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Stomach cancer mortality among agricultural workers: results from a death certificate-based case-control study

Boccolini,Patricia de Moraes Mello; Asmus,Carmen Ildes Rodrigues Froes; Chrisman,Juliana de Rezende; Câmara,Volney de Magalhães; Markowitz,Steven B.; Meyer,Armando
Fonte: Instituto de Estudos em Saúde Coletiva da Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro Publicador: Instituto de Estudos em Saúde Coletiva da Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/03/2014 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.49%
INTRODUCTION: Pesticide consumption is very high in Brazil. OBJECTIVE: The present study investigated the stomach cancer mortality among Brazilian agricultural workers in Rio de Janeiro state. METHODS: In this case-control study, cases were individuals of both genders, aged ≥20 years, for whom cause of death was ascertained as stomach cancer. Controls were individuals with causes of death other than neoplasm and diseases of the digestive system. Crude and adjusted analyses were carried out. Stomach cancer mortality risk was then estimated for the agricultural workers according to the pesticide expenditures per municipality. RESULTS: Agricultural workers showed an elevated risk of stomach cancer mortality (adjusted OR=1.42; 95%CI: 1.33-1.78). This risk was higher among male workers, aged 50-69 years, white, and among workers with 1-7 years of education. Results also showed increasing stomach cancer mortality along with the increase of pesticide expenditure per agricultural worker. CONCLUSION: Stomach cancer risk among agricultural workers may be associated with pesticide exposure.

Pesticide use and cholinesterase inhibition in small-scale agricultural workers in southern Brazil

Nerilo,Samuel Botião; Martins,Fernanda Andrade; Nerilo,Luciana Botião; Salvadego,Valter Eduardo Cocco; Endo,Renan Yoshio; Rocha,Gustavo Henrique Oliveira; Mossini,Simone Aparecida Galerani; Janeiro,Vanderly; Nishiyama,Paula; Machinski Junior,Miguel
Fonte: Universidade de São Paulo, Faculdade de Ciências Farmacêuticas Publicador: Universidade de São Paulo, Faculdade de Ciências Farmacêuticas
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/12/2014 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.38%
A controlled cross-sectional study of family growers of fruit and vegetables was conducted between October 2009 and October 2010 to characterize the use of pesticides, establish the socio-demographic profile, and analyze cholinesterase activity in small-scale agricultural workers in Southern Brazil. Data was collected for 173 workers and 179 controls. A structured questionnaire was applied collecting socio-demographic information and determining knowledge and work practices in relation to pesticide use. The benchmarks for total cholinesterase (ChEs) and butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE) were obtained from the average enzymatic activity of the occupationally unexposed group (control). The mean age of the exposed population was 40.0 ± 11.2 years. The symptoms differed significantly (p<0.05) between the exposed and unexposed populations. Forty (23.1%) workers showed symptoms associated with exposure to pesticides. The average value of enzymatic activity in the occupationally unexposed group for ChEs was 6.3 μmol/mL/min among males and 5.6 μmol/mL/min among females while for BuChE was 2.4 μmol/mL/min among males and 2.0 μmol/mL/min among females. Eight (4.6%) workers had high inhibition (>30%) of ChEs activity, whereas no workers showed high inhibition (>50%) of BuChE. Potential factors involved include gender...

Determinants of life satisfaction among Japanese agricultural workers

Wei, Chang-Nian; Miyakita, Takashi; Harada, Koichi; Ohmori, Shoko; Ueda, Atsushi
Fonte: Springer-Verlag Publicador: Springer-Verlag
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /04/2000 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.36%
The purpose of this study was to investigate the factorial structure of life satisfaction in agricultural workers. One hundred and sixty-five (87 males and 78 females) agricultural workers mainly engaged in plastic greenhouse cultivation in southern Japan, ranging in age from 19 to 72 years (mean = 44.3 years), completed a questionnaire. Scores of life satisfaction showed a higher tendency in males than in females, and those in elders were higher than in younger people. Conversely, females showed higher stress scores than males, and younger people’s score were higher than the elders. Multiple regression analysis was performed to analyze the factorial structure of satisfaction. It is suggested that the level of life satisfaction is positively related to social support, and is negatively related to the impact of stressful life events, globally perceived stress and subjective symptoms of ill health. Stress levels depended on factors concerning the psychological demands of work, work posture, work hours and work environment. Different factorial structures were observed between female and male workers. Findings from this study suggest that a strong social support network may assist in enhancing life satisfaction. Furthermore, the ill health and stress experienced in agricultural work were associated with a reduced life satisfaction.

