Página 8 dos resultados de 5240 itens digitais encontrados em 0.038 segundos

Arabidopsis Synaptotagmin SYT1, a Type I Signal-anchor Protein, Requires Tandem C2 Domains for Delivery to the Plasma Membrane*

Yamazaki, Tomokazu; Takata, Naoki; Uemura, Matsuo; Kawamura, Yukio
Fonte: American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Publicador: American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.83%
The correct localization of integral membrane proteins to subcellular compartments is important for their functions. Synaptotagmin contains a single transmembrane domain that functions as a type I signal-anchor sequence in its N terminus and two calcium-binding domains (C2A and C2B) in its C terminus. Here, we demonstrate that the localization of an Arabidopsis synaptotagmin homolog, SYT1, to the plasma membrane (PM) is modulated by tandem C2 domains. An analysis of the roots of a transformant-expressing green fluorescent protein-tagged SYT1 driven by native SYT1 promoter suggested that SYT1 is synthesized in the endoplasmic reticulum, and then delivered to the PM via the exocytotic pathway. We transiently expressed a series of truncated proteins in protoplasts, and determined that tandem C2A-C2B domains were necessary for the localization of SYT1 to the PM. The PM localization of SYT1 was greatly reduced following mutation of the calcium-binding motifs of the C2B domain, based on sequence comparisons with other homologs, such as endomembrane-localized SYT5. The localization of SYT1 to the PM may have been required for the functional divergence that occurred in the molecular evolution of plant synaptotagmins.

A Direct Docking Mechanism for a Plant GSK3-like Kinase to Phosphorylate Its Substrates*

Peng, Peng; Zhao, Jun; Zhu, Yongyou; Asami, Tadao; Li, Jianming
Fonte: American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Publicador: American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.83%
Glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3) is a highly conserved serine/threonine protein kinase that plays important roles in a variety of physiological and developmental processes in animals. It is well known that the GSK3 kinase-catalyzed protein phosphorylation often requires a stable kinase-substrate docking interaction, which is achieved mainly by two mechanisms as follows: priming phosphorylation of a substrate by a distinct kinase to create a docking phosphate group and scaffold protein-mediated protein complex formation. Brassinosteroid-INsensitive 2 (BIN2) is an Arabidopsis GSK3-like kinase that negatively regulates brassinosteroid (BR) signaling by phosphorylating BES1 (bri1 EMS suppressor 1) and BZR1 (brassinazole-resistant 1), two highly similar transcription factors critical for bringing about characteristic BR responses. However, little is known about the biochemical mechanism by which BIN2 phosphorylates its substrates. Here, we show that BIN2 interacts directly with BZR1 through a 12-amino acid BIN2-docking motif adjacent to the C terminus of BZR1. Interestingly, this 12-amino acid motif is sufficient to allow a Drosophila GSK3 substrate Armadillo to be phosphorylated by BIN2 in vitro. Deletion of this motif inhibits the phosphorylation and subsequent degradation of BZR1 in vivo...

Accumulation of Isochorismate-derived 2,3-Dihydroxybenzoic 3-O-β-d-Xyloside in Arabidopsis Resistance to Pathogens and Ageing of Leaves*

Bartsch, Michael; Bednarek, Paweł; Vivancos, Pedro D.; Schneider, Bernd; von Roepenack-Lahaye, Edda; Foyer, Christine H.; Kombrink, Erich; Scheel, Dierk; Parker, Jane E.
Fonte: American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Publicador: American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.83%
An intricate network of hormone signals regulates plant development and responses to biotic and abiotic stress. Salicylic acid (SA), derived from the shikimate/isochorismate pathway, is a key hormone in resistance to biotrophic pathogens. Several SA derivatives and associated modifying enzymes have been identified and implicated in the storage and channeling of benzoic acid intermediates or as bioactive molecules. However, the range and modes of action of SA-related metabolites remain elusive. In Arabidopsis, Enhanced Disease Susceptibility 1 (EDS1) promotes SA-dependent and SA-independent responses in resistance against pathogens. Here, we used metabolite profiling of Arabidopsis wild type and eds1 mutant leaf extracts to identify molecules, other than SA, whose accumulation requires EDS1 signaling. Nuclear magnetic resonance and mass spectrometry of isolated and purified compounds revealed 2,3-dihydroxybenzoic acid (2,3-DHBA) as an isochorismate-derived secondary metabolite whose accumulation depends on EDS1 in resistance responses and during ageing of plants. 2,3-DHBA exists predominantly as a xylose-conjugated form (2-hydroxy-3-β-O-d-xylopyranosyloxy benzoic acid) that is structurally distinct from known SA-glucose conjugates. Analysis of DHBA accumulation profiles in various Arabidopsis mutants suggests an enzymatic route to 2...

