Página 9 dos resultados de 1138 itens digitais encontrados em 0.056 segundos

## Real-time optical monitoring of the dip coating process

Michels, A. F.; Menegotto, T.; Grieneisen, H. P.; Santilli, C. V.; Pulcinelli, S. H.; Horowitz, F.; Marcano, A.; Paz, J. L.
Fonte: Spie - Int Soc Optical Engineering Publicador: Spie - Int Soc Optical Engineering
Tipo: Conferência ou Objeto de Conferência Formato: 529-534
Português
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A significant part of film production by the coating industry is based on wet bench processes, where better understanding of their temporal dynamics could facilitate control and optimization. In this work, in situ laser interferometry is applied to study properties of flowing liquids and quantitatively monitor the dip coating batch process. Two oil standards Newtonian, non-volatile, with constant refractive indices and distinct flow properties - were measured under several withdrawing speeds. The dynamics of film physical thickness then depends on time as t(-1/2), and flow characterization becomes possible with high precision (linear slope uncertainty of +/-0.04%). Resulting kinematic viscosities for OP60 and OP400 are 1,17 +/- 0,03. St and 9,9 +/- 0,2 St, respectively. These results agree with nominal values, as provided by the manufacturer. For more complex films (a multi-component sol-gel Zirconyl Chloride aqueous solution) with a varying refractive index, through a direct polarimetric measurement, allowing also determination of the temporal evolution of physical thickness (uncertainty of +/- 0,007 microns) is also determined during dip coating.

## Parâmetros geotécnicos e previsão da capacidade de carga de estacas apiloadas em solo tropical arenoso obtidos com o Pressiômetro Ménard

Cavalcante, Erinaldo Hilário; Giacheti, Heraldo Luiz; Bezerra, Raimundo Leidimar
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 115-129
Português
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This paper presents and discusses Ménard Pressuremeter test results used to predict bearing capacity of pounded piles installed in a tropical sandy soil. Fifteen pre-bored pressuremeter tests were carried out at the Experimental Research Site from Unesp - Bauru up to 15 m depth, one test per meter. Several laboratory and in situ tests were carried out in this research site as well as load tests on plates and on piles. Pressuremeter test results were firstly analyzed to determine geotechnical soil parameters based on empirical methods, emphasizing the estimative of the earth pressure coefficient at rest (K0). After that, bearing capacity prediction of pounded piles with 4 m, 7 m and 10 m were made and compared with test results from instrumented load tests. Pressuremeter test results allowed a very good estimative of bearing capacity for the pile with 4 m length and underestimated in 25,7% and 20,0% the bearing capacity for the pile with 7 and 10 m length, respectively. The back analysis of the test results suggests that the appropriate value for the bearing capacity factor for the tested soil-pile system on this soil is equal to 2.

## Portuguese building stock indoor environmental quality “in-situ” assessment

Silva, Pedro Correia Pereira da; Silva, Sandra Monteiro; Almeida, Manuela Guedes de; Bragança, L.; Mesquita, Vasco
Tipo: Conferência ou Objeto de Conferência
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Since the implementation of the Energy Performance of Building Directive, EPBD, in general, and the entrance into force of the respective Portuguese codes, in particular, buildings are requested to have better energy performances. However, during the buildings performance evaluation, energy issues should not be the only concerns since the indoor environmental quality is also as important. Thus, in this paper it is presented an “in-situ” evaluation of the Portuguese building stock regarding several parameters related to indoor environmental quality (IEQ), envelope thermal quality and operating conditions, natural illumination levels, thermal and acoustic comfort and indoor air quality. During the measurement campaign were evaluated several buildings that encompass different types of construction solutions, climatic zones and construction periods. One of the major objectives of this study was to support the development of building solutions that can optimize all the relevant parameters to the IEQ. Another important objective is the dissemination of the results through public entities, such as construction companies and design teams in order to influence the buildings projects to include other parameters than energy during the design process. Even though the measuring campaign is still in progress...