A study on oxidative stress and antioxidant status of agricultural workers exposed to organophosphorus insecticides during spraying

Rastogi, S. K.; Satyanarayan, P. V. V.; Ravishankar, D.; Tripathi, Sachin
Fonte: Medknow Publications Publicador: Medknow Publications
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /12/2009 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.31%
Oxidative stress status and Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity were studied in blood samples obtained from 61 agricultural workers engaged in spraying organophosphorus (OP) insecticides in the mango plantation, with a minimum work history of one year, in the age range of 12-55 years. Controls were age-matched, unexposed workers, who never had any exposure to OP pesticides. They were evaluated for oxidative stress markers MDA (end product of lipid peroxidation), reduced glutathione (GSH), and Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) levels in blood. The results showed a marked inhibition of the AChE and BChE activities in the sprayers as compared to the controls. The malondialdehyde(MDA), the last product of lipid peroxidation was found to be increased significantly in sprayers(p<0.05), while depletion in the concentration of antioxidant glutathione(GSH) was also observed in the sprayers but the difference was statistically not significant. It was concluded on the basis of biochemical analysis that pesticides sprayers are exposed to more oxidative stress as evidenced by the changes in antioxidant status. The measurement of the AChE and BChE activities in agricultural workers who spray OPs could be a good biomonitoring factor and is recommended to be performed on a regular basis.

Perceptions of Environmental and Occupational Health Hazards Among Agricultural Workers in Washington State

Hofmann, Jonathan N.; Crowe, Jennifer; Postma, Julie; Ybarra, Vickie; Keifer, Matthew C.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /09/2009 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.49%
The purpose of this study is to describe perceptions of environmental and occupational health issues among agricultural workers. Interviews were conducted with 389 agricultural workers in the Yakima Valley in central Washington State in the summers of 2004 and 2005. Undergraduate students from the community conducted interviews in Spanish or English. Environmental and occupational health issues were ranked by frequency of concern, and differences by demographic characteristics were evaluated using multivariate analyses. In both 2004 and 2005, agricultural workers expressed high levels of concern about working in hot weather, agricultural injuries, pesticides, and pediatric asthma. Perceptions of environmental and occupational health issues among agricultural workers differed by certain demographic characteristics, particularly age and ethnicity. Consideration should be given to these issues when designing research studies, creating educational materials, and developing interventions related to environmental and occupational hazards among agricultural workers.

Overcoming Language and Literacy Barriers in Safety and Health Training of Agricultural Workers

Arcury, Thomas A.; Estrada, Jorge M.; Quandt, Sara A.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /07/2010 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.51%
The workforce in all areas of United States agriculture and forestry is becoming increasingly diverse in language, culture, and education. Many agricultural workers are immigrants who have limited English language skills and limited educational attainment. Providing safety and health training to this large, diverse, dispersed, and often transient population of workers is challenging. This review, prepared for the 2010 Agricultural Safety and Health Council of America/National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health conference, “Be Safe, Be Profitable: Protecting Workers in Agriculture,” is divided into five sections. First, we describe the occupational and demographic characteristics of agricultural workers in the US to highlight their safety and health training needs. Second, we summarize current research on the social and cultural attributes of agricultural workers and agricultural employers that affect the provision of safety and health training. Worker and employer attributes include language, literacy, financial limitations, work beliefs, and health beliefs. Third, we review current initiatives addressing safety and health training for agricultural workers that consider worker language and literacy. These initiatives are limited to a few specific topics (e.g....

Disease Prevalence and Mortality among Agricultural Workers in Korea

Lee, Won Jin; Cha, Eun Shil; Moon, Eun Kyeong
Fonte: The Korean Academy of Medical Sciences Publicador: The Korean Academy of Medical Sciences
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.36%
The aim of this paper was to provide an overview of mortality and disease prevalence related to occupational diseases among agricultural workers in Korea. We evaluated the age-standardized mortality rates and the prevalence of chronic diseases and compared them with those of other populations using death registration data from 2004 through 2008 and the 2005 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. In addition, we conducted a literature review on published articles examining the health status of farmers in Korea. Agricultural workers have a significantly higher mortality of cancer, tuberculosis, chronic respiratory diseases, liver diseases, suicide, motor and non-motor vehicle accidents. Compared to other populations, farmers have higher prevalence rates of arthritis and intervertebral disc disorders. The literature review revealed a number of work-related diseases among farmers, such as musculoskeletal diseases, pesticide poisoning, infections, and respiratory and neurologic diseases. Korean farmers demonstrate a distinct pattern of mortality and disease prevalence compared to other populations. Although lifestyle factors remain important contributors to those deaths and diseases, our study suggests that occupation is a major determinant as well. Intensive programs such as surveillance systems...

