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Accountability Metrics and Paying for Performance in Education and Health Care

Witte, John F.
Fonte: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Publicador: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 15/08/2010 Português
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55.81%
The track record in paying for performance in education is not good; nevertheless, emphasis on accountability and performance has gained momentum in the last 25 years. This emphasis includes systems of merit pay, career ladders, and national board certification. The general failures of these efforts have led some reformers to suggest that teacher pay be directly related to student value-added performance. This suggestion remains controversial but is also the hottest topic in paying for performance in education. Although many similarities exist between education and health care, major differences may make it even harder to install pay-for-performance systems in health than in education. If those systems are to be tried, experiments should begin in a bottom-up fashion at the unit level, rather than being imposed systemwide.

Uzbekistan - Assessment of the Primary Health Care Reform : Transparency, Accountability and Efficiency

World Bank
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.96%
The main purpose of this report is to assess the degree to which progress has been made by the Government of Uzbekistan in increasing the transparency, accountability, and efficiency of its primary health services, and to identify what further steps could be taken to improve the effectiveness of delivery, some of which may be applicable to other sectors as well. The report examines public spending, public financial management, and human resource management and remuneration in the primary health care sector at the local level. It draws lessons from the experience of Ferghana and Samarkand, two oblasts that have implemented reforms in primary health care, and incorporates the findings drawn from other sources, such as public expenditure data, the laws and regulations governing these systems, and the Service Quality Delivery Survey (SQDS) conducted in 2007. This report discusses the key governance issues related to improving service delivery in the primary health care area, and concludes with recommendations tailored to decision makers at the central and local government levels and those in local facilities.

Making Services Work : Indicators, Assessments, and Benchmarking of the Quality and Governance of Public Service Delivery in the Human Development Sectors

Fiszbein, Ariel; Ringold, Dena; Rogers, F. Halsey
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.98%
Improving governance is central to improving results in human development. It is clear that money is not enough: improved outcomes from service delivery require better governance, including mechanisms for holding service providers accountable and appropriate incentives for performance. There is therefore a growing demand for indicators to measure how and whether these processes work, and how they affect health and education results. This paper makes the case for measuring governance policies and performance, and the quality of service delivery in health and education. It develops a framework for selecting and measuring a set of indicators and proposes options, drawing from new and innovative measurement tools and approaches. The paper proposes the adoption of a more systematic approach that will both facilitate the work of health and education policymakers and allow for cross-country comparisons and benchmarking.

No More Cutting Class? Reducing Teacher Absence and Providing Incentives for Performance

Rogers, F. Halsey; Vegas, Emiliana
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.68%
Expanding and improving basic education in developing countries requires, at a minimum, teachers who are present in the classroom and motivated to teach, but this essential input is often missing. This paper describes the findings of a series of recent World Bank and other studies on teacher absence and incentives for performance. Surprise school visits reveal that teachers are absent at high rates in countries such as India, Indonesia, Uganda, Ecuador, and Zambia, reducing the quality of schooling for children, especially in rural, remote, and poor areas. More broadly, poor teacher management and low levels of teacher accountability afflict many developing-country education systems. The paper presents evidence on these shortcomings, but also on the types of incentives, management, and support structures that can improve motivation and performance and reduce avoidable absenteeism. It concludes with policy options for developing countries to explore as they work to meet Education for All goals and improve quality.

Governance in Health Care Delivery : Raising Performance

Lewis, Maureen; Pettersson, Gunilla
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.02%
The impacts of health care investments in developing and transition countries are typically measured by inputs and general health outcomes. Missing from the health agenda are measures of performance that reflect whether health systems are meeting their objectives; public resources are being used appropriately; and the priorities of governments are being implemented. This paper suggests that good governance is central to raising performance in health care delivery. Crucial to high performance are standards, information, incentives and accountability. This paper provides a definition of good governance in health and a framework for thinking about governance issues as a way of improving performance in the health sector. Performance indicators that offer the potential for tracking relative health performance are proposed, and provide the context for the discussion of good governance in health service delivery in the areas of budget and resource management, individual provider performance, health facility performance, informal payments...

