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Aplicação de leis de potência para tratamento e classificação de tamanho de empresas: uma proposta metodológica para pesquisas contábeis; Application of the power laws for treatment and classification of companies: a methodological proposal for accounting researches

Silva, Marli Auxiliadôra da
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 28/03/2008 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.6%
Em contabilidade, tamanho de empresa é comumente utilizado como proxy para caracterizar inúmeros conceitos teóricos. Muito se tem discutido sobre a validade e confiabilidade desta proxy devido a alta variância das medidas operacionais usadas para a mensuração de tamanho de empresa. Com o intuito de reduzir esta variância alguns procedimentos estatísticos são aplicados para ajustar os valores. Pesquisas internacionais evidenciam que a distribuição de probabilidade da variável tamanho de empresa segue uma lei de potência. Diante desse cenário esta pesquisa teve como objetivo investigar se é possível tratar e classificar as medidas operacionais para proxy de tamanho de empresas brasileiras, por meio de Leis de Potência. Foram utilizados dados do período de 1997 a 2006, relativos às medidas operacionais Receitas (REC), Ativo Total (AT), Patrimônio Líquido (PL) e de 1996 a 2004 para a medida Número de Empregados (NE), de bases diferentes, FIPECAFI, Economática® e IBGE. Observou-se a ocorrência da lei de potência, -m > P(v ) = c v , em toda a extensão da variável v = REC , com expoente m próximo de 1, como verificado em todas as pesquisas internacionais, enquanto que para as demais variáveis foi confirmada a lei de potência...

Gestão e mensuração de custos: semelhanças e divergências entre a microeconomia e a contabilidade gerencial; Cost management and cost measurement: similarities and divergencies between microeconomics and management accounting

Panarella, Paulo Jorge Miranda
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 13/09/2010 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.59%
Este trabalho teve como objetivo identificar e inventariar as similaridades e as discrepâncias entre a Microeconomia e a Contabilidade Gerencial em relação à gestão e à mensuração de custos de entidades individuais. Estudos anteriores dessa natureza se limitaram à Teoria Neoclássica da Firma comparativamente à Contabilidade Societária. Este estudo modifica este padrão de comparação. Para suprir lacunas da Teoria Neoclássica da Firma, outros três referenciais teóricos da Microeconomia foram adicionados: a Organização Industrial (em relação à Gestão Estratégica de Custos), a Economia dos Custos de Transação (em relação ao Custeio Baseado em Atividades) e a Teoria Behaviorista (contraponto da Teoria Neoclássica para diferenciar entre métodos de custeio). A Contabilidade Gerencial é a referência para conceituar custos contábeis bem como servir de base para as comparações restantes. A metodologia empregada foi a da pesquisa bibliográfica, seguida de um processo de reflexão crítica, e se baseou nas literaturas da Economia e da Contabilidade Gerencial. Como resultado ficou demonstrado que, no plano teórico, a Contabilidade Gerencial é consistente com as teorias econômicas, o que explica as semelhanças...

Impacto da adesão às práticas recomendadas de governança corporativa no índice de qualidade da informação contábil; Impact of the adhenrence to recommended corporate governance practices on the index of accounting information quality

Gabriel, Fabiano
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 07/12/2011 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.49%
Esta pesquisa tem como objetivo avaliar o impacto da adesão às práticas recomendadas de governança corporativa sobre a qualidade da informação contábil, mensurada por meio de um índice original adaptado à realidade brasileira. Como aproximação para a qualidade da informação contábil, construiu-se o Índice de Qualidade da Informação Contábil (IQIC) para 200 companhias abertas analisadas no período de 2006 a 2009. O IQIC foi validado internamente pelo alfa de Cronbach e, externamente, por oito pesquisadores que participaram da aplicação da técnica Delphi. Para o estudo empírico, elaborou-se um modelo linear de regressão, cujos parâmetros foram estimados pelo método GMM Sistêmico, o qual permite controlar adequadamente o problema da simultaneidade entre as variáveis de governança corporativa e de qualidade da informação contábil. O modelo considerou a qualidade da informação contábil como função do nível de governança corporativa e de um conjunto de variáveis de controle, tais como: tamanho, endividamento, oportunidade de crescimento, rentabilidade, tangibilidade dos ativos e direito de controle dos três maiores acionistas. Também foram incluídas variáveis dummies setoriais e uma dummy de tempo a fim de capturar os efeitos das mudanças contábeis promovidas pela Lei 11.638/07. Os resultados confirmaram a hipótese da pesquisa de que quanto maior o nível de governança corporativa da firma...