Single Amino Acid Alteration between Valine and Isoleucine Determines the Distinct Pyrabactin Selectivity by PYL1 and PYL2*

Yuan, Xiaoqiu; Yin, Ping; Hao, Qi; Yan, Chuangye; Wang, Jiawei; Yan, Nieng
Fonte: American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Publicador: American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.83%
Abscisic acid (ABA) is one of the most important phytohormones in plant. PYL proteins were identified to be ABA receptors in Arabidopsis thaliana. Despite the remarkably high degree of sequence similarity, PYL1 and PYL2 exhibit distinct responses toward pyrabactin, an ABA agonist. PYL1 inhibits protein phosphatase type 2C upon binding of pyrabactin. In contrast, PYL2 appears relatively insensitive to this compound. The crystal structure of pyrabactin-bound PYL1 revealed that most of the PYL1 residues involved in pyrabactin binding are conserved, hence failing to explain the selectivity of pyrabactin for PYL1 over PYL2. To understand the molecular basis of pyrabactin selectivity, we determined the crystal structure of PYL2 in complex with pyrabactin at 1.64 Å resolution. Structural comparison and biochemical analyses demonstrated that one single amino acid alteration between a corresponding valine and isoleucine determines the distinct pyrabactin selectivity by PYL1 and PYL2. These characterizations provide an important clue to dissecting the redundancy of PYL proteins.

Identification of a Pentatricopeptide Repeat Protein Implicated in Splicing of Intron 1 of Mitochondrial nad7 Transcripts

Koprivova, Anna; des Francs-Small, Catherine Colas; Calder, Grant; Mugford, Sam T.; Tanz, Sandra; Lee(이복, Bok-Rye, 례); Zechmann, Bernd; Small, Ian; Kopriva, Stanislav
Fonte: American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Publicador: American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.83%
Splicing of plant organellar transcripts is facilitated by members of a large protein family, the pentatricopeptide repeat proteins. We have identified a pentatricopeptide repeat protein in a genetic screen for mutants resistant to inhibition of root growth by buthionine sulfoximine (BSO), an inhibitor of glutathione synthesis and consequently named BIR6 (BSO-insensitive roots 6). BIR6 is involved in splicing of intron 1 of the mitochondrial nad7 transcript. Loss-of-function mutations in BIR6 result in a strongly reduced accumulation of fully processed nad7 transcript. This affects assembly of Complex I and results in moderate growth retardation. In agreement with disruption of Complex I function, the genes encoding alternative NADH oxidizing enzymes are induced in the mutant, and the mutant plants are less sensitive to mannitol and salt stress. Mutation in the BIR6 gene allowed normal root growth in presence of BSO and strongly attenuated depletion of glutathione content at these conditions. The same phenotype was observed with other mutants affected in function of Complex I, thus reinforcing the importance of Complex I function for cellular redox homeostasis.

Structure and Function of the Hetero-oligomeric Cysteine Synthase Complex in Plants*

