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Contemporary issues in the government and administration of Latin American megacities

Ward,Peter M.
Fonte: Fundação Getulio Vargas, Escola de Administração de Empresas de S.Paulo Publicador: Fundação Getulio Vargas, Escola de Administração de Empresas de S.Paulo
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/09/1996 Português
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This paper is the first to systematically analyze and compare the structures of city governance and administration for seven major cities in Latin America, four of which are megacities (population of over 10 million), and three others are large national capitals. U.S. and U. K. models of city administration are reviewed as baseline models against which differences in Latin American may be explored. Structures of Government in Latin America show several important features and trends: 1) the lack of metropolitan (cross jurisdictional) authority; 2) the existence of strong mayors and weak councils"; 3) high levels of partisanship; 4) overlapping rather than interlocking bureaucracies; 5) pressures towards the privatization of city services, but continuing tension over the desirability of public versus private control; 6) greater fiscal responsibility and autonomy; and 7), a continuing marginalization of public participation in megacity governance.In spite of these features, many cities throughout the region (regardless of whether they are megacity size or national capitals), are actively intensifying their efforts to develop more effective, accountable and democratic governance structures.

Civil Society, Public Action and Accountability in Africa

Walton, Michael; Devarajan, Shantayanan; Khemani, Stuti
Fonte: John F. Kennedy School of Government, Harvard University. Publicador: John F. Kennedy School of Government, Harvard University.
Tipo: Research Paper or Report
Português
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This paper examines the potential role of civil society action in increasing state accountability for development in Sub-Saharan Africa. It further develops the analytical framework of the World Development Report 2004 on accountability relationships, to emphasize the underlying political economy drivers of accountability and implications for how civil society is constituted and functions. It argues on this basis that the most important domain for improving accountability is through the political relations between citizens, civil society, and state leadership. The evidence broadly suggests that when higher-level political leadership provides sufficient or appropriate powers for citizen participation in holding within-state agencies or frontline providers accountable, there is frequently positive impact on outcomes. However, the big question remaining for such types of interventions is how to improve the incentives of higher-level leadership to pursue appropriate policy design and implementation. The paper argues that there is substantial scope for greater efforts in this domain, including through the support of external aid agencies. Such efforts and support should, however, build on existing political and civil society structures (rather than transplanting "best practice” initiatives from elsewhere)...

Participation and Local Government

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Português
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Citizen participation in the decisionmaking and development activities of local government can produce more efficient and effective delivery of services by the public sector. In order to foster participation, some responsibility must be devolved from central to local government. However, the assignment of responsibilities to local governments cannot, by itself, ensure participation. Accountable local governments are key actors in any attempt to create an enabling environment for effective participation in public sector activities.

How Close Is Your Government to Its People? Worldwide Indicators on Localization and Decentralization

Ivanyna, Maksym; Shah, Anwar
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
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This paper is intended to provide an assessment of the impact of the silent revolution of the last three decades on moving governments closer to people to establish fair, accountable, incorruptible and responsive governance. To accomplish this, a unique data set is constructed for 182 countries by compiling data from a wide variety of sources to examine success toward decentralized decision making across the globe. An important feature of this data set is that, for comparative purposes, it measures government decision making at the local level rather than at the sub-national levels used in the existing literature. The data are used to rank countries on political, fiscal and administrative dimensions of decentralization and localization. These sub-indexes are aggregated and adjusted for heterogeneity to develop an overall ranking of countries on the closeness of their government to the people. The resulting rankings provide a useful explanation of the Arab Spring and other recent political movements and waves of dissatisfaction with governance around the world.

