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Hepatitis B viral markers in banked human milk before and after Holder pasteurization

OLIVEIRA, Patricia Ribeiro de; YAMAMOTO, Aparecida Yulie; SOUZA, Cleonice Barbosa Sandoval de; ARAUJO, Natalia Motta de; GOMES, Selma de Andrade; HECK, Analia Ribeiro; FIGUEIREDO, Jose Fernando de Castro; MUSSI-PINHATA, Marisa Marcia
Fonte: ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV Publicador: ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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26.27%
Background: Blood screening for hepatitis B virus (HBV) is not universally performed for donor selection in human milk banks. Objectives: To evaluate the frequency of detection of HBV surface antigen (HBsAg) and HBV-DNA in colostrum of HBV-infected nursing mothers before and after Holder pasteurization. Study design: Forty-two concentrated breast milk samples were obtained within two postnatal weeks from 24 HBsAg-positive women (4 HBeAg-positive and 20 HBeAg-negative, anti-HBe-positive) were tested for the presence of HBsAg and HBV-DNA before and after Holder pasteurization (30 min at 62.5 degrees C). Results: Before pasteurization, HBsAg and HBV-DNA were found in 14/24 (58%), and 20/24 (75%) first milk samples, respectively, obtained by 4 days after delivery. At least one marker was detected in 20/24 (83%) milk samples. Both markers were identified in milk of HBeAg-positive mothers, and most mothers with anti-HBe in blood had at least one HBV marker. Once detected, viral markers were frequently found in milk samples subsequently obtained from the same woman. Holder pasteurization did not affect the probability of detecting HBsAg (8/18, 44%), HBV-DNA (12/18, 67%). or at least one of them (15118, 83%). Conclusions: Although the biological implications of these findings remain to be determined...

Facelock: familiarity-based graphical authentication

Jenkins, Rob; McLachlan, Jane L.; Renaud, Karen
Fonte: PeerJ Inc. Publicador: PeerJ Inc.
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 24/06/2014 Português
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26.3%
Authentication codes such as passwords and PIN numbers are widely used to control access to resources. One major drawback of these codes is that they are difficult to remember. Account holders are often faced with a choice between forgetting a code, which can be inconvenient, or writing it down, which compromises security. In two studies, we test a new knowledge-based authentication method that does not impose memory load on the user. Psychological research on face recognition has revealed an important distinction between familiar and unfamiliar face perception: When a face is familiar to the observer, it can be identified across a wide range of images. However, when the face is unfamiliar, generalisation across images is poor. This contrast can be used as the basis for a personalised ‘facelock’, in which authentication succeeds or fails based on image-invariant recognition of faces that are familiar to the account holder. In Study 1, account holders authenticated easily by detecting familiar targets among other faces (97.5% success rate), even after a one-year delay (86.1% success rate). Zero-acquaintance attackers were reduced to guessing (<1% success rate). Even personal attackers who knew the account holder well were rarely able to authenticate (6.6% success rate). In Study 2...

Combating Money Laundering and the Financing of Terrorism - A Comprehensive Training Guide : Workbook 6. Combating the Financing of Terrorism

World Bank
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Português
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"Combating Money Laundering and the Financing of Terrorism: a Comprehensive Training Guide" is one of the products of the capacity enhancement program on Anti-Money Laundering and Combating the Funding of Terrorism (AML/CFT), which has been co-funded by the Governments of Sweden, Japan, Denmark, and Canada. The program offers countries the tools, skills, and knowledge to build and strengthen their institutional, legal, and regulatory frameworks to successfully implement their national action plan on these efforts. This workbook includes seven training course modules: effects on economic development and international standards (module one); legal requirements to meet international standards (module two); regulatory and institutional requirements for AML/CFT (module three a ); compliance requirements for financial institutions (module three b); building an effective financial intelligence unit (module four); domestic (interagency) and international cooperation (module five); combating the financing of terrorism(module six); and investigating money laundering and terrorist financing (module seven).