## Model System for Growing and Quantifying Streptococcus pneumoniae Biofilms In Situ and in Real Time

Donlan, R. M.; Piede, J. A.; Heyes, C. D.; Sanii, L.; Murga, R.; Edmonds, P.; El-Sayed, I.; El-Sayed, M. A.
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Streptococcus pneumoniae forms biofilms, but little is known about its extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) or the kinetics of biofilm formation. A system was developed to enable the simultaneous measurement of cells and the EPS of biofilm-associated S. pneumoniae in situ over time. A biofilm reactor containing germanium coupons was interfaced to an attenuated total reflectance (ATR) germanium cell of a Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) laser spectrometer. Biofilm-associated cells were recovered from the coupons and quantified by total and viable cell count methods. ATR-FTIR spectroscopy of biofilms formed on the germanium internal reflection element (IRE) of the ATR cell provided a continuous spectrum of biofilm protein and polysaccharide (a measure of the EPS). Staining of the biofilms on the IRE surface with specific fluorescent probes provided confirmatory evidence for the biofilm structure and the presence of biofilm polysaccharides. Biofilm protein and polysaccharides were detected within hours after inoculation and continued to increase for the next 141 h. The polysaccharide band increased at a substantially higher rate than did the protein band, demonstrating increasing coverage of the IRE surface with biofilm polysaccharides. The biofilm total cell counts on germanium coupons stabilized after 21 h...

## Corneal birefringence changes after laser assisted in situ keratomileusis and their influence on retinal nerve fibre layer thickness measurement by means of scanning laser polarimetry

Centofanti, M; Oddone, F; Parravano, M; Gualdi, L; Bucci, M G; Manni, G
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Aim: To evaluate changes in corneal polarisation properties and their influence on peripapillary retinal nerve fibre layer (RNFL) thickness measurements after laser assisted in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) by means of scanning laser polarimetry (SLP) with variable corneal polarisation compensator (VCC) in normal white subjects.

## Ca2+ Homeostasis in the Agonist-sensitive Internal Store: Functional Interactions Between Mitochondria and the ER Measured In Situ in Intact Cells

Landolfi, Barbara; Curci, Silvana; Debellis, Lucantonio; Pozzan, Tullio; Hofer, Aldebaran M.
Fonte: The Rockefeller University Press Publicador: The Rockefeller University Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Mitochondria have a well-established capacity to detect cytoplasmic Ca2+ signals resulting from the discharge of ER Ca2+ stores. Conversely, both the buffering of released Ca2+ and ATP production by mitochondria are predicted to influence ER Ca2+ handling, but this complex exchange has been difficult to assess in situ using conventional measurement techniques. Here we have examined this interaction in single intact BHK-21 cells by monitoring intraluminal ER [Ca2+] directly using trapped fluorescent low-affinity Ca2+ indicators. Treatment with mitochondrial inhibitors (FCCP, antimycin A, oligomycin, and rotenone) dramatically prolonged the refilling of stores after release with bradykinin. This effect was largely due to inhibition of Ca2+ entry pathways at the plasma membrane, but a significant component appears to arise from reduction of SERCA-mediated Ca2+ uptake, possibly as a consequence of ATP depletions in a localized subcellular domain. The rate of bradykinin-induced Ca2+ release was reduced to 51% of control by FCCP. This effect was largely overcome by loading cells with BAPTA-AM, highlighting the importance of mitochondrial Ca2+ buffering in shaping the release kinetics. However, mitochondria-specific ATP production was also a significant determinant of the release dynamic. Our data emphasize the localized nature of the interaction between these organelles...

## In Situ Mineralization of Magnetite Nanoparticles in Chitosan Hydrogel

Wang, Yongliang; Li, Baoqiang; Zhou, Yu; Jia, Dechang
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Based on chelation effect between iron ions and amino groups of chitosan, in situ mineralization of magnetite nanoparticles in chitosan hydrogel under ambient conditions was proposed. The chelation effect between iron ions and amino groups in CS–Fe complex, which led to that chitosan hydrogel exerted a crucial control on the magnetite mineralization, was proved by X-ray photoelectron spectrum. The composition, morphology and size of the mineralized magnetite nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy and thermal gravity. The mineralized nanoparticles were nonstoichiometric magnetite with a unit formula of Fe2.85O4and coated by a thin layer of chitosan. The mineralized magnetite nanoparticles with mean diameter of 13 nm dispersed in chitosan hydrogel uniformly. Magnetization measurement indicated that superparamagnetism behavior was exhibited. These magnetite nanoparticles mineralized in chitosan hydrogel have potential applications in the field of biotechnology. Moreover, this method can also be used to synthesize other kinds of inorganic nanoparticles, such as ZnO, Fe2O3and hydroxyapatite.