Wirtz, Markus; Birke, Hannah; Heeg, Corinna; Müller, Christopher; Hosp, Fabian; Throm, Christian; König, Stephan; Feldman-Salit, Anna; Rippe, Karsten; Petersen, Gabriele; Wade, Rebecca C.; Rybin, Vladimir; Scheffzek, Klaus; Hell, Rüdiger
Fonte: American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Publicador: American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.83%
Cysteine synthesis in bacteria and plants is catalyzed by serine acetyltransferase (SAT) and O-acetylserine (thiol)-lyase (OAS-TL), which form the hetero-oligomeric cysteine synthase complex (CSC). In plants, but not in bacteria, the CSC is assumed to control cellular sulfur homeostasis by reversible association of the subunits. Application of size exclusion chromatography, analytical ultracentrifugation, and isothermal titration calorimetry revealed a hexameric structure of mitochondrial SAT from Arabidopsis thaliana (AtSATm) and a 2:1 ratio of the OAS-TL dimer to the SAT hexamer in the CSC. Comparable results were obtained for the composition of the cytosolic SAT from A. thaliana (AtSATc) and the cytosolic SAT from Glycine max (Glyma16g03080, GmSATc) and their corresponding CSCs. The hexameric SAT structure is also supported by the calculated binding energies between SAT trimers. The interaction sites of dimers of AtSATm trimers are identified using peptide arrays. A negative Gibbs free energy (ΔG = −33 kcal mol−1) explains the spontaneous formation of the AtCSCs, whereas the measured SAT:OAS-TL affinity (KD = 30 nm) is 10 times weaker than that of bacterial CSCs. Free SAT from bacteria is >100-fold more sensitive to feedback inhibition by cysteine than AtSATm/c. The sensitivity of plant SATs to cysteine is further decreased by CSC formation...

FMN Binding and Photochemical Properties of Plant Putative Photoreceptors Containing Two LOV Domains, LOV/LOV Proteins*

Kasahara, Masahiro; Torii, Mayumi; Fujita, Akimitsu; Tainaka, Kengo
Fonte: American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Publicador: American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.83%
LOV domains function as blue light-sensing modules in various photoreceptors in plants, fungi, algae, and bacteria. A LOV/LOV protein (LLP) has been found from Arabidopsis thaliana (AtLLP) as a two LOV domain-containing protein. However, its function remains unknown. We isolated cDNA clones coding for an LLP homolog from tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) and two homologs from the moss Physcomitrella patens. The tomato LLP (SlLLP) contains two LOV domains (LOV1 and LOV2 domains), as in AtLLP. Most of the amino acids required for association with chromophore are conserved in both LOV domains, except that the amino acid at the position equivalent to the cysteine essential for cysteinyl adduct formation is glycine in the LOV1 domain as in AtLLP. When expressed in Escherichia coli, SlLLP binds FMN and undergoes a self-contained photocycle upon irradiation of blue light. Analyses using mutant SlLLPs revealed that SlLLP binds FMN in both LOV domains, although the LOV1 domain does not show spectral changes on irradiation. However, when Gly66 in the LOV1 domain, which is located at the position equivalent to the essential cysteine of LOV domains, is replaced by cysteine, the mutated LOV1 domain shows light-induced spectral changes. In addition...

Activity of a C-terminal Plant Homeodomain (PHD) of Msc1 Is Essential for Function*

Qiu, Xinxing; Dul, Barbara E.; Walworth, Nancy C.
Fonte: American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Publicador: American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.83%
Msc1, a member of the Jarid1 family of putative histone demethylases, is required for chromosome stability in fission yeast. Msc1 associates with the Swr1 complex that facilitates deposition of histone H2A.Z into chromatin. To assess the function of Msc1 in the Swr1 complex, domains of Msc1 necessary for interaction with Swr1 were identified. The C-terminal plant homeodomain (PHD) 2 and PHD3 of Msc1 are sufficient to confer association with Swr1 and allow Msc1 to function in the context of kinetochore mutants. On the other hand, a mutant with a single amino acid substitution in PHD2 within the full-length Msc1 protein retains the ability to bind to Swr1 but eliminates the function of Msc1 in combination with kinetochore mutants. Thus, Swr1 association is critical but not sufficient for Msc1 function. An activity of Msc1 that depends on the cysteine residue within PHD2 of Msc1 is likewise critical for function. On the basis of our observation that the PHDs of Msc1 act as E3 ubiquitin ligases and that mutations of cysteine residues within those domains abolish ligase activity, we speculate that the ability of Msc1 to facilitate ubiquitin transfer is critical for the function it mediates through its association with Swr1.