Mobile Banking and Financial Inclusion : The Regulatory Lessons

Klein, Michael; Mayer, Colin
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Português
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26.13%
Mobile banking is growing at a remarkable speed around the world. In the process it is creating considerable uncertainty about the appropriate regulatory response to this newly emerging service. This paper sets out a framework for considering the design of regulation of mobile banking. Since it lies at the interface between financial services and telecoms, mobile banking also raises competition policy and interoperability issues that are discussed in the paper. Finally, by unbundling payments services into its component parts, mobile banking provides important lessons for the design of financial regulation more generally in developed as well as developing economies.

Measuring Financial Access around the World

Kendall, Jake; Mylenko, Nataliya; Ponce, Alejandro
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Português
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36.15%
This paper introduces a new set of financial access indicators for 139 countries across the globe and describes the results of a preliminary analysis of this data set. The new data set builds on previous work using a similar methodology. The new data set features broader country coverage and greater disaggregation by type of financial product and by type of institution supplying the product -- commercial banks, specialized state run savings and development banks, banks with mutual ownership structure (such as cooperatives), and microfinance institutions. The authors use the data set to conduct a rough estimation of the number of bank accounts in the world (6.2 billion) as well as the number of banked and unbanked individuals. In developed countries, they estimate 3.2 accounts per adult and 81 percent of adults banked. By contrast, in developing countries, they estimate only 0.9 accounts per adult and 28 percent banked. In regression analysis, they find that measures of development and physical infrastructure are positively associated with the indicators of deposit account...

Alternative Remittance Systems and Terrorism Financing : Issues in Risk Management

Vaccani, Matteo
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Português
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26.05%
Terrorism can endanger innocent human life and tear the very threads that hold society together, namely, trust and security. Governments have mobilized a variety of tools in response, ranging from the political to the economic. In attempting to prevent and detect terrorist financing and other forms of material support, those offering financial services have been required to heighten their vigilance of potential terrorist abuse of those services. While protecting financial services from potential abuse, care should be taken not to deny access to those services to those most in need. Dejection and social exclusion are very often conducive to terrorism; therefore, ensuring inclusion of the disenfranchised and creating possibilities for their advancement are key parts of the broader, long-term struggle against terrorism and extremism. The paper begins with a brief description of alternative remittance system (ARS) models and their prevalence. It then covers their potential relationship with terrorist financing...

The Market for Retirement Products in Australia

Brunner, Gregory Gordon; Thorburn, Craig
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
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26.05%
Australia introduced a mandatory retirement savings scheme in 1992. This built on pre-existing voluntary occupational plans. The new scheme has been very successful in expanding coverage and mobilizing large financial savings that are equal to close to 100 percent of GDP. However, Australia does not impose restrictions on payout options. The payout phase used to be dominated by lump sum withdrawals, which accounted for 80 percent of benefit payments as recently as 2002. But pension payments increased in recent years and now represent 45 percent of total payments. The vast majority of these pension payments take the form of term annuities and allocated annuities. The latter are similar to phased withdrawals in Chile but run for fixed terms of up to 25 years rather than for lifetime terms. The demand for life annuities and lifetime phased withdrawals is very limited. The paper discusses the factors that have shaped the pattern of demand for retirement products, including the availability of the universal age pension and the effect of clawback provisions...

Turkey - Country Economic Memorandum (CEM) : Sustaining High Growth - The Role of Domestic savings : Synthesis Report

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Português
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25.99%
Domestic savings in Turkey declined significantly in the 2000s. The domestic savings rate declined from an average of 23.5 percent of gross national income in the 1990s to an average of 17 percent over the 2000-2008 period, and further to 12.7 percent in 2010. This decline was driven by the sharp fall in private saving, while public saving increased through most of the period. A strong fiscal adjustment underpinned the improvement in public savings in the post-2001 period. The adjustment was pursued to correct the fiscal expansion of the previous decade, and it led to a sharp reduction in the public debt to gross domestic product (GDP) ratio. This improved the public saving-investment balance and helped reduce the vulnerability of the economy to external shocks. With an expected increase in future investment needs, continued fiscal discipline will be vital for sustainable growth. The fall in private savings after 2001 was mostly a result of the decline in macroeconomic vulnerabilities. While the economy was growing fast...