Incentivos no nível da firma e consequências econômicas da convergência ao IFRS no Brasil; Firm-level incentives and economic consequences of IFRS convergence in Brazil

Lima, Vinícius Simmer de
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 03/11/2011 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.72%
Esta dissertação investiga o papel dos incentivos individuais das companhias no compromisso com o atendimento das práticas de convergência ao IFRS, e o impacto da adoção destas práticas no custo de capital e liquidez de mercado no Brasil, um país emergente caracterizado por distinto ambiente institucional e elevadas oportunidades de crescimento. Este trabalho estende o estudo de Daske et al. (2008) ao considerar a observação de Ball (2006), de que a adoção de um padrão contábil superior não necessariamente se traduz em melhor qualidade de divulgação, uma vez que a qualidade dos relatórios contábeis pode ser fortemente moldada não pelas normas contábeis somente, mas também pelos incentivos e pela intensidade das forças políticas/econômicas presentes. Utilizando uma amostra de 148 companhias listadas na Bolsa Valores de São Paulo, o estudo emprega duas medidas para a caracterização da convergência baseadas no (i) Índice de Atendimento às Práticas de Convergência Internacional (IAPC) e na (ii) variação do volume de informação divulgada nos demonstrativos financeiros completos. Estimativas do custo de capital próprio são obtidas a partir de quatro modelos sugeridos pela literatura - Claus e Thomas (2001)...

Afghanistan : Report on Observance of Standards and Codes - Accounting and Auditing

World Bank
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.31%
This report is based on a review of the strengths and weaknesses of corporate accounting and auditing practices in Afghanistan. It forms part of a joint initiative between the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund (IMF) on Reports on the Observance of Standards and Codes (ROSC), which covers a set of twelve internationally recognized core standards and codes relevant to economic stability and private and financial sector development. The review involved the assessment of actual practices and an analysis of the effectiveness of monitoring and enforcement mechanisms, in the area of corporate accounting and auditing in Afghanistan. International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) and International Standards on Auditing (ISA) served as benchmarks for evaluating comparability of locally applicable accounting and auditing requirements. The review used a diagnostic template developed by the World Bank to facilitate collection of information. The information was complemented by the findings of a due diligence exercise...

Kingdom of Thailand : Accounting and Auditing

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.35%
Thailand has made great efforts over the past ten years to improve the quality of corporate financial reporting. Considerable progress has been made on various fronts to strengthen the institutional framework of accounting and auditing, and to move towards converging Thai national accounting and auditing standards with international benchmarks. This report focuses on areas where stakeholders in the accounting profession in Thailand could consider making changes to strengthen the profession and increase consistency with global benchmarks. The Federation of Accounting Professions (FAP) is the self-regulatory professional body, which is a member of the International Federation of Accountants. The FAP is also the standard-setter, perhaps overly stretched with many responsibilities covered by the volunteer efforts of its members. The FAP develops and reviews accounting standards, as well as audit and ethics standards in line with international good practices. Thailand has in place legislation governing the creation and responsibilities of entities engaged in commercial activities: the accounting act...

Mongolia : Accounting and Auditing

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.35%
This report provides an assessment of corporate sector accounting, financial reporting, and auditing requirements and practices within the enterprise and financial sectors in Mongolia. For purposes of this report, the corporate sector includes all private sector and state-owned enterprises. The report uses International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) and International Standards on Auditing (ISA) as benchmarks and draws on international experience and good practices in the field of accounting and audit regulation to evaluate institutional capacity and make policy recommendations. Since 1993, the World Bank and other development partners of Mongolia have provided financial and technical support to help Mongolia develop a legal framework, facilitate accounting education and adoption of IFRS and ISA by enterprises, constitute a new professional body, establish the examination of certified public accountants, and strengthen accounting and auditing in both public and private sectors. As a result, Mongolia has made significant changes from the old accounting for planned economic system to a new market-oriented accounting system that follows international good practices. All key economic sectors in Mongolia rely on high-quality financial information...

Republic of Botswana : Accounting and Auditing

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.33%
This accounting and auditing report, part of the Observance of Standards and Codes (ROSC) for the Republic of Botswana, provides an assessment of accounting and auditing practices within the corporate sector in Botswana with reference to the International Financial Reporting Standards issued by the International Accounting Standards Board, and International Standards on Auditing issued by the International Federation of Accountants. Botswana has made considerable efforts in aligning its accounting and auditing practices with internationally accepted standards and codes. Corporate accounting and disclosure practices have considerably improved over the last 5 years. Monitoring and enforcement of financial reporting requirements in the banking sector have contributed to improved transparency of the financial sector. Even with progress, there is room for further improvements. The report highlights areas that need attention for strengthening the infrastructure of accounting and auditing practices in Botswana. The report concludes with recommendations to integrate with regional and sub-regional initiatives, wherever applicable, to share resources in order to strengthen accounting and auditing practices in Botswana.

Republic of Liberia : Accounting and Auditing

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.32%
This report provides an assessment of the corporate sector accounting, financial reporting, and auditing practices in Liberia. The assessment undertaken is positioned within the broader context of the country s institutional framework and capacity needed to enhance the quality of corporate financial reporting that is a key contributor to improving investor confidence and ultimately economic growth. Efforts are necessary for strengthening the capacity of the regulators and developing accounting and auditing standards in Liberia.

Indonesia : Accounting and Auditing

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.35%
This report is part of a joint initiative of the World Bank and IMF to prepare Reports on the Observance of Standards and Codes (ROSC). The ROSC Accounting and Auditing review for Indonesia mainly focuses on the strengths and weaknesses of the accounting and auditing environment that influences the quality of corporate financial reporting. It involves both a review of mandatory requirements and actual practices. The reference points of international standards used in this report are International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) International Standards on Auditing (ISA) and international experience and good practice in the field of accounting and auditing regulation. The methodology used to conduct the analytical work for preparing this report includes application of the ROSC Accounting and Auditing diagnostic review. Developed by the World Bank, the diagnostic template was complemented by a comprehensive due diligence exercise. The World Bank ROSC team met with key stakeholders involved in accounting and auditing and corporate reporting in Indonesia. Also...

Ghana : Accounting and Auditing

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.34%
This report provides an assessment of accounting and auditing practices within the context of the Ghana institutional framework to ensure the quality of corporate financial reporting. The accounting and auditing practices in Ghana suffer from institutional weaknesses in regulation, compliance, and enforcement of standards and rules. Various weaknesses were identified in the laws and regulations governing financial reporting. Although Ghana Accounting and Auditing Standards have been based on International Accounting Standards and International Standards on Auditing, respectively, they are outdated and gaps exist in comparison with the international equivalents. Furthermore, national ethical requirements for auditors are not in line with international requirements. Full compliance with Ghana National Accounting Standards is not readily achieved; some listed companies inappropriately claim compliance with International Accounting Standards. There is inadequate adherence to auditing standards and professional ethics. Apart from the banking sector practice...

South Africa : Report on the Observance of Standards and Codes--Accounting and Auditing

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.3%
The main purpose of the South Africa Report on the Observance of Standards and Codes, Accounting and Auditing (ROSC A&A) is to determine reforms that will continue to improve the quality of financial reporting in South Africa. The review, requested by the Minister of Finance, was conducted to assess the status of implementation of policy recommendations in the prior 2003 ROSC A&A report, assess the institutional framework underpinning accounting and auditing practices in comparison with international standards and good practices in order to identify any emerging issues that require strengthening, share good practices adopted in the country, and propose policy recommendations addressing areas that require improvements. Implementation of the policy recommendations will further enhance the quality of financial reporting in the country, a key pillar that contributes to enhancing the business environment and advancement of governance and financial accountability in both the private and public sector entities. The review focuses on private sector. Financial reporting in public sector is assessed under public expenditure and financial accountability framework.

Dynamic risk, accounting-based valuation and firm fundamentals

Lyle, M.; Callen, J.; Elliott, R.
Fonte: Springer New York LLC Publicador: Springer New York LLC
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2013 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.51%
This study extends the accounting-based valuation framework of Ohlson (Contemp Acc Res 11(2):661–687, 1995) and Feltham and Ohlson (Acc Rev 74(2):165–183, 1999) to incorporate dynamic expectations about the level of systematic risk in the economy. Our model explains recent empirical findings documenting a strong negative association between changes in economy-wide risk and future stock returns. Importantly, the model also generates costs of capital that are solely a linear function of accounting variables and other firm fundamentals, including the book-to-market ratio, the earnings-to-price ratio, the forward earnings-to-price ratio, size and the dividend yield. This result provides a theoretical rationale for the inclusion of these popular variables in cost of capital (expected return) computations by the accounting and finance literatures and obviates the need to estimate costs of capital from unobservable (future) covariances. The model also generates an accounting return decomposition in the spirit of Vuolteenaho (J Finance 57(1):233–264, 2002). Empirically, we find that costs of capital generated by our model are significantly associated with future returns both in and out of sample in contrast to standard benchmark models. We further obtain significantly lower valuation errors in out-of-sample tests than traditional models that ignore dynamic risk expectations.; Matthew R. Lyle...

Modelling: From thermal comfort to firm value

Abreu, Rute; PRADO-LORENZO, José; MARTIN-JIMENEZ, Doroteo
Fonte: Escola Superior de Técnologia e Gestão da Guarda Publicador: Escola Superior de Técnologia e Gestão da Guarda
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.52%
Purpose: investigate the firm value and present a model based in an ISO standard that is precisely and unequivocally defined and knowing that each standard is established to assist the industry and researchers by offering a uniform method of testing. Design/methodology/approach: The literature review allows to modelling firm value based on the thermal comfort theory and using a methodology of experimental analysis with accounting and market-oriented information from Euronext Lisbon firms. Findings: The model is expressed as function of the firm value and the investors' behaviour. It uses an algorithm that details the mathematical functions of economic effects, such as: operational, investment, financing, dividend, taxation and market policy that may affect firm value. Practical implications: the potential impact of the model shows the aggregation of natural sciences represented by physics and social sciences represented by accounting and the relation between them and, also, to promote the awareness of complexities involved in firm value.

Could firm value be explained by thermal comfort? Evidence from Listed Companies in Portugal

Abreu, Rute; PRADO-LORENZO, José; MARTIN-JIMENEZ, Doroteo
Fonte: Escola Superior de Técnologia e Gestão da Guarda Publicador: Escola Superior de Técnologia e Gestão da Guarda
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.55%
This research proposes a previously unexplored model to the valuation of a corporation using financial reporting and accounting numbers. In our view, this model promotes dissemination and exchange of ideas about the new perspectives of the value analysis and it claims that traditional valuation models does recognised the investors behaviour in satisfactory approach at the same time of the corporate value. This research has been validating on a panel data of listed firms on the Euronext Lisbon as the Portuguese stock market. The population identifies 291 firms with officially quoted shares in the stock market, but after a process of depuration, the sample is 1.079 observations related with 114 firms, from December 31, 1991 until December 31,2001. Further, by being able to identify corporate value, our model provides opportunities to gain a better understanding of the link between quality of the information produced and corporate strategies. Also, the quality of the economic decisions can also be inferred from publicly available data, our model generates new opportunities for empirical research. The first answer to the question of this research argues that econophysics literature examine the robustness of the relation between accounting (valuation) and physics (thermal comfort). In this perspective...

El Salvador : Accounting and Auditing; El Salvador - Informe sobre el cumplimiento de normas y codigos (ROSC) : contabilidad y auditoria

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Accounting and Auditing Assessment (ROSC); Economic & Sector Work
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.35%
This report provides an assessment of accounting and auditing practices within El Salvador's corporate sector. It used International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) and International Standards on Auditing (ISA) as benchmarks, and drew on international experience and good practices in those fields. Both statutory requirements and actual practices were analyzed as part of this review. The purpose of this ROSC is to assist the Government of El Salvador in strengthening the private sector's accounting and auditing practices and financial transparency. The development objectives these efforts address are (a) fostering the growth and accountability of the private sector, (b) ensuring adequate market regulation with respect to the provision of essential services, and (c) making the business environment more attractive for foreign direct investment (FDI). The recommendations of this ROSC are intended to serve as the basis for a country action plan to be developed by the Government of El Salvador in collaboration with in-country stakeholders and with the assistance of the World Bank and other donors.