## A Novel Miniaturized Multimodal Bioreactor for Continuous In Situ Assessment of Bioartificial Cardiac Tissue During Stimulation and Maturation

Kensah, George; Gruh, Ina; Viering, Jörg; Schumann, Henning; Dahlmann, Julia; Meyer, Heiko; Skvorc, David; Bär, Antonia; Akhyari, Payam; Heisterkamp, Alexander; Haverich, Axel; Martin, Ulrich
Fonte: Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. Publicador: Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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Stem cell-based cardiac tissue engineering is a promising approach for regenerative therapy of the injured heart. At present, the small number of stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes that can be obtained using current culture and enrichment techniques represents one of the key limitations for the development of functional bioartificial cardiac tissue (BCT). We have addressed this problem by construction of a novel bioreactor with functional features of larger systems that enables the generation and in situ monitoring of miniaturized BCTs. BCTs were generated from rat cardiomyocytes to demonstrate advantages and usefulness of the bioreactor. Tissues showed spontaneous, synchronized contractions with cell orientation along the axis of strain. Cyclic stretch induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy, demonstrated by a shift of myosin heavy chain expression from the alpha to beta isoform, together with elevated levels of atrial natriuretic factor. Stretch led to a moderate increase in systolic force (1.42 ± 0.09 mN vs. 0.96 ± 0.09 mN in controls), with significantly higher forces observed after β-adrenergic stimulation with noradrenalin (2.54 ± 0.11 mN). Combined mechanical and β-adrenergic stimulation had no synergistic effect. This study demonstrates for the first time that mechanical stimulation and direct real-time contraction force measurement can be combined into a single multimodal bioreactor system...

## Quantitatively Measuring In situ Flows using a Self-Contained Underwater Velocimetry Apparatus (SCUVA)

Katija, Kakani; Colin, Sean P.; Costello, John H.; Dabiri, John O.
Fonte: MyJove Corporation Publicador: MyJove Corporation
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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The ability to directly measure velocity fields in a fluid environment is necessary to provide empirical data for studies in fields as diverse as oceanography, ecology, biology, and fluid mechanics. Field measurements introduce practical challenges such as environmental conditions, animal availability, and the need for field-compatible measurement techniques. To avoid these challenges, scientists typically use controlled laboratory environments to study animal-fluid interactions. However, it is reasonable to question whether one can extrapolate natural behavior (i.e., that which occurs in the field) from laboratory measurements. Therefore, in situ quantitative flow measurements are needed to accurately describe animal swimming in their natural environment.

## A Microbial Oasis in the Hypersaline Atacama Subsurface Discovered by a Life Detector Chip: Implications for the Search for Life on Mars

Parro, Victor; de Diego-Castilla, Graciela; Moreno-Paz, Mercedes; Blanco, Yolanda; Cruz-Gil, Patricia; Rodríguez-Manfredi, José A.; Fernández-Remolar, David; Gómez, Felipe; Gómez, Manuel J.; Rivas, Luis A.; Demergasso, Cecilia; Echeverría, Alex; Urt
Fonte: Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. Publicador: Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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The Atacama Desert has long been considered a good Mars analogue for testing instrumentation for planetary exploration, but very few data (if any) have been reported about the geomicrobiology of its salt-rich subsurface. We performed a Mars analogue drilling campaign next to the Salar Grande (Atacama, Chile) in July 2009, and several cores and powder samples from up to 5 m deep were analyzed in situ with LDChip300 (a Life Detector Chip containing 300 antibodies). Here, we show the discovery of a hypersaline subsurface microbial habitat associated with halite-, nitrate-, and perchlorate-containing salts at 2 m deep. LDChip300 detected bacteria, archaea, and other biological material (DNA, exopolysaccharides, some peptides) from the analysis of less than 0.5 g of ground core sample. The results were supported by oligonucleotide microarray hybridization in the field and finally confirmed by molecular phylogenetic analysis and direct visualization of microbial cells bound to halite crystals in the laboratory. Geochemical analyses revealed a habitat with abundant hygroscopic salts like halite (up to 260 g kg−1) and perchlorate (41.13 μg g−1 maximum), which allow deliquescence events at low relative humidity. Thin liquid water films would permit microbes to proliferate by using detected organic acids like acetate (19.14 μg g−1) or formate (76.06 μg g−1) as electron donors...

## In Situ Mechanical Analysis of Myofibrillar Perturbation and Aging on Soft, Bilayered Drosophila Myocardium

Kaushik, Gaurav; Fuhrmann, Alexander; Cammarato, Anthony; Engler, Adam J.
Fonte: The Biophysical Society Publicador: The Biophysical Society
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Drosophila melanogaster is a genetically malleable organism with a short life span, making it a tractable system in which to study mechanical effects of genetic perturbation and aging on tissues, e.g., impaired heart function. However, Drosophila heart-tube studies can be hampered by its bilayered structure: a ventral muscle layer covers the contractile cardiomyocytes. Here we propose an atomic force microscopy-based analysis that uses a linearized-Hertz method to measure individual mechanical components of soft composite materials. The technique was verified using bilayered polydimethylsiloxane. We further demonstrated its biological utility via its ability to resolve stiffness changes due to RNA interference to reduce myofibrillar content or due to aging in Drosophila myocardial layers. This protocol provides a platform to assess the mechanics of soft biological composite systems and, to our knowledge, for the first time, permits direct measurement of how genetic perturbations, aging, and disease can impact cardiac function in situ.