State and Trends of the Carbon Market 2012

Kossoy, Alexandre; Guigon, Pierre
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
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25.99%
The total value of the carbon market grew by 11 percent in 2011, to $176 billion, and transaction volumes reached a new high of 10.3 billion tons of carbon dioxide equivalent (CO2e). This growth took place in the face of economic turbulence, growing long-term oversupply in the EU Emissions Trading Scheme (EU ETS) and plummeting carbon prices. By far, the largest segment of the carbon market was that of EU Allowances (EUAs), valued at $148 billion. With the end of the first commitment period of the Kyoto Protocol in 2012, the value of the pre-2013 primary certified emission reduction (CER), emission reduction unit (ERU) and assigned amount unit (AAU) markets declined in 2011. At the same time, the post-2012 primary Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) market increased by a robust 63 percent, to US$2 billion, despite depressed prices and limited long-term-visibility. Against this backdrop, several new domestic and regional carbon market initiatives gained traction in both developed and developing economies in 2011. Five new jurisdictions (i.e., Australia, California, Québec, Republic of Korea, and Mexico) passed legislations laying the foundation for cap-and-trade schemes. Together, these initiatives will drive substantial resources towards low-carbon investments and they have the potential to unleash a truly transformational carbon market...

Suspending Suspicious Transactions

Stroligo, Klaudijo; Intscher, Horst; Davis-Crockwell, Susan
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
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35.99%
One of the powers held by many, but not all, Financial Intelligence Units (FIUs) is the administrative power to order the postponement of reported suspicious transactions as a means of preventing the flight of suspect funds or assets beyond the reach of national law enforcement and prosecutorial authorities during the time it takes for those national authorities to seek and obtain a freezing or seizing order from the judicial or other competent authorities. The main objectives of this study are to: inform the policy discussion on the postponement power; and provide guidance to FIUs that already have, or are considering, acquiring the power to postpone suspicious transactions with a view to improving their existing postponement regimes or shaping new ones. This joint study was intended to capture the widest possible cross section of FIUs. However, the highest numbers of respondents were from European countries. While the study had no control over the response rate, the respondent FIUs are nonetheless representative of the overall population of FIUs on dimensions such as type and size of FIU and geographic representation...

Mexico : New Technology-Enabled Channels to Scale Up Financial Access

International Monetary Fund; World Bank
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
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26.14%
This is a technical note for the 2011 the Financial Sector Assessment Program (FSAP) carried out in Mexico. The focus of this document is the new technology-enabled channels to scale up financial access being employed. Key issues such as a pro-inclusion policy environment and harnessing technology for financial inclusion are discussed. Issues relevant to enabling policy framework, such as new banking regulations for branchless banking, types of licenses, types of accounts, electronic transaction mechanisms, use of banking correspondents outsourcing of operations/IT platforms, as well as other regulations affecting branchless banking propositions, are also elaborated on. Segments are devoted to the market, mobile banking schemes and the consequent recommendations as well.

Egyptian National Postal Organization : Postal Financial Services and Access to Finance

World Bank
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
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26.11%
ENPO is an organization employing 48,000 staff and operating a network of more than 9,000 access points (of which 3,500 post offices, 6,500 agencies, of which 1,500 are currently active). A commercial entity with management autonomy, ENPO is primarily a provider of basic financial services. Other services are mail (regular and express), parcels and Government services. Postal financial services, with three main business lines (savings, payments and giro services) and 15 million savings accounts, generate around 50% to 60% of ENPO s total revenue, and occupy an estimated 15% of ENPO s staff. Although available accounting and financial information are limited, it seems that postal financial services are operated at a profit. For ENPO which is currently in a transition phase from an administration-type of organization, moving towards a corporate-type of organization, the strategic option will play as an accelerator of change (in case the Government decides for a drastic move towards bancarization) or as a consolidator of incremental reform (in case the Government opts for a progressive approach...