Community Driven Development and Accountable Local Governance : Some Lessons from the Philippines

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Português
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This study evaluates the connections between community-driven development (CDD) and decentralized local governance, and the need to identify strategies for operational integration. It aims to deepen the understanding of how the institutional environment for local governance interacts with CDD project operations. It gives special emphasis on the issue of accountability, analyzing how CDD operations perform in terms of strengthening the capacity of citizens and civil society to hold local authorities and public service providers accountable, and the capacity of the local government to be held accountable. The study utilizes a two-pronged approach. First, it assesses the institutional environment for accountability in local governance. Second, it examines the operations of two major World Bank-assisted CDD projects in two municipal case study sites. Given that CDD projects both shape and are shaped by local governance contexts in which they are embedded, the study investigates how CDD operations in the Philippines are affected by and are helping reform local governance conditions. It is from the analysis of this interface between CDD operations and local governance conditions that the study aims to generate policy and operational recommendations to enhance integration between CDD and local governance approaches. The analysis of the institutional environment for accountability in local governance often found an enabling policy and legal framework in principle...

Central-Local Government Relations in Thailand : Improving Service Delivery

World Bank
Fonte: Bangkok Publicador: Bangkok
Português
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Addressing regional disparities in access to public services is an emerging development challenge for Thailand. A well-functioning system of Central-Local Government Relations and proactive expenditure policy can help achieve this goal. Providing responsive and accountable public services are necessary for maintaining trust of the citizens in government and fostering cohesion within a unitary state like Thailand. Without a reversal of current regional disparities in access to public services and addressing tensions that are present in the central-local architecture, Thailand runs the risk of eroding public trust in government and leading to further polarization. Thailand has a significant opportunity to improve delivery of public services by: (i) making access to public services more uniform across the country; (ii) transitioning fully to a unitary decentralized form of government with clearly demarcated roles and accountability structures between different levels of government (especially within health and education sectors) and to administratively consolidate Laos into larger more financially viable entities; and (iii) establishing national service delivery standards...

Managing Records and Information for Transparent, Accountable, and Inclusive Governance in the Digital Environment

Thurston, Anne
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento
Português
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This set of three case studies explores the intersection of openness, digital governance, andhigh quality information in Estonia,1 Finland, and Norway with the aim of identifying lessonsthat will support the same objectives in lower resource countries. Openness, a key aspect ofthe international agenda for increasing transparency and accountability, for reducing public sectorcorruption, and for strengthening economic performance, rests on the principle that citizenshave a right to know what their governments are doing and to benefit from using governmentinformation. Goals for open, accountable, and inclusive governance rest on the assumption thattrustworthy information is available and can be shared meaningfully through strategies for digitalgovernance. This assumption needs to be examined. Does reliable and complete informationexist across lower resource countries? Can it be accessed readily? Will it survive through time?

The senate and parliamentary accountability

Evans, Harry
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Working/Technical Paper Formato: 38026 bytes; 351 bytes; text/html; application/octet-stream
Português
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The framers of the Australian Constitution adopted a set of institutions which they called responsible government. At that time, this meant that the executive government, the cabinet, was responsible to the lower house of the legislature in the sense that the executive could be removed from office by that house if that house considered that the executive no longer merited the house’s confidence. Even at that time there were dissenting voices who warned that responsible government no longer worked as supposed. Since then, we have become familiar with their thesis in an updated form: the executive controls the lower house through a disciplined party majority, and the house no longer removes governments or installs new ones, except in times of great political crisis involving splits in the government party which are now highly unlikely to occur. Responsible government has disappeared, or at least developed into something different. We now no longer speak of responsible government in that sense. Instead, we settle for something less, called accountability. Governments should be accountable to Parliament, that is, obliged to give account of their actions to Parliament and through Parliament to the public. Governments are then responsible to the electorate at election time. The problem with this picture is that the system of government has continued to develop...