## Karyotyping and in situ chromosomal localization of rDNA sites in black cumin Bunium persicum (Boiss) B. Fedtsch,1915 (Apiaceae)

Chahota, R. K.; Mukai, Y.; Chaudhary, H.K.; Kishore, Naval; Sharma, T.R.
Fonte: Pensoft Publishers Publicador: Pensoft Publishers
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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The fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) technique has been applied to somatic chromosomes in the medicinally important species, Bunium persicum, to elucidate its karyotypes. The bicolour FISH technique involving 18S-5.8S-26S and 5S ribosomal RNA genes as probes was used to assign physical localization and measurement of rDNA sites on homologous pairs of chromosomes. The two 18S-5.8S-26S rRNA gene sites were at the terminal regions of the short arms of the chromosomes 1 and 2 involving NOR region of chromosome 1. The 5S rDNA sites were found on subtelomeric region of the long arm of the chromosome number 5 and at interstitial regions of the short arm of chromosome 7. Based on direct visual analysis of chromosome length, morphology and position of FISH signals, a pioneer attempt has been made to construct metaphase karyotype in Bunium persicum, an endangered medicinal plant of North Western Himalayas.

## Non-Invasive and in situ Characterization of the Degradation of Biomaterial Scaffolds by Volumetric Photoacoustic Microscopy

Zhang, Yu Shrike; Cai, Xin; Yao, Junjie; Xing, Wenxin; Wang, Lihong V.; Xia, Younan
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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Degradation is among the most important properties of biomaterial scaffolds, which are indispensable for regenerative medicine. The currently used method relies on the measurement of mass loss across different samples and cannot track the degradation of an individual scaffold in situ. Here we report, for the first time, the use of multiscale photoacoustic microscopy to non-invasively monitor the degradation of an individual scaffold. We could observe alterations to the morphology and structure of a scaffold at high spatial resolution and deep penetration, and more significantly, quantify the degradation of an individual scaffold as a function of time, both in vitro and in vivo. In addition, the remodeling of vasculature inside a scaffold can be visualized simultaneously using a dual-wavelength scanning mode in a label-free manner. This optoacoustic method can be used to monitor the degradation of individual scaffolds, offering a new approach to non-invasively analyze and quantify biomaterial-tissue interactions in conjunction with the assessment of in vivo vascular parameters.

## In situ selectivity profiling and crystal structure of SML-8-73-1, an active site inhibitor of oncogenic K-Ras G12C

Hunter, John C.; Gurbani, Deepak; Ficarro, Scott B.; Carrasco, Martin A.; Lim, Sang Min; Choi, Hwan Geun; Xie, Ting; Marto, Jarrod A.; Chen, Zhe; Gray, Nathanael S.; Westover, Kenneth D.
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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SML-8-73-1 (SML) is the first example, to our knowledge, of a GTP-competitive inhibitor of V-Ki-ras2 Kirsten rat sarcoma viral oncogene homolog (K-Ras). A high-resolution structure of K-Ras G12C bound to SML shows K-Ras in an inactive conformation. In situ proteomic-based chemical profiling of SML demonstrates that SML is highly selective for K-Ras G12C over other small GTPases. A novel chemosensor-based assay allows measurement of covalent reaction rates between K-Ras G12C and SML and enables characterization of this reaction in the context of millimolar concentrations of GTP and GDP, well in exccss of what is found in living cells. These results demonstrate that even in the presence of high concentrations of GTP and GDP, SML is able to exchange into the GN site.

## “CLASSIC NMR”: An In-Situ NMR Strategy for Mapping the Time-Evolution of Crystallization Processes by Combined Liquid-State and Solid-State Measurements**

Hughes, Colan E; Williams, P Andrew; Harris, Kenneth D M
Fonte: WILEY-VCH Verlag Publicador: WILEY-VCH Verlag
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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A new in-situ NMR strategy (termed CLASSIC NMR) for mapping the evolution of crystallization processes is reported, involving simultaneous measurement of both liquid-state and solid-state NMR spectra as a function of time. This combined strategy allows complementary information to be obtained on the evolution of both the solid and liquid phases during the crystallization process. In particular, as crystallization proceeds (monitored by solid-state NMR), the solution state becomes more dilute, leading to changes in solution-state speciation and the modes of molecular aggregation in solution, which are monitored by liquid-state NMR. The CLASSIC NMR experiment is applied here to yield new insights into the crystallization of m-aminobenzoic acid.