Financial Sector Assessment Program - Albania : Developing Private Pensions in Albania

World Bank; International Monetary Fund
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
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26.08%
This note sets out options to develop private pensions in Albania. It has been requested by the authorities to help create a more diversified pension system that can deliver improved outcomes for Albania in decades to come. A diversified pension system mixes state and private pensions as well as other sources of retirement income. The analysis, diagnosis, and recommendations use an outcome-based assessment framework. This technical note looks at how the pension system performs relative to 5 key outcomes: efficiency, sustainability, coverage, adequacy, and security. These outcomes depend on the political and economic environment in which a pension system operates, and its overall design including regulatory framework, market structure and conduct, and supervisory approach.

Paraguay Diagnostic Review of Consumer Protection and Financial Literacy : Volume 2. Comparison with Good Practices

World Bank
Fonte: World Bank Group, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank Group, Washington, DC
Português
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26.14%
This review of the Consumer Protection and Financial Literacy Framework (CPFL) in Paraguay was undertaken in response to a request for technical assistance in this area made by the Central Bank of Paraguay (BCP). The objectives were: (i) to assess the existing consumer protection and financial literacy framework by reviewing laws, regulations, and actual practices in Paraguay, and comparing it with international good practice; and (ii) to provide recommendations on ways to improve the level of financial consumer protection and financial literacy in the country. The Diagnostic Review provides a detailed assessment of the institutional, legal and regulatory framework for consumer protection in four segments of the financial sector: (i) banks and finance companies, (ii) financial cooperatives, (iii) insurance companies, and, - in reflection of the important role they play in Paraguay - (iv) non-bank agents and mobile payment providers. Its findings and recommendations cover six thematic areas: (i) Institutional Arrangements...

The Global Findex Database 2014

Demirguc-Kunt, Asli; Klapper, Leora; Singer, Dorothe; Van Oudheusden, Peter
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.19%
The Global Financial Inclusion (Global Findex) database, launched by the World Bank in 2011, provides comparable indicators showing how people around the world save, borrow, make payments, and manage risk. The 2014 edition of the database reveals that 62 percent of adults worldwide have an account at a bank or another type of financial institution or with a mobile money provider. Between 2011 and 2014, 700 million adults became account holders while the number of those without an account—the unbanked—dropped by 20 percent to 2 billion. What drove this increase in account ownership? A growth in account penetration of 13 percentage points in developing economies and innovations in technology—particularly mobile money, which is helping to rapidly expand access to financial services in Sub-Saharan Africa. Along with these gains, the data also show that big opportunities remain to increase financial inclusion, especially among women and poor people. Governments and the private sector can play a pivotal role by shifting the payment of wages and government transfers from cash into accounts. There are also large opportunities to spur greater use of accounts...

Islamic Republic of Pakistan : Diagnostic Review of Consumer Protection and Financial Literacy, Volume 2. Comparison with Good Practices

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: PSD, Privatization and Industrial Policy
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.11%
The diagnostic review for Consumer Protection and Financial Literacy (CPFL) provides a detailed assessment of the institutional, legal, and regulatory framework in four segments of the financial sector: banking, microfinance, securities, and insurance. The review took place in response to a request for World Bank technical assistance in the field of financial consumer protection made by Pakistan's Ministry of Finance (MoF), the State Bank of Pakistan (SBP), and the Securities and Exchange Commission of Pakistan (SECP). The review consists of two volumes. Volume one summarize the key findings and recommendations of the review and Volume two presents a detailed assessment of each financial segment compared against the good practices for financial consumer protection. The key findings and recommendations in volume one cover five areas: (i) the institutional, legal, and regulatory framework for consumer protection; (ii) disclosure; (iii) business practices; (iv) dispute resolution mechanisms; and (v) financial education. Priority recommendations are outlined in table one; a more detailed list of recommendations is included in annex one.