Substrates of the Arabidopsis thaliana Protein Isoaspartyl Methyltransferase 1 Identified Using Phage Display and Biopanning*

Chen, Tingsu; Nayak, Nihar; Majee, Susmita Maitra; Lowenson, Jonathan; Schäfermeyer, Kim R.; Eliopoulos, Alyssa C.; Lloyd, Taylor D.; Dinkins, Randy; Perry, Sharyn E.; Forsthoefel, Nancy R.; Clarke, Steven G.; Vernon, Daniel M.; Zhou, Zhaohui Sunny; Rejt
Fonte: American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Publicador: American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.83%
The role of protein isoaspartyl methyltransferase (PIMT) in repairing a wide assortment of damaged proteins in a host of organisms has been inferred from the affinity of the enzyme for isoaspartyl residues in a plethora of amino acid contexts. The identification of PIMT target proteins in plant seeds, where the enzyme is highly active and proteome long-lived, has been hindered by large amounts of isoaspartate-containing storage proteins. Mature seed phage display libraries circumvented this problem. Inclusion of the PIMT co-substrate, S-adenosylmethionine (AdoMet), during panning permitted PIMT to retain aged phage in greater numbers than controls lacking co-substrate or when PIMT protein binding was poisoned with S-adenosyl homocysteine. After four rounds, phage titer plateaued in AdoMet-containing pans, whereas titer declined in both controls. This strategy identified 17 in-frame PIMT target proteins, including a cupin-family protein similar to those identified previously using on-blot methylation. All recovered phage had at least one susceptible Asp or Asn residue. Five targets were recovered independently. Two in-frame targets were produced in Escherichia coli as recombinant proteins and shown by on-blot methylation to acquire isoAsp...

Permeabilization of Fungal Hyphae by the Plant Defensin NaD1 Occurs through a Cell Wall-dependent Process*

van der Weerden, Nicole L.; Hancock, Robert E. W.; Anderson, Marilyn A.
Fonte: American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Publicador: American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.83%
The antifungal activity of the plant defensin NaD1 involves specific interaction with the fungal cell wall, followed by permeabilization of the plasma membrane and entry of NaD1 into the cytoplasm. Prior to this study, the role of membrane permeabilization in the activity of NaD1, as well as the relevance of cell wall binding, had not been investigated. To address this, the permeabilization of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum hyphae by NaD1 was investigated and compared with that by other antimicrobial peptides, including the cecropin-melittin hybrid peptide CP-29, the bovine peptide BMAP-28, and the human peptide LL-37, which are believed to act largely through membrane disruption. NaD1 appeared to permeabilize cells via a novel mechanism that required the presence of the fungal cell wall. NaD1 and Bac2A, a linear variant of the bovine peptide bactenecin, were able to enter the cytoplasm of treated hyphae, indicating that cell death is accelerated by interaction with intracellular targets.

Molecular Association of the Arabidopsis ETR1 Ethylene Receptor and a Regulator of Ethylene Signaling, RTE1*

Dong, Chun-Hai; Jang, Mihue; Scharein, Benjamin; Malach, Anuschka; Rivarola, Maximo; Liesch, Jeff; Groth, Georg; Hwang, Inhwan; Chang, Caren
Fonte: American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Publicador: American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.83%
The plant hormone ethylene plays important roles in growth and development. Ethylene is perceived by a family of membrane-bound receptors that actively repress ethylene responses. When the receptors bind ethylene, their signaling is shut off, activating responses. REVERSION-TO-ETHYLENE SENSITIVITY (RTE1) encodes a novel membrane protein conserved in plants and metazoans. Genetic analyses in Arabidopsis thaliana suggest that RTE1 promotes the signaling state of the ethylene receptor ETR1 through the ETR1 N-terminal domain. RTE1 and ETR1 have been shown to co-localize to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and Golgi apparatus in Arabidopsis. Here, we demonstrate a physical association of RTE1 and ETR1 using in vivo and in vitro methods. Interaction of RTE1 and ETR1 was revealed in vivo by bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC) in a tobacco cell transient assay and in stably transformed Arabidopsis. The association was also observed using a truncated version of ETR1 comprising the N terminus (amino acids 1–349). Interaction of RTE1 and ETR1 was confirmed by co-immunoprecipitation from Arabidopsis. The interaction occurs with high affinity (Kd, 117 nm) based on tryptophan fluorescence spectroscopy using purified recombinant RTE1 and a tryptophan-less version of purified recombinant ETR1. An amino acid substitution (C161Y) in RTE1 that is known to confer an ETR1 loss-of-function phenotype correspondingly gives a nearly 12-fold increase in the dissociation constant (Kd...