## Proliferation and stemness preservation of human adipose-derived stem cells by surface-modified in situ TiO2 nanofibrous surfaces

Tan, Ai Wen; Tay, Lelia; Chua, Kien Hui; Ahmad, Roslina; Ali Akbar, Sheikh; Pingguan-Murphy, Belinda
Fonte: Dove Medical Press Publicador: Dove Medical Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Two important criteria of an ideal biomaterial in the field of stem cells research are to regulate the cell proliferation without the loss of its pluripotency and to direct the differentiation into a specific cell lineage when desired. The present study describes the influence of TiO2 nanofibrous surface structures on the regulation of proliferation and stemness preservation of adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs). TiO2 nanofiber arrays were produced in situ onto Ti-6Al-4V substrate via a thermal oxidation process and the successful fabrication of these nanostructures was confirmed by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS), X-ray diffractometer (XRD), and contact angle measurement. ADSCs were seeded on two types of Ti-6Al-4V surfaces (TiO2 nanofibers and flat control), and their morphology, proliferation, and stemness expression were analyzed using FESEM, AlamarBlue assay, flow cytometry, and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) after 2 weeks of incubation, respectively. The results show that ADSCs exhibit better adhesion and significantly enhanced proliferation on the TiO2 nanofibrous surfaces compared to the flat control surfaces. The greater proliferation ability of TiO2 nanofibrous surfaces was further confirmed by the results of cell cycle assay. More importantly...

## Measurement of Lipid Accumulation in Chlorella vulgaris via Flow Cytometry and Liquid-State ¹H NMR Spectroscopy for Development of an NMR-Traceable Flow Cytometry Protocol

Bono Jr., Michael S.; Garcia, Ravi D.; Sri-Jayantha, Dylan V.; Ahner, Beth A.; Kirby, Brian J.
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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In this study, we cultured Chlorella vulgaris cells with a range of lipid contents, induced via nitrogen starvation, and characterized them via flow cytometry, with BODIPY 505/515 as a fluorescent lipid label, and liquid-state 1H NMR spectroscopy. In doing so, we demonstrate the utility of calibrating flow cytometric measurements of algal lipid content using triacylglyceride (TAG, also known as triacylglycerol or triglyceride) content per cell as measured via quantitative 1H NMR. Ensemble-averaged fluorescence of BODIPY-labeled cells was highly correlated with average TAG content per cell measured by bulk NMR, with a linear regression yielding a linear fit with r2 = 0.9974. This correlation compares favorably to previous calibrations of flow cytometry protocols to lipid content measured via extraction, and calibration by NMR avoids the time and complexity that is generally required for lipid quantitation via extraction. Flow cytometry calibrated to a direct measurement of TAG content can be used to investigate the distribution of lipid contents for cells within a culture. Our flow cytometry measurements showed that Chlorella vulgaris cells subjected to nitrogen limitation exhibited higher mean lipid content but a wider distribution of lipid content that overlapped the relatively narrow distribution of lipid content for replete cells...

## Measurement of the electron drift velocity for directional dark matter detectors

Mayet, F.; Billard, J.; Bosson, G.; Bourrion, O.; Guillaudin, O.; Lamblin, J.; Richer, J. P.; Riffard, Q.; Santos, D.; Iguaz, F. J.; Lebreton, L.; Maire, D.
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Relevância na Pesquisa
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Three-dimensional track reconstruction is a key issue for directional Dark Matter detection. It requires a precise knowledge of the electron drift velocity. Magboltz simulations are known to give a good evaluation of this parameter. However, large TPC operated underground on long time scale may be characterized by an effective electron drift velocity that may differ from the value evaluated by simulation. In situ measurement of this key parameter is hence a way to avoid bias in the 3D track reconstruction. We present a dedicated method for the measurement of the electron drift velocity with the MIMAC detector. It is tested on two gas mixtures : $\rm CF_4$ and $\rm CF_4+CHF_3$. We also show that adding $\rm CHF_3$ allows us to lower the electron drift velocity while keeping almost the same Fluorine content of the gas mixture.; Comment: Proceedings of the 4th international conference on Directional Detection of Dark Matter (CYGNUS 2013), 10-12 June 2013, Toyama, Japan

## Measurement of the Top Quark Mass with a Matrix Element Method in the Lepton Plus Jets Channel at CDF

Mohr, Brian
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica