the structure of equilibria.

Design and Implementation of a General Decision-making Model in RoboCup Simulation

Wang, Changda; Chen, Xianyi; Zhao, Xibin; Ju, Shiguang
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 08/11/2004 Português
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The study of the collaboration, coordination and negotiation among different agents in a multi-agent system (MAS) has always been the most challenging yet popular in the research of distributed artificial intelligence. In this paper, we will suggest for RoboCup simulation, a typical MAS, a general decision-making model, rather than define a different algorithm for each tactic (e.g. ball handling, pass, shoot and interception, etc.) in soccer games as most RoboCup simulation teams did. The general decision-making model is based on two critical factors in soccer games: the vertical distance to the goal line and the visual angle for the goalpost. We have used these two parameters to formalize the defensive and offensive decisions in RoboCup simulation and the results mentioned above had been applied in NOVAURO, original name is UJDB, a RoboCup simulation team of Jiangsu University, whose decision-making model, compared with that of Tsinghua University, the world champion team in 2001, is a universal model and easier to be implemented.

Are Game Platforms suitable for Parkinson Disease patients?

Pachoulakis, Ioannis; Papadopoulos, Nikolaos; Spanaki, Cleanthe
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 11/11/2015 Português
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Parkinson's Disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative movement disorder that affects more that 6 million people worldwide. Motor dysfunction gradually increases as the disease progress. It is usually mild in the early stages of the disease but it relentlessly progresses to a severe or very severe disability that is characterized by increasing degrees of bradykinesia, hypokinesia, muscle rigidity, loss of postural reflexes and balance control as well as freezing of gait. In addition to a line of treatment based on dopaminergic PD-specific drugs, attending neurologists strongly recommend regular exercise combined with physiotherapy. However, the routine of traditional rehabilitation often create boredom and loss of interest. Opportunities to liven up a daily exercise schedule may well take the form of character-based virtual reality games which engage the player to physically train in a non-linear and looser fashion, providing an experience that varies from one game loop the next. Such "exergames", a word that results from the amalgamation of the words "exercise" and "game" challenge patients into performing movements of varying complexity in a playful and immersive virtual environment. In fact, today's game consoles using controllers like Nintendo's Wii...