Sierra Leone : Accounting and Auditing

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Accounting and Auditing Assessment (ROSC); Economic & Sector Work
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.33%
This report provides an assessment of accounting and auditing practices in Sierra Leone with reference to the International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) requirements issued by the International Accounting Standards Board, and International Standards on Auditing (ISA) issued by the International Federation of Accountants. This assessment is positioned within the broader context of the country's institutional framework and capacity needed to ensure the quality of corporate financial reporting. Efforts are necessary for strengthening the capacity of the regulators and ensuring compliance with applicable standards and codes. The accounting and auditing practices in Sierra Leone need to develop in line with a growing economy, as well as with international best practice. With the exception of banks and similar financial institutions, there is no legal mandate for other corporate entities to follow IFRS in preparation of financial statements and ISA in conducting audits. There are varying compliance gaps in both accounting and auditing practices. These gaps are likely to stem from lack of clearer understanding of professional accountants, inadequate technical capacities of the regulators, absence of implementation guidance, lack of independent oversight of the auditing profession...

Suriname : Report on the Observance of Standards and Codes - Accounting and Auditing

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Accounting and Auditing Assessment (ROSC); Economic & Sector Work
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.33%
This report provides an assessment of the corporate sector accounting, financial reporting, and auditing practices in Suriname, with the aim of assisting the Government of Suriname's efforts to strengthen private sector accounting and auditing practices and enhance financial transparency in the corporate sector, so as to support the Government's objective of private sector-led growth and deepened integration with the international economy. This ROSC A&A aims to support the government's objectives of improving the investment climate and fostering private sector growth, in particular through: (a) designing a solid legal and regulatory framework governing the accounting and audit profession in Suriname, (b) improving the technical skills of accounting and audit practitioners, and (c) enhancing the institutional capacity of the country's accounting professional body and educational institutions. The ROSC A&A focuses on the institutional framework regulating accounting and auditing practices, and the comparability of national accounting and auditing practices with international standards and best practice...

Moldova : Accounting and Auditing

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Accounting and Auditing Assessment (ROSC); Economic & Sector Work
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.33%
Financial reporting and auditing practices in Moldova's corporate sector are currently in a period of transition from providing for tax calculation and statistical needs to convergence with International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) and International Standards on Auditing (ISA). This report draws upon recent international experience in developed economies and EU accession countries as well as expected amendments to EU Directives. The review found that, except in the banking sector, the current level of compliance with financial reporting obligations is inadequate, and that the quality of the financial reporting is low. In that context, the report recommends the following actions: (i) the capacity of regulatory agencies for enforcing accounting standards and financial reporting requirements to all entities of public interest - including large state-owned enterprises - should be increased; (ii) a public registry should be set-up for all public-interest companies to file their financial statements; and (iii) an independent oversight board of auditors should be established under the soon-to-be-issued new Audit Law...

Cambodia : Accounting and Auditing

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Accounting and Auditing Assessment (ROSC); Economic & Sector Work
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.34%
This report provides an assessment of accounting and auditing practices within the corporate sector in Cambodia with reference to the International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) issued by the International Accounting Standards Board (IASB), and the International Standards on Auditing (ISA) issued by the International Federation of Accountants (IFAC). This assessment is positioned within the broader context of the Cambodia's institutional framework and capacity needed to ensure the quality of corporate financial reporting Cambodia is putting in place an institutional framework with regard to accounting, auditing, and financial reporting practices. However, institutional weaknesses in regulation, compliance, and enforcement of standards and rules still exist. The accounting and auditing statutory framework suffers from inconsistencies among different laws. Although the national accounting standards and auditing standards are based on IFRS, and ISA, respectively, they appear outmoded and have gaps in comparison with the international equivalents. There are varying compliance gaps in both accounting and auditing practices. These gaps could primarily stem from lack of clearer understanding by professional accountants...