Integrity in Mobile Phone Financial Services : Measures for Mitigating Risks from Money Laundering and Terrorist Financing

Chatain, Pierre-Laurent; Hernández-Coss, Raúl; Borowik, Kamil; Zerzan, Andrew
Fonte: Washington, DC : World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC : World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.05%
This working paper explores strategies to identify and manage potential money laundering (ML) and terrorist financing (TF) risks in mobile financial services (m-FS). Using fieldwork in seven economies as a basis, the paper provides guidance on the best means of assessing perceived versus actual ML and TF risks, and then identifies specific measures to mitigate the actual risks. The paper concludes with recommendations that aim to promote a regulatory balance to foster an enabling environment for business while minimizing ML and TF risks that hinder its sustainability. The paper identifies four risk factors in m-FS and appropriate mitigation responses. The risk factors are anonymity, elusiveness, rapidity, and poor oversight. Anonymity is the risk of not knowing a customer's actual identity, and it can be diminished through enhanced know-your-customer procedures and identification tools. Elusiveness is the ability to disguise mobile transaction totals, origins, and destinations. It can be diminished through transaction limits and enhanced customer profiling...

Tanzania - Subnational Costs of Doing Business in Tanzania : An Assessment of Doing Business in Arusha, Dodoma, Iringa, Kigoma, Mtwara, Mwanza, and Zanzibar

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Investment Climate Assessment (ICA); Economic & Sector Work
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.05%
This report assesses some of the more significant doing business indicators including how easy it is to register a business, obtain a license, transfer property, connect basic utilities, and obtain an overdraft in 8 regions of Tanzania. The time and cost of completing these transactions play a significant role for local investors in their decision of whether to operate in a country's formal sector, thus affecting its investment and growth performance. The doing business assessment provides an index for measuring the ease of doing business across 175 developing and developed countries. The assessment promotes awareness of and focus on private sector needs, and oftentimes competition in reform programs among countries.The indicators look at 10 key operating areas for a firm, ranging from starting up and getting credit to closing the business. The report studies a theoretical firm. Data is based on research of laws and regulations in a country's main business city or capital. Input and verification are supplied by local government officials...

Increasing Revenues for India Post through Expanding Channeling of Financial Services

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Other Financial Sector Study; Economic & Sector Work
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.13%
This report analyzes possibilities for increasing revenues for India Post through expanding channeling of financial services. The Indian postal network is among the largest networks in the world in terms of area covered and population served, and constitutes an important mechanism of achieving transportation and communication. Within India Post, the Post Office Savings Bank (POSB) is one of the oldest and largest financial institutions (with largest deposit base) in the country. The key objective of POSB is to provide people living in rural, semi-urban, remote and inaccessible areas of the country with an easy and reliable means of making investments, making remittances and operating savings accounts. It is of strategic importance for POSB to increase market-based revenues so as to gain better control of its market orientation and revenue structure. In addition, though POSB still retains competitive advantages over commercial banks, it will not be long before the competition replicates these advantages. Hence...

Free at Last: Rejecting Equal Sovereignty and Restoring the Constitutional Right to Vote: Shelby County v. Holder

Guinier, C. Lani; Blacksher, James
Fonte: Harvard University, Harvard Law School Publicador: Harvard University, Harvard Law School
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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26.09%
The "equal sovereignty" principle the Supreme Court majority relied on in Shelby County v. Holder to strike down the coverage formula in Section 4 of the Voting Rights Act is rooted in the jurisprudence of slavery. In the infamous 1857 case of Dred Scott v. Sandford, Chief Justice Roger Taney held that black Americans, slave or free, were not members of the sovereign people and could never be "citizens" within the meaning of the Constitution. Otherwise, he said, blacks would be entitled to all the fundamental rights of citizenship guaranteed by the Privileges and Immunities Clause of Article IV, Section 2, including the right to vote, a result that would violate the equal sovereignty of the slave states. Black people, Chief Justice Taney wrote, could only enjoy those rights the sovereign people of each state chose to give them. The Dred Scott decision was one of the provocations that led to the Civil War and to the adoption of the Reconstruction amendments to the Constitution. Section 1 of the Fourteenth Amendment, ratified in 1868, overruled Dred Scott’s holding that freedmen and their descendants were not citizens, and it prohibited the states from abridging "the privileges or immunities of citizens of the United States." Section 5 of the Fourteenth Amendment gave Congress the power to enforce the Privileges or Immunities Clause. But black voting rights were unpopular in the northern states...