Alkoxy-auxins Are Selective Inhibitors of Auxin Transport Mediated by PIN, ABCB, and AUX1 Transporters*

Tsuda, Etsuko; Yang, Haibing; Nishimura, Takeshi; Uehara, Yukiko; Sakai, Tatsuya; Furutani, Masahiko; Koshiba, Tomokazu; Hirose, Masakazu; Nozaki, Hiroshi; Murphy, Angus S.; Hayashi, Ken-ichiro
Fonte: American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Publicador: American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.83%
Polar auxin movement is a primary regulator of programmed and plastic plant development. Auxin transport is highly regulated at the cellular level and is mediated by coordinated transport activity of plasma membrane-localized PIN, ABCB, and AUX1/LAX transporters. The activity of these transporters has been extensively analyzed using a combination of pharmacological inhibitors, synthetic auxins, and knock-out mutants in Arabidopsis. However, efforts to analyze auxin-dependent growth in other species that are less tractable to genetic manipulation require more selective inhibitors than are currently available. In this report, we characterize the inhibitory activity of 5-alkoxy derivatives of indole 3-acetic acid and 7-alkoxy derivatives of naphthalene 1-acetic acid, finding that the hexyloxy and benzyloxy derivatives act as potent inhibitors of auxin action in plants. These alkoxy-auxin analogs inhibit polar auxin transport and tropic responses associated with asymmetric auxin distribution in Arabidopsis and maize. The alkoxy-auxin analogs inhibit auxin transport mediated by AUX1, PIN, and ABCB proteins expressed in yeast. However, these analogs did not inhibit or activate SCFTIR1 auxin signaling and had no effect on the subcellular trafficking of PIN proteins. Together these results indicate that alkoxy-auxins are inactive auxin analogs for auxin signaling...

NADPH-dependent Reductases Involved in the Detoxification of Reactive Carbonyls in Plants*

Yamauchi, Yasuo; Hasegawa, Ayaka; Taninaka, Ai; Mizutani, Masaharu; Sugimoto, Yukihiro
Fonte: American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Publicador: American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.83%
Reactive carbonyls, especially α,β-unsaturated carbonyls produced through lipid peroxidation, damage biomolecules such as proteins and nucleotides; elimination of these carbonyls is therefore essential for maintaining cellular homeostasis. In this study, we focused on an NADPH-dependent detoxification of reactive carbonyls in plants and explored the enzyme system involved in this detoxification process. Using acrolein (CH2 = CHCHO) as a model α,β-unsaturated carbonyl, we purified a predominant NADPH-dependent acrolein-reducing enzyme from cucumber leaves, and we identified the enzyme as an alkenal/one oxidoreductase (AOR) catalyzing reduction of an α,β-unsaturated bond. Cloning of cDNA encoding AORs revealed that cucumber contains two distinct AORs, chloroplastic AOR and cytosolic AOR. Homologs of cucumber AORs were found among various plant species, including Arabidopsis, and we confirmed that a homolog of Arabidopsis (At1g23740) also had AOR activity. Phylogenetic analysis showed that these AORs belong to a novel class of AORs. They preferentially reduced α,β-unsaturated ketones rather than α,β-unsaturated aldehydes. Furthermore, we selected candidates of other classes of enzymes involved in NADPH-dependent reduction of carbonyls based on the bioinformatic information...

Tryptophan Residues Promote Membrane Association for a Plant Lipid Glycosyltransferase Involved in Phosphate Stress*