Local Budgeting

Shah, Anwar
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
Português
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46.06%
This publication, Local Budgeting, provides a comprehensive guide for local administrators who are involved in designing and implementing budgetary institutions and who wish to improve efficiency and equity in service delivery and to strengthen internal and external accountability. It details principles and practices to improve fiscal management. It reviews techniques available in developing countries for forecasting revenues and expenditures, and it examines institutional arrangements for ensuring transparency and fiscal discipline. In addition, it outlines some strategies to deal with corruption in local revenue administration. With respect to budgeting, the volume discusses the decisions that need to be made in determining budget format and layout, including the scope of the budget, the degree of transparency of the legal requirements underlying the budget, and the extent to which the budget will emphasize inputs, outputs, and outcomes. Local Budgeting also discusses the role of the capital budget. It details how performance budgeting can serve as a tool for results-based accountability to citizens. It helps the non-specialist reader learn how to interpret budget documents to discover what the government is doing and how well it is performing its tasks. It highlights approaches to stakeholder inputs in the budget process. Finally...

Performance Accountability and Combating Corruption

Shah, Anwar
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.07%
his volume provides advice on how to institutionalize performance-based accountability, especially in countries that lack good accountability systems. The volume describes how institutions of accountability may be strengthened to combat corruption. The volume is organized into two parts. The first part deals with public management reforms to ensure the integrity and improve the efficiency of government operations. It outlines an agenda for public management reforms and discusses the roles of e-government and network solutions in performance improvements. The second part of the volume provides advice on strengthening the role of representative institutions, such as organs and committees of parliament, in providing oversight of government programs. It also provides guidance on how auditing and related institutions can be used to detect fraud and corruption. The book highlights the causes of corruption and the use of both internal and external accountability institutions and mechanisms to fight it. It provides advice on how to tailor anticorruption programs to individual country circumstances and how to sequence reform efforts to ensure sustainability. This volume presents the latest thinking of leading development scholars on operationalizing such a governance framework. The focus of this volume is creating performance-based accountability and oversight when there is no bottom line. Each chapter addresses an important dimension of such a framework. The four chapters in part I are concerned with integrity and efficiency in public management. The nine chapters of part II are concerned with institutions and mechanisms to hold government to account.

Tracking Results in Agriculture and Rural Development in Less-Than-Ideal Conditions : A Sourcebook of Indicators for Monitoring and Evaluation

Global Donor Platform for Rural Development; World Bank; Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations
Fonte: Global Donor Platform for Rural Development; World Bank; Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations Publicador: Global Donor Platform for Rural Development; World Bank; Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.6%
The purpose of this sourcebook is to pull together into a single document a collection of common sense tips and recommendations based on actual practices and experience around the world. The sourcebook aims first and foremost to help strengthen Monitoring and Evaluation (M&E) capacity at the national and sub-national levels, and to ensure a consistency of approach and methodology so that, at the global level, sufficient reliable and timely information can be accessed from the different countries and used to make cross-country comparisons and to calculate development indicators at the global level. The sourcebook is specifically targeted towards countries where conditions are less-than-ideal, particularly with respect to the availability of relevant information. The sourcebook also shows how a service delivery approach can be used to select indicators which can generate useful, easy-to-measure early outcome measures. It suggests that greater use be made of qualitative indicators, such as access, use and satisfaction. The sourcebook devotes considerable attention to the need for a strong statistical infrastructure and reviews the range of different statistical instruments available.