Accountability and governance

Mulgan, Richard; Uhr, John
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Working/Technical Paper Formato: 97257 bytes; 350 bytes; text/html; application/octet-stream
Português
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This paper, to appear in revised form in the third volume of the series on governance in Australia editied by Glyn Davis, Michael Keading, John Wanna and Patrick Weller, examines the place of accountability in the emerging framework of Australian national governance. The aim is not to map the institutional configuration of accountability agencies in government but to examine a number of basic tensions surrounding accountability and the role of accountability agencies. Although the term 'accountability' is fundamental to governance discourse, expectations of accountability vary quite markedly with different institutional and community perspectives. This paper attempts to sort through some of the more basic tensions associated with the mixed expectations of accountability by identifying how the one term of 'accountability' is often attached to mechanisms that operate at cross-purposes, to the detriment of national governance. The paper begins with a review of the conventional forms of accountability in Australian national governance and then examines three challenging arenas of accountability. First, the arena of open government associated with the agenda of the so-called new administrative law. This is a model of process-accountability which is frequently criticised as having become (i) too costly given the meagre range of benefits it has generated...

The Howard government & instruments of accountability

Sutcliffe, Ward
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Relatório
Português
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It has long been a truism that Australian democracy is subject to the rule of law and that all governments, be they Labor or Liberal, do not govern with a blank cheque but rather are subject to legislative restraint and Parliamentary oversight. This report seeks to examine the Howard Government's performance against four such key instruments of accountability, which are: 1. Commonwealth Electoral Act 1918; 2. Freedom of Information Act 1982; 3. Questions on Notice; and 4. Senate Order on Departmental and Agency Contracts. Justice Michael Kirby has recently observed: 'Governance and good governance have attracted many definitions. But the notion remains a "contested concept"' 1 • In the modem context it is increasingly apparent that the dimensions and density of government is now considerably vast. So much so that it is increasingly difficult to hold accountable an increasingly expanding collection of government activities and responsibilities. In this environment, the contestability of good governance receives added debate. However, good governance always needs to locate accountability at its core - no matter how distant its periphery is growing. This report concludes that against all the four selected accountability instruments the Howard Government performs at a level inconsistent with good governance. In short...

Argentina's Cartas Compromiso : Strengthening the Role of Civil Society for More Accountable Public Services; Cartas compromiso de Argentina : Fortalecimiento del rol de la sociedad civil

Torres, Magüi Moreno
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Brief; Publications & Research
Português
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This article notes that at the end of 2000, the government of Argentina (specifically the Subsecretar?a de Gesti?n P?blica, or the Sub-secretary of Public Management) initiated a program of state modernization with the support of the World Bank. This operation featured a key component around results based management systems, specifically the creation of a Programa Cartas Compromiso, or Citizen Charter Program (CCP). The CCP seeks a new relationship between public service providers and users by promoting a higher degree of responsiveness and transparency to ensure greater quality of services, increased information and better monitoring and evaluation. The Carta Compromiso is a public management tool where the highest authority of a service-providing agency makes a public commitment to citizens, laying out a number of goals and results to be met within a given timeframe.

Why Quality Matters : Rebuilding Trustworthy Local Government in Post-Conflict Sierra Leone

Sacks, Audrey; Larizza, Marco
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
Português
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A broad consensus has emerged among practitioners and researchers that failure to build accountable and legitimate institutions is a critical risk factor associated with vicious circles of repeated violence. Despite this consensus, very few studies have tested the extent to which local government performance and decentralized service provision shape citizens' beliefs toward political authorities. This paper contributes to fill this gap by examining the antecedents of trustworthy local government authorities in a post-conflict and fragile setting, Sierra Leone. Taking advantage of a unique longitudinal survey, the National Public Services, it examines the impact of sub-national variation in local government performance on citizens' beliefs about the trustworthiness of local government authorities. To test the hypothesis, it uses multilevel models to exploit variation over time and within and across sub-national units in Sierra Leone. The results suggest that improvements in the quality of decentralized service delivery...

Developing Independent Media as An Institution of Accountable Governance : A How-To Guide

Kalathil, Shanthi
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
Português
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The World Bank's Communication for Governance and Accountability Program (CommGAP) has spent several years exploring the linkages between the media and governance reform. The first stage of this process produced public sentinel: news media and governance reform, an edited volume that explored key issues surrounding the role of the media in democratic governance and the policy interventions that might enable this role. This how-to guide represents the second stage of that process: turning theoretical and policy conclusions into a practical guide for those seeking to enhance good governance by empowering the media. An early needs assessment revealed limited understanding of media development and the role it can play in foster accountable governance. This toolkit accordingly provides the why, how, when, and what of supporting the development of independent, pluralistic and sustainable media.

Maldives : Public Sector Accounting and Auditing, A Comparison to International Standards

World Bank
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work; Economic & Sector Work :: Accounting and Auditing Assessment (ROSC)
Português
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This assessment of public sector accounting and auditing standards is generally meant to assist with the implementation of more effective public financial management (PFM) through better quality accounting and public audit processes in Maldives. It is intended to provide greater stimulus for more cost-effective outcomes of government spending. The specific objectives are (a) to provide the country's accounting and audit authorities and other interested stakeholders with a common well-based knowledge as to where local practices stand in comparison with internationally developed standards of financial reporting and audit; (b) to assess the causes of the prevailing variances; (c) to chart paths to reduce the variances; and (d) to provide a continuing basis for measuring improvements. Annex A explains the methodology used for the study. Annex B provides a summary of international accounting and auditing standards referred to in this study. Annex C and D provide country accounting and auditing legislation, respectively. Lastly...

Philippines’ Government Sponsored Health Coverage Program for Poor Households

Chakraborty, Sarbani
Fonte: World Bank, Washington DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Working Paper; Publications & Research
Português
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36.3%
This is a nuts and bolts case study of the implementation of the government-financed health coverage program (HCP) for poor households in the Philippines. The data and information in this case study largely draws upon the 2011 World Bank Report 'Transforming the Philippine health sector: challenges and Future Directions' (Chakraborty et al. 2011), and technical work undertaken for World Bank support to the Government of the Philippines (GOP) for universal health coverage (UHC) in the Philippines.2 The aim of the case study is to understand how the HCP was implemented, what worked and did not work, and how it impacted expected results under the HCP. In 1996, similarly to many low- and middle-income countries, the Philippines introduced a demand-side program for poor households (the Sponsored Program). The objective was to improve access of poor households to needed health services without experiencing a financial burden. Unlike many countries, where such programs are stand alone, in the case of the Philippines it was integrated into the National Health Insurance Program (NHIP). This is a sound design feature from the perspective of providing optimal risk pooling and redistribution, and the Philippines is a model for other countries implementing similar schemes for poor households. The national government has included financing for poor households in the medium-term national expenditure program...

Demanding to be Served : Holding Governments to Account for Improved Access

Shah, Anwar
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
Português
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This paper presents an overview of the constitutional-legal provisions on access to services in developing countries and shows that rights to public services are not justice-able. It further documents the performance record to show that governments' response to such a weak accountability framework has been predictable - poor performance in service delivery with little accountability. The paper also shows that while there has not been a shortage of ideas on how to deal with this problem, most approaches have failed because they could not diagnose and deal with the underlying causes of government dysfunction. The paper presents an analytical perspective on understanding the causes of dysfunctional governance and the incentives and accountability regimes that have the potential to overcome this dysfunction. The paper also documents practices that have shown some promise in improving access. The paper then integrates ideas from successful practices with conceptual underpinnings for good governance and presents a citizen-centric (rights based) governance approach to access. It further explores how such a citizen empowerment and government accountability framework can be implemented in practice...

Decentralization in the Philippines : Stgrengthening Local Government Financing and Resource Management in the Short Term

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Other Public Sector Study; Economic & Sector Work
Português
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36.37%
This report reviews two facets of decentralization currently engaging policy-makers: 1) the sources of financing under decentralization, and, 2) cross-cutting processes to strengthen the accountability of resource use. It does not assess whether decentralization is justified in the Philippines - it approaches the arrangements as they exist, and explicitly focuses on actions that could be feasibly completed within six to nine months. Administrative actions in two key areas could improve local government performance in the short term: a) enhancing LGU - Local Government Unit - ability and capacity to access resources, and, (b) strengthening key resource management processes in the first instance, those relating to planning, budgeting, procurement and financial management. The report's recommendations stem from five main issues: raising LGU access to credit by private financial institutions (PFIs) requires removing bottlenecks to PFI participation in LGU lending, and rationalizing LGU grant policies; local government own-source revenues could be significantly increased through LGU measures to increase collection of real property tax and business tax...

Decentralization and popular democracy: governance from below in Bolivia

Faguet, Jean-Paul
Fonte: University of Michigan Press Publicador: University of Michigan Press
Tipo: Book; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 28/03/2012 Português
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Decentralization is meant to deepen democracy, improve public services, and make government more accountable. But evidence from across the globe is contradictory. Is it all empty fashion? A giant mistake? Jean-Paul Faguet uses the remarkable case of Bolivia to investigate reform over a generation. Public investment shifted dramatically towards primary services and resource distribution became far more equitable. Change was driven by Bolivia’s smaller, poorer municipalities prioritizing their needs. Many municipalities responded to decentralization with transparent, accountable government, but others suffered ineptitude, corruption or both. Why? Faguet combines broad econometric data with deep qualitative evidence to plumb the social underpinnings of governance. He shows how civic groups and firms interact to determine the quality of local decision-making. To understand decentralization, Faguet argues, we must understand governance from the ground up. He concludes with a discussion of the potential benefits of decentralization and recommendations for structuring successful reform.

On public values and information technology in government: a critical discourse analysis of trade regulations in Mexico

Bonina, Carla
Fonte: London School of Economics and Political Science Thesis Publicador: London School of Economics and Political Science Thesis
Tipo: Thesis; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em /12/2012 Português
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The use of the internet and related information and communication technologies (ICT) in public administration (known as 'e-government') has gained notable space within the processes of public sector reform. Arguably, ICT provide an attractive strategy to reorganize internal government tasks, routines and processes and to make them more efficient, responsive as well as accountable to citizens. Yet, the linkages between public values and e-government programmes remain understudies or taken for granted. My research focuses on this particular aspect of public sector reforms and organising. It engages with the debates towards modernisation of central government services while contributing to discussion of the relation between technologically induced programmes and public values over time. Using critical discourse analysis, I trace the discourses on public values and technology within a longitudinal case of a technology-enabled platform to facilitate foreign trade regulations in Mexico - the Mexican Single Window for Foreign Trade. In my empirical analysis, I examine a combination of key government texts and extensive data from fieldwork to address two related questions: what public values are presented, enacted or marginalised during the trajectory of the case...

The role of local government in evictions

van Wyk,J
Fonte: PER: Potchefstroomse Elektroniese Regsblad Publicador: PER: Potchefstroomse Elektroniese Regsblad
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/06/2011 Português
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Local government occupies a unique place in the South African system of government. This is circumscribed by the Constitution which contains directives. enjoining municipalities inter alia to provide democratic and accountable government for local communities and to promote social and economic development (section 152) as well as to undertake developmentally-oriented planning (section 153). In addition local government has a specific role to play regarding access to adequate housing and, in that context, evictions. In terms of sections 25 and 26 of the Constitution as well as legislation enacted in terms of these provisions new and different procedures have been put in place to demarcate the role of municipalities in evictions. The interpretation, by the courts, of these legislative provisions, has created a framework within which municipalities must react to and deal with evictions. In terms of that framework a number of duties and responsibilities are placed on municipalities, which include that they do the following: have policies, actions and programmes in place, draw up proper housing plans, be notified of evictions, mediate and engage with all stakeholders and provide temporary and suitable alternative - accommodation of a specific standard...