Ge, Changrong; Georgiev, Alexander; Öhman, Anders; Wieslander, Åke; Kelly, Amélie A.
Fonte: American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Publicador: American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.83%
Chloroplast membranes contain a substantial excess of the nonbilayer-prone monogalactosyldiacylglycerol (GalDAG) over the biosynthetically consecutive, bilayer-forming digalactosyldiacylglycerol (GalGalDAG), yielding a high membrane curvature stress. During phosphate shortage, plants replace phospholipids with GalGalDAG to rescue phosphate while maintaining membrane homeostasis. Here we investigate how the activity of the corresponding glycosyltransferase (GT) in Arabidopsis thaliana (atDGD2) depends on local bilayer properties by analyzing structural and activity features of recombinant protein. Fold recognition and sequence analyses revealed a two-domain GT-B monotopic structure, present in other plant and bacterial glycolipid GTs, such as the major chloroplast GalGalDAG GT atDGD1. Modeling led to the identification of catalytically important residues in the active site of atDGD2 by site-directed mutagenesis. The DGD synthases share unique bilayer interface segments containing conserved tryptophan residues that are crucial for activity and for membrane association. More detailed localization studies and liposome binding analyses indicate differentiated anchor and substrate-binding functions for these separated enzyme interface regions. Anionic phospholipids...

The Phytosulfokine (PSK) Receptor Is Capable of Guanylate Cyclase Activity and Enabling Cyclic GMP-dependent Signaling in Plants*

Kwezi, Lusisizwe; Ruzvidzo, Oziniel; Wheeler, Janet I.; Govender, Kershini; Iacuone, Sylvana; Thompson, Philip E.; Gehring, Chris; Irving, Helen R.
Fonte: American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Publicador: American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.83%
Phytosulfokines (PSKs) are sulfated pentapeptides that stimulate plant growth and differentiation mediated by the PSK receptor (PSKR1), which is a leucine-rich repeat receptor-like kinase. We identified a putative guanylate cyclase (GC) catalytic center in PSKR1 that is embedded within the kinase domain and hypothesized that the GC works in conjunction with the kinase in downstream PSK signaling. We expressed the recombinant complete kinase (cytoplasmic) domain of AtPSKR1 and show that it has serine/threonine kinase activity using the Ser/Thr peptide 1 as a substrate with an approximate Km of 7.5 μm and Vmax of 1800 nmol min−1 mg−1 of protein. This same recombinant protein also has GC activity in vitro that is dependent on the presence of either Mg2+ or Mn2+. Overexpression of the full-length AtPSKR1 receptor in Arabidopsis leaf protoplasts raised the endogenous basal cGMP levels over 20-fold, indicating that the receptor has GC activity in vivo. In addition, PSK-α itself, but not the non-sulfated backbone, induces rapid increases in cGMP levels in protoplasts. Together these results indicate that the PSKR1 contains dual GC and kinase catalytic activities that operate in vivo and that this receptor constitutes a novel class of enzymes with overlapping catalytic domains.

A Rice Phenolic Efflux Transporter Is Essential for Solubilizing Precipitated Apoplasmic Iron in the Plant Stele*

Ishimaru, Yasuhiro; Kakei, Yusuke; Shimo, Hugo; Bashir, Khurram; Sato, Yutaka; Sato, Yuki; Uozumi, Nobuyuki; Nakanishi, Hiromi; Nishizawa, Naoko K.
Fonte: American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Publicador: American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.83%
Iron deficiency is one of the major agricultural problems, as 30% of the arable land of the world is too alkaline for optimal crop production, rendering plants short of available iron despite its abundance. To take up apoplasmic precipitated iron, plants secrete phenolics such as protocatechuic acid (PCA) and caffeic acid. The molecular pathways and genes of iron uptake strategies are already characterized, whereas the molecular mechanisms of phenolics synthesis and secretion have not been clarified, and no phenolics efflux transporters have been identified in plants yet.

Glycosylation Regulates Specific Induction of Rice Immune Responses by Acidovorax avenae Flagellin*

Hirai, Hiroyuki; Takai, Ryota; Iwano, Megumi; Nakai, Masaru; Kondo, Machiko; Takayama, Seiji; Isogai, Akira; Che, Fang-Sik
Fonte: American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Publicador: American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.83%
Plants have a sensitive system that detects various pathogen-derived molecules to protect against infection. Flagellin, a main component of the bacterial flagellum, from the rice avirulent N1141 strain of the Gram-negative phytopathogenic bacterium Acidovorax avenae induces plant immune responses including H2O2 generation, whereas flagellin from the rice virulent K1 strain of A. avenae does not induce these immune responses. To clarify the molecular mechanism that leads to these differing responses between the K1 and N1141 flagellins, recombinant K1 and N1141 flagellins were generated using an Escherichia coli expression system. When cultured rice cells were treated with recombinant K1 or N1141 flagellin, both flagellins equally induced H2O2 generation, suggesting that post-translational modifications of the flagellins are involved in the specific induction of immune responses. Mass spectrometry analyses using glycosyltransferase-deficient mutants showed that 1,600- and 2,150-Da glycans were present on the flagellins from N1141 and K1, respectively. A deglycosylated K1 flagellin induced immune responses in the same manner as N1141 flagellin. Site-directed mutagenesis revealed that glycans were attached to four amino acid residues (Ser178...

