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Can Malaysia Escape the Middle-Income Trap? A Strategy for Penang

Yusuf, Shahid; Nabeshima, Kaoru
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
16.06%
How can Penang upgrade and diversify its economy? This paper addresses this question using a number of methodologies that have been developed for assessing competitiveness and identifying the direction of future industrial evolution. The results show that although Penang was successful in attracting foreign direct investment to the electronics industry, this has not translated into a deepening of industrial capabilities or the nurturing of innovation capacity in Penang. No large Malaysian firms in Penang have taken the lead in innovation and there is little new entry by local firms, despite incentives provided by local and national governments are generous. Universiti Sains Malaysia, the principal university in Penang, is contributing through provision of skills, and it is beginning to multiply university industry linkages. However, the university s research activities are too limited and too diffuse to significantly initiate innovation by local industry. Under the current circumstances, and given its relatively small size...

Capacity Building in Economics Education and Research

Bourguignon, François; Elkana, Yehuda; Pleskovic, Boris
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
16.06%
This paper is a contribution to our understanding of building local capacity in economics education and research in developing and transition countries. The contributors and discussants in this publication provide many insights on these issues. In particular, they offer a deep reflection on the need for capacity building in economics education and research in each region. For the last 15 years, The World Bank, its partners, and government have supported the "centers of excellence" for building capacity in modern economics education and research in developing and transition countries. To strengthen these efforts, the Central European University (CEU) and the World Bank jointly organized a conference entitled "Scaling Up Capacity Building in Economics Education and Research: Lessons Learned and Future Directions," which took place at the CEU campus in Budapest, Hungary, on June 14-15, 2005. The material from this conference is covered in this publication.

Universities as Drivers of the Urban Economies in Asia : The Case of Vietnam

Ca, Tran Ngoc
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
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16.06%
This study looks at the contribution of the university system in Vietnam to the socioeconomic development in general, and their relationship with firms, dynamic actors of the economy in particular. The study uses different methods of research, from reliance on secondary data to interviews with universities and survey of firms. Several case studies of the key universities in four regions have been undertaken: Hanoi in the north, Danang in the center, and Ho Chi Minh City and Cantho in the south of Vietnam. The findings show that the role of Vietnamese universities in research is much weaker than teaching, and that their contribution to the socioeconomic development of the country is limited to the production of an educated labor force rather than innovation. However, in selected universities, innovation did take place to a certain extent and brought benefits for both the universities and firms they served. This situation is explained by both the inherited university system in Vietnam and its shift in behavior in the context of economic renovation and globalization.

University-Local Industry Linkages: The Case of Tohoku University in the Sendai-Area of Japan

Jiang, Juan; Harayama, Yuko; Abe, Shiro
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
16.31%
This paper focuses on Tohoku University in Sendai in the nonmetropolitan area of Japan. Both a long historical and comparative perspective and a spacial perspective are essential to discuss the relevance of university-local industry linkages to local regional economic development. The conjunction of these linkages and economic development has been affected by two evolutionary processes: institutional configurations and territorial dynamics in the national innovation system. In addition, university-local industry linkages have been complicated by top-down regionalization and bottom-up regionalism.

Survey of ICT and Education in Africa : Egypt Country Report

Hamdy, Amr
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
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16.06%
This short country report, a result of larger Information for Development Program (infoDev)-supported survey of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) in education in Africa, provides a general overview of current activities and issues related to ICT use in education in the country. Egypt faces significant challenges in harnessing its education system to promote its development plans. The government has articulated a vision of an information society in which widespread access to technology can nurture human capital, improve government services, promote Egyptian culture, and support economic growth, and the ICT sector has been targeted as a vehicle for this growth and social development. A national ICT policy has been adopted and is managed by the Ministry of Communication and Information Technology, of which education is one priority. The Egyptian education initiative, launched by the first lady, is a prominent result.

Funding Higher Education in Uganda in an Era of Growth

Nannyonjo, Harriet; Najjumba Mulindwa, Innocent; Usher, Alex
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
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16.06%
This note presents a review of the system of funding higher education in Uganda and provides government and stakeholders with some options for meeting the twin goals of increasing participation and quality in higher education, especially in science-related disciplines. Part I provides an overview of the current situation of Ugandan higher education. It begins with a brief review of the country s recent social and political history and continues on to describe the historical development and current situation of the country s higher education system. The final section provides an overview of the current state of debate about the way forward in improving financing of higher education in Uganda. In part II, possible solutions are outlined. The Government of Uganda has two broad policy goals for higher education. The first is to increase the number of graduates, especially in the areas of science and technology. The second is to expand access to universities to a broader selection of the Ugandan population, allowing those of lower socio-economic status to benefit as much as possible from higher education. Policies to achieve both of these goals are presented in Part II.

Tertiary Education in Poland

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Português
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16.06%
The polish tertiary education report was undertaken by the World Bank and the European Investment Bank in consultation with the Ministry of National Education and Sports of Poland (MoNES). The modernization of higher education and other tertiary education services has become an increasing focus of public concern in Poland. A major purpose of the report is to discuss important issues in Polish tertiary education and to focus on policies to improve the quality and accessibility of educational services. Section one of this report summarizes the key trends in the development of tertiary education in Poland since the beginning of the 1990s, including the evolving legal framework and the principal outcomes of a decade of reform. Section two focuses on the major outstanding issues today with respect to the financing of tertiary education, quality assurance, linkages to science and research, and the business community together with the need for Poland to build capacity for, and implement, a comprehensive lifelong learning system. Section three presents some promising policy options and suggests specific reform measures for consideration by policy makers in Poland.

State Higher Education Councils in India : Opportunities and Challenges

World Bank Group
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
16.06%
One of the pre-requisites of the Rashtriya Uchchatar Shiksha Abhiyan (RUSA) scheme requires that states form a State Higher Education Council (SHEC). This represents a fundamental change in Indian higher education policy, especially in recognition of the role of the states as the unit of planning, and the intent that multiple funding streams to states (Central and State) be aligned with the SHEC planning. However, beyond the RUSA requirements, the scale and complexity of the Indian higher education system require that the states play a more active role in planning and coordinating the system. To carry out this more active role, states must have effective SHEC.

1992 Calendar - Volume 2 - Part B

Fonte: University of Adelaide Publicador: University of Adelaide
Publicado em //1991 Português
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16.06%
Part B contains regulations, schedules and syllabuses for 1992 undergraduate and postgraduate courses in the Faculties of Agricultural and Natural Resource Sciences, Architecture and Planning, Dentistry, Engineering, Mathematical and Computer Sciences, Medicine and Science.; 726pp. Includes a Subject Index.

1991 Calendar - Volume 2 - Part B

Fonte: University of Adelaide Publicador: University of Adelaide
Publicado em //1990 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
16.06%
Part B contains regulations, schedules and syllabuses for 1991 undergraduate and postgraduate courses in the Faculties of Agricultural and Natural Resource Sciences, Architecture and Planning, Dentistry, Engineering, Mathematical and Computer Sciences, Medicine and Science.; 736pp. Includes a Subject Index.

Governance for Quality in Higher Education in Odisha, India

World Bank Group
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Report; Economic & Sector Work; Economic & Sector Work :: Other Education Study
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
16.31%
The rise of the global economy, where social and economic development are driven by knowledge coupled with the information and technology revolution, signifies that tertiary education everywhere cannot continue with business as usual. The hope is that by creating, applying and disseminating new ideas and technologies to greater numbers, higher education systems will graduate a skilled, flexible and productive work force. The scope of the study includes primarily the governance and management system across the Higher Education (HE) sector in Odisha; the current Quality Assurance System (QAS) including affiliation and accreditation and the inter-relationship between QAS and HE governance system; issues associated with autonomy in Higher Education Institutions (HEIs) in Odisha; the existing policy and legal environment in view of systemic transformation of governance for excellence; and international experience of good practices of governance and management system focusing on quality assurance. This paper aims: to describe and analyze the state of governance in Odisha higher education with special focus on the role of the higher education department of the GoO...

Overview of the Research and Innovation Sector in the Western Balkans

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Working Paper; Publications & Research
Português
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16.06%
This overview of the research sector in the Western Balkans is a companion piece to the Western Balkans regional research and development (R and D) strategy for innovation. The strategy aims to strengthen the region's research capacity, enhance intraregional cooperation, promote collaboration with business sectors, explore possibilities for financing R and D from European Union (EU) funding schemes and other external sources, and help integrate the region into the European research area (ERA) and innovation union. This overview provides the background and analysis that informed the development of the strategy. The background work includes four studies on the different components of the research sector, a policy questionnaire, and seven country studies reviewing key policies, institutions, and performance of the national research sectors. This overview outlines the performance of the research and innovation sector, and describes the major drivers of this performance. It starts by presenting a framework of the different components of research and innovation in the Western Balkans. This leads into section two discussing the performance of the research sector...

Reviving Sri Lanka's Agricultural Research and Extension System : Towards More Innovation and Market Orientation

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Other Rural Study; Economic & Sector Work
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.77%
This review's objectives were to examine the structure and performance of the agricultural research and extension systems (public and private) at the central and provincial levels, identify successes as well as constraints to improving the system s effectiveness for fostering innovation, and propose options for further policy and institutional development, drawing on lessons from international experience. The review focused principally on nonplantation crops, although its main recommendations apply across the agricultural sector. This synthesis report summarizes the main findings of the review and builds upon them by adding some new elements. The conflict in Sri Lanka is explicitly recognized. Additionally, the implications of changes in the wider agricultural context for agricultural research and extension are explored, and have led to the adoption of an innovation systems perspective to organize the major findings

Commercialization of Publicly Funded Research and Development in Russia : Scaling up the Emergence of Spinoff Companies

Gutierrez, Juan Julio; Correa, Paulo
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
16.06%
This paper explores fundamental issues affecting technology commercialization of publicly funded research and development (R&D) in the Russian Federation. Despite substantial R&D investments, Russia has experienced a decline in scientific output and employment. Nevertheless, the innovation system remains strong in several technological fields. This paper develops an analytical framework to discuss conditions for technology commercialization, which hinge on the innovation system research base, governance of research institutions, alignment between specialization and sector prioritization, availability and performance of scientists and engineers, intellectual property (IP) regime for publicly funded discoveries, and early stage finance. The paper identifies areas for policy and regulatory improvement to incentivize research institutes and scientists to undertake research with market potential. These include: stronger results-based management that rewards commercialization efforts and focuses not only on high-technology sectors...

Agricultural Sector Policy Note for Bosnia and Herzegovina : Trade and Integration Policy Notes; Studija o politici poljoprivrednog sektora u Bosni i Hercegovini : studija o politikama trgovine i integracije

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Policy Note; Economic & Sector Work
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.52%
The agricultural season in Bosnia and Herzegovina (BH) begins earlier than in most European countries, shipping costs are relatively low, and land and labor prices are more favorable than in other southern European countries. As a result, the country's agriculture sector should be well positioned to compete on the export markets. With 20.6 percent of all employed in BH, agriculture remains an important sector for employment, despite a decline in the working-age population in rural areas. Additionally, it will be important for BH to develop well-functioning land institutions, so that the land market can operate more efficiently and thus enable business development. Finally, BH should integrate climate change adaptation and environmental sustainability into agricultural policies, programs, and investments. To succeed in agriculture, producers and governments will have to adapt, and the way to start is to focus on reducing agriculture's vulnerability to current climate variability.

Strengthening China's Technological Capability

Yusuf, Shahid; Nabeshima, Kaoru
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
16.06%
China is increasing its outlay on research and development and seeking to build an innovation system that will deliver quick results not just in absorbing technology but also in pushing the technological envelope. China's spending on R&D rose from 1.1 percent of GDP in 2000 to 1.3 percent of GDP in 2005. On a purchasing power parity basis, China's research outlay was among the world's highest, far greater than that of Brazil, India, or Mexico. Chinese firms are active in the fields of biotechnology, pharmaceuticals, alternative energy sources, and nanotechnology. This surge in spending has been parallel by a sharp increase in patent applications in China, with the bulk of the patents registered in the areas of electronics, information technology, and telecoms. However, of the almost 50,000 patents granted in China, nearly two-thirds were to nonresidents. This paper considers two questions that are especially important for China. First, how might China go about accelerating technology development? Second...

Chile’s Agricultural Innovation System : An Action Plan Towards 2030

World Bank
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Other Agricultural Study
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.52%
The report builds on the 'towards a vision for agricultural innovation in Chile in 2030' report and is further based on a series of background papers and a consultation process that took place between December 2010 and May 2011. The current study is the third in a series of three that were agreed between the Government of Chile and the World Bank to support the development of a long-term agricultural innovation strategy. The first paper reviewed the functioning of the three main public technological institutes and recommended how their performance can be improved. The second study explored the future of Chile's agriculture towards 2030, using scenario planning and developing a vision for the future of its agricultural innovation system. This paper is based on the results of the former two studies, as well as a set of background documents and further consultations, and will outline the action plan required to achieve the aforementioned vision. The objective of this action plan is to enhance the capacity of Chile's agricultural innovation system in order to achieve the goals as laid out in the vision for the sector for the year 2030. It builds on the current strengths of the agricultural innovation system and elaborates on the main actions needed to address the priority topics. Five principles serve as the foundation of the plan: recognizing national and regional responsibilities; distinguishing public and private roles; diversity; excellence; and institutional integration. Most of the actions can be implemented between 2011 and 2015 and consolidated in the next five years. After 2020...

Defining Properties: Literary Cultivation and National Character in Early American Literature

Zurawski, Magdalena
Fonte: Universidade Duke Publicador: Universidade Duke
Tipo: Dissertação
Publicado em //2013 Português
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16.06%

In the decades following the English Civil War, as the Anglophone world began transitioning to a social order structured by market and finance capitalism, the word cultivation, which earlier had referred exclusively to agricultural processes, acquired increasingly figurative meanings referring to the development of an individual's mind, faculties, and manners. This augmentation of meaning reflected the development of new conceptions of property as an essential feature of personhood that had begun to alter the definition of subjectivity. The circulation of such figurative meanings coincides with the rise of print culture, the development of a literary public sphere, and the professionalization of writing in the eighteenth century. These cultural developments suggest the relative ease with which the new conception of property expressed as literary personality coexisted alongside other forms of capital in Britain. Literary criticism of the last forty years, including the work of Raymond Williams, Clifford Siskin, Jerome Christensen, and Thomas Pfau, has accounted for the many ways in which possessing literary cultivation served the development of a middle-class economy and ideology in eighteenth-and-nineteenth century Britain. Though the figurative meaning of cultivation appears throughout American literature of the long nineteenth century...