Tracking Results in Agriculture and Rural Development in Less-Than-Ideal Conditions : A Sourcebook of Indicators for Monitoring and Evaluation

Global Donor Platform for Rural Development; World Bank; FAO Statistics Division
Fonte: Bonn: Global Donor Platform for Rural Development Publicador: Bonn: Global Donor Platform for Rural Development
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.6%
The purpose of this sourcebook is to pull together into a single document a collection of common sense tips and recommendations based on actual practices and experience around the world. The sourcebook aims first and foremost to help strengthen Monitoring and Evaluation (M&E) capacity at the national and sub-national levels, and to ensure a consistency of approach and methodology so that, at the global level, sufficient reliable and timely information can be accessed from the different countries and used to make cross-country comparisons and to calculate development indicators at the global level. The sourcebook is specifically targeted towards countries where conditions are less-than-ideal, particularly with respect to the availability of relevant information. The sourcebook also shows how a service delivery approach can be used to select indicators which can generate useful, easy-to-measure early outcome measures. It suggests that greater use be made of qualitative indicators, such as access, use and satisfaction. The sourcebook devotes considerable attention to the need for a strong statistical infrastructure and reviews the range of different statistical instruments available.

A Review in Bangladesh, India, and Pakistan : Benchmarking for Performance Improvement in Urban Utilities

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.71%
Performance benchmarking is a powerful tool to make service providers more accountable, and to measure progress while improving performance. This review examines the introduction of performance benchmarking in over 30 urban water utilities across Bangladesh, India, and Pakistan since 2003, with the support of their respective governments and the Water and Sanitation Program - South Asia. It focuses on the process of building systems for performance measurement, monitoring and analysis, and institutionalizing benchmarking as an integral part of operational practice in utilities and government, to support broader sector reforms. The findings reveal that most utilities are performing poorly, and just how dire the state of service provision really is across the towns and cities of South Asia: 1) no water utility in Bangladesh, India or Pakistan provides its customers with continuous water; the average is five hours a day; 2) water utilities do not serve at least a third of urban residents; 3) high nonrevenue water-frequently estimated above 40 percent-means a large volume of water is being lost through leaks...

The Role of the Integrated Financial Adviser in the Government of India

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Português
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45.98%
The research paper compares the various thoughts and models of the finance function in the Indian Central Government with those that exist worldwide, presents the analytical underpinnings of why some aspects of a particular model may be suitable to the Indian position, and provides the Government of India with options and courses of action. The paper offers historical and current perspective (chapters two and three) on the development of the role of Financial Adviser (FA), comparative lessons from other countries on how they have structured this position (chapter four), suggestions on appropriate training and certification programmes for financial advisers and their key support staff and opportunities for commensurate career development that makes the FA position more attractive for Government of India (GoI) officers and talented applicants (chapters five and six).

Sponsoring a Race to the Top : The Case for Results-Based Intergovernmental Finance for Merit Goods

Shah, Anwar
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.03%
Intergovernmental finance is a significant source of sub-national finance in most countries. In both industrial and developing countries, formula based "manna from heaven" general purpose transfers dominate but co-exist with highly intrusive micro-managed "command and control" specific purpose transfers. Both these types of transfers undermine political and fiscal accountability. Reforms to bring in design elements that incorporate incentives for results-based accountability are resisted by both donors and recipients alike. This is because the donors perceive such reforms as attempts at chipping away at their powers and recipients fear such programs will be intrusive. This paper presents conceptual and practical underpinnings of grant designs that could further simplicity, objectivity, and local autonomy objectives while furthering citizen-centric results-based accountability. The paper further highlights a few notable recent initiatives in both industrial and developing countries that embrace such directions for reform. The paper concludes that results-based intergovernmental finance offers significant potential to minimize tradeoffs between local autonomy and accountability while furthering access to merit goods.

Mozambique PFM for Results Program : Technical Assessment

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.93%
The discovery of large natural resource reserves in Mozambique has raised expectations of increased economic growth, improved public services and poverty reduction. However, the majority of the population has benefited little from growth in recent years, and may be skeptical that the potential for increased government revenues will translate into improved services. The development potential of future natural resource revenues will partially depend on stronger PFM systems, as well as political commitment to broad based social and economic development. A gap between political rhetoric and improvements in the everyday lives of the population may fuel potential for social unrest. Similarly, changing development partner circumstances (both funding constraints and changing modalities) and perceptions of Mozambique s development trajectory may lead to a drop in the levels of assistance, in advance of actual increases in revenue (it is still some years before natural resources will reach market). The Government needs to respond to both popular expectations and a changing partner environment. This creates a window of opportunity to increase government focus on the effective management of public resources and improved service delivery.

Indonesia : Repeat Public Expenditure and Financial Accountability Report and Performance Indicators

World Bank
Fonte: World Bank, Jakarta Publicador: World Bank, Jakarta
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.98%
This public expenditure and financial accountability (PEFA) assessment for Indonesia was undertaken by a team of World Bank staff and development partners with close involvement of counterparts from the Government of Indonesia, including the ministry of finance, state ministry of development planning (Bappenas), and some line ministries. The objective of the assessment is to update the integrated, standardized, indicator-led assessment of public financial management (PFM) systems, processes, and institutions as a whole against good international practices. This PEFA assessment has been funded by the Bank and a multi-donor trust fund, supported by contributions from the European Commission, the Governments of the Netherlands and the Swiss Confederation, and United States Agency for International Development (USAID). This report focuses mainly on the changes in the performance of the PFM system from 2007 to 2011. This report focuses largely on the major changes since 2007, and also on the ongoing reforms that should impact an assessment in the future organizations. It provides an integrated...

China; Managing Public Expenditures for Better Results

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Report; Economic & Sector Work :: Public Expenditure Review; Economic & Sector Work
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.76%
Despite its high economic growth, Chinas public expenditure management faces profound challenges: 1) The retrenchment of the Plan puts more of the burden for the macro and microeconomic policy on the budget. 2) Extra-budgetary funds and quasi-fiscal operations of the banking system undermine fiscal discipline, which contributed to the repeated bouts of inflation. 3) Shifting spending to the Governments priorities is slow, and is in part undone during budget implementation. Over time, this could threaten sustainable growth and equitable growth. 4) While overall social indicators are high, regional disparities remain large. Government services seem overstaffed, which could escalate costs if wages continue to rise. To address these challenges, China needs to reform its public expenditure management. Chinas first priority is restoring fiscal discipline - to delineate a clear budget constraint for every line ministry and unit, and break down the sectoral budgets into organizational budgets. To forge a stronger link between the State Councils policy priorities and the budget...

Republic of Lebanon : Country Financial Accountability Assessment

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Country Financial Accountability Assessment; Economic & Sector Work
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.98%
This CFAA aims to propose pragmatic and feasible solutions to problem areas in the current environment. The recommendations are presented in Appendix 8 to this report, and the key recommendations that are designed to address the areas of greatest fiduciary risk for the Government are summarized in this Executive Summary. These key recommendations are designed to assist the Government in improving the Lebanese public financial management system and provide the foundation to all the donors to move towards greater use of the country system. One of the CFAA's overall themes is that the Government must continue to work to develop a unified budget framework that enables proper management of the finances of the Government, in collaboration with the Bank and the IMF. This would assist the Government to better control public sector debt, revenues and expenditures, maintain its social safety nets, and improve its financial relations with the public utilities. The current budget framework is not unified for the entire public sector; many of its financial activities are still not transparent to the Government itself, to Parliament or to the public. These include transactions of extra-budgetary funds and entities, loans to selected public autonomous agencies that are converted to expenditure at the end of the financial year and unutilized investment authority that is carried forward without additional parliamentary disclosure or for review of actual performance against the budget plans. There is also no formal audit opinion by the Court of Accounts on the fairness of the Government's annual financial report. The CFAA report makes a number of recommendations to address these practices.

Ethiopia : Decentralization, Delivery and Accountability

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Institutional and Governance Review (IGR); Economic & Sector Work
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
76%
One of the fruits of this partnership was the preparation of an unusually rich set of background papers, under the umbrella of a process-driven Institutional and Governance Review (IGR); this Analytical and Advisory work was skillfully designed to support the design and implementation of PSCAP. Some of the papers focused on policy; others provided qualitative assessments of the realities on the ground; yet others benchmarked different facets of the governance environment, as a basis for monitoring going forward. A comprehensive synthesis of these IGR papers (referenced in Part A of the bibliography) is neither necessary not desirable; they stand on their own terms. (Also: see the powerpoint overview in Appendix 1 of Ethiopia's decentralization experience prepared by the World Bank team which led the process.). The objectives of this IGR summary are more modest, namely to; Provide (following staff turnover in the World Bank team) an entry point of access to some of the rich materials which have been prepared under the IGR umbrella; draw on the materials (plus other background material on Ethiopia) to provide a qualitative...

Bulgaria - Resourcing the Judiciary for Performance and Accountability : A Judicial Public Expenditure and Institutional Review

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Legal and Judicial Sector Assessment; Economic & Sector Work
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.92%
This report examines why, given the increasing resources allocated to the judiciary, there seem to have been only modest improvements in judicial performance. It lifts the veil on the conflicting opinions on the reasons for slow progress on performance and efficiency by analyzing the institutional environment within which the judiciary functions and the key incentives propelling the policy stances and actions of major institutional actors. A supply-demand approach is then used to review the challenges behind improving judicial performance, focusing on resource allocation and management issues on the supply side and on case inflow on the demand side. This perspective enables consideration of both supply and demand issues impacting judicial performance and offers an opportunity to suggest actions and policy responses that could enable policy makers to manage demand more effectively while strengthening access to justice. Overall, therefore, improving judicial performance now requires a shift from increasing the overall level of resources to approaches that do not increase the burden on the central budget. The key challenge now confronting Bulgaria's judiciary is to build on the reforms so far by developing...

Demanding to be Served : Holding Governments to Account for Improved Access

Shah, Anwar
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.06%
This paper presents an overview of the constitutional-legal provisions on access to services in developing countries and shows that rights to public services are not justice-able. It further documents the performance record to show that governments' response to such a weak accountability framework has been predictable - poor performance in service delivery with little accountability. The paper also shows that while there has not been a shortage of ideas on how to deal with this problem, most approaches have failed because they could not diagnose and deal with the underlying causes of government dysfunction. The paper presents an analytical perspective on understanding the causes of dysfunctional governance and the incentives and accountability regimes that have the potential to overcome this dysfunction. The paper also documents practices that have shown some promise in improving access. The paper then integrates ideas from successful practices with conceptual underpinnings for good governance and presents a citizen-centric (rights based) governance approach to access. It further explores how such a citizen empowerment and government accountability framework can be implemented in practice...

Protocol for the Evaluation of a Quality-Based Pay for Performance Scheme in Liberia

Bawo, Luke; Leonard, Kenneth L.; Mohammed, Rianna
Fonte: BioMed Central Publicador: BioMed Central
Tipo: Journal Article; Publications & Research :: Journal Article; Publications & Research
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.79%
Improving the quality of care at hospitals is a key next step in rebuilding Liberia’s health system. In order to improve the efficiency, effectiveness, and quality of care at the secondary hospital level, the country is developing a system to upgrade health worker skills and competencies, and shifting towards improved provider accountability for results, including a Graduate Medical Residency Program (GMRP) and provider accountability for improvements in quality through performance-based financing (PBF) at the hospital level. This document outlines the protocol for the impact evaluation of the hospital improvement program. The evaluation will provide an estimate of the impact of the project and investigate the mechanism for success in a way that can provide general lessons about the quality of health care in low-income countries. The evaluation aims 1) to provide the best possible estimate of program impact and 2) to quantitatively describe the changes that took place within facilities as a result of the program. In particular, the impact evaluation focuses on the changes in human resources within the hospitals. As such, we use a three-period intensive evaluation of treated and matched comparison hospitals to see how services change in treated hospitals as well as a continuous data collection effort to track the activities of individual health workers within treated hospitals.