Xenobiotic Responsiveness of Arabidopsis thaliana to a Chemical Series Derived from a Herbicide Safener*

Skipsey, Mark; Knight, Kathryn M.; Brazier-Hicks, Melissa; Dixon, David P.; Steel, Patrick G.; Edwards, Robert
Fonte: American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Publicador: American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.83%
Plants respond to synthetic chemicals by eliciting a xenobiotic response (XR) that enhances the expression of detoxifying enzymes such as glutathione transferases (GSTs). In agrochemistry, the ability of safeners to induce an XR is used to increase herbicide detoxification in cereal crops. Based on the responsiveness of the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana to the rice safener fenclorim (4,6-dichloro-2-phenylpyrimidine), a series of related derivatives was prepared and tested for the ability to induce GSTs in cell suspension cultures. The XR in Arabidopsis could be divided into rapid and slow types depending on subtle variations in the reactivity (electrophilicity) and chemical structure of the derivatives. In a comparative microarray study, Arabidopsis cultures were treated with closely related compounds that elicited rapid (fenclorim) and slow (4-chloro-6-methyl-2-phenylpyrimidine) XRs. Both chemicals induced major changes in gene expression, including a coordinated suppression in cell wall biosynthesis and an up-regulation in detoxification pathways, whereas only fenclorim selectively induced sulfur and phenolic metabolism. These transcriptome studies suggested several linkages between the XR and oxidative and oxylipin signaling. Confirming links with abiotic stress signaling...

Functional Analysis of the Type 3 Effector Nodulation Outer Protein L (NopL) from Rhizobium sp. NGR234: SYMBIOTIC EFFECTS, PHOSPHORYLATION, AND INTERFERENCE WITH MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE SIGNALING*

Zhang, Ling; Chen, Xue-Jiao; Lu, Huang-Bin; Xie, Zhi-Ping; Staehelin, Christian
Fonte: American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Publicador: American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.83%
Pathogenic bacteria use type 3 secretion systems to deliver virulence factors (type 3 effector proteins) directly into eukaryotic host cells. Similarly, type 3 effectors of certain nitrogen-fixing rhizobial strains affect nodule formation in the symbiosis with host legumes. Nodulation outer protein L (NopL) of Rhizobium sp. strain NGR234 is a Rhizobium-specific type 3 effector. Nodulation tests and microscopic analysis showed that distinct necrotic areas were rapidly formed in ineffective nodules of Phaseolus vulgaris (cv. Tendergreen) induced by strain NGRΩnopL (NGR234 mutated in nopL), indicating that NopL antagonized nodule senescence. Further experiments revealed that NopL interfered with mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling in yeast and plant cells (Nicotiana tabacum). Expression of nopL in yeast disrupted the mating pheromone (α-factor) response pathway, whereas nopL expression in N. tabacum suppressed cell death induced either by overexpression of the MAPK gene SIPK (salicylic acid-induced protein kinase) or by SIPKDD (mutation in the TXY motif resulting in constitutive MAPK activity). These data indicate that NopL impaired function of MAPK proteins or MAPK substrates. Furthermore, we demonstrate that NopL was multiply phosphorylated either in yeast or N. tabacum cells that expressed nopL. Four phosphorylated serines were confirmed by mass spectrometry. All four phosphorylation sites exhibit a Ser-Pro pattern...

Identification of a Chitinase-modifying Protein from Fusarium verticillioides: TRUNCATION OF A HOST RESISTANCE PROTEIN BY A FUNGALYSIN METALLOPROTEASE

Naumann, Todd A.; Wicklow, Donald T.; Price, Neil P. J.
Fonte: American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Publicador: American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.83%
Background: Fusarium fungi manipulate plant defenses to cause disease.