Neurobehavioral performance among agricultural workers and pesticide applicators: a meta-analytic study

Ismail, A A; Bodner, T E; Rohlman, D S
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.36%
Chronic low level exposure of agricultural workers and applicators to pesticides has been found to be associated with different degrees of decrement in cognitive and psychomotor functions. The goal of this study was to use meta-analysis to (1) identify and quantify neurobehavioral deficits among agricultural workers and pesticide applicators, and (2) analyse the potential confounders or moderators of these neurobehavioral deficits. Seventeen studies, reporting on 21 independent cohort groups, were included in the meta-analysis. These studies involved 16 neuropsychological tests providing 23 different performance measures that constitute the neurobehavioral constructs. All tests and measures of the neurobehavioral functions of attention, visuomotor integration, verbal abstraction and perception constructs showed significant decrements for exposed participants. One out of three tests of memory, two of five tests of sustained attention, and four of eight tests of motor speed constructs also showed significant decrements. Nine out of these 15 effect size distributions demonstrated significant heterogeneity across cohorts. A search for cohort-level variables (eg, agricultural workers vs applicators, duration of exposure, age and percentage of male participants) to explain this heterogeneity was largely unsuccessful. However...

Poverty Decline, Agricultural Wages, and Non-Farm Employment in Rural India 1983–2004

Lanjouw, Peter; Murgai, Rinku
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.56%
The authors analyze five rounds of National Sample Survey data covering 1983, 1987/8, 1993/4, 1999/0, and 2004/5 to explore the relationship between rural diversification and poverty. Poverty in rural India declined at a modest rate during this period. The authors provide region-level estimates that illustrate considerable geographic heterogeneity in this progress. Poverty estimates correlate well with region-level data on changes in agricultural wage rates. Agricultural labor remains the preserve of the uneducated and also to a large extent of the scheduled castes and scheduled tribes. Although agricultural labor grew as a share of total economic activity over the first four rounds, it had fallen back to the levels observed at the beginning of the survey period by 2004. This all-India trajectory masks widely varying trends across states. During this period, the rural non-farm sector grew modestly, mainly between the last two survey rounds. Regular non-farm employment remains largely associated with education levels and social status that are rare among the poor. However...

Self-Employment in the Developing World

Gindling, T. H.; Newhouse, David
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.59%
This paper analyzes heterogeneity among the self-employed in 74 developing countries, representing two-thirds of the population of the developing world. After profiling how worker characteristics vary by employment status, it classifies self-employed workers outside agriculture as "successful" or "unsuccessful" entrepreneurs, based on two measures of success: whether the worker is an employer, and whether the worker resides in a non-poor household. Four main findings emerge. First, jobs exhibit a clear pecking order, with household welfare and worker education highest for employers, followed by wage and salaried employees, non-agricultural own-account workers, non-agricultural unpaid family workers, and finally agricultural workers. Second, a substantial minority of own-account workers reside in non-poor households, suggesting that their profits are often a secondary source of household income. Third, as per capita income increases, the structure of employment shifts rapidly, first out of agriculture into unsuccessful non-agricultural self-employment...

Priorities for Sustainable Growth : A Strategy for Agriculture Sector Development in Tajikistan

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.38%
Agriculture sector growth has made a powerful contribution to post-war economic recovery in Tajikistan, accounting for approximately one third of overall economic growth from 1998 to 2004. Sector output increased by 65 percent in real terms during this period, and has now returned to the level extant at independence in 1990. Total Factor Productivity (TFP) has also increased, by 3 percent per year. Despite this progress, there is legitimate concern that this growth is unsustainable. Evidence suggests that it has been driven largely by the external factors noted above, rather than substantive changes to resources, incentives and the behavior of factor and commodity markets. First, an extensive program of policy reform, particularly in the area of land ownership, has yet to make a substantial impact on the incentive structure for agricultural workers cultivating the majority of arable land. Second, sustainable growth requires positive net investment. Third, commodity markets remain weak, with a limited capacity to translate increased demand into improved production incentives. And fourth...

농업분야 외국인력정책: 호주와 캐나다 사례연구; Employing foreign agricultural workers: case studies of Australia and Canada

Hugo, G.; Tan, G.T.; Choi, S.; Hong, S.H.
Fonte: IOM Migration Research and Training Centre Publicador: IOM Migration Research and Training Centre
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento
Publicado em //2013 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.39%
This study examines the policies of Australia and Canada on the employment of foreign workers in the agricultural sector and outlines the debates surrounding it. In Australia, the Working Holiday Maker Program has been a primary means to fill labor shortages in the agricultural sector, and recently citizens from the Pacific Islands and Timor-Leste have been employed in this sector through the Seasonal Worker Program. In Canada, the government has implemented the Seasonal Agricultural Workers Program to satisfy labor needs arising from the sector for almost a half century, and new programs have been recently introduced to offer more options for Canadian employers. = 본 연구는 호주와 캐나다의 농업분야 외국인력정책과 외국인력 고용에 관한 쟁점을 살펴본다. 호주는 오랫동안 워킹홀리데이 프로그램을 통해 간접적인 방법으로 외국인력을 활용하였고, 최근 계절근로자제도를 통해 태평양 도서국가 국민의 농업분야 계절근로를 허용하고 있다. 캐나다는 지난 반세기 동안 캐나다 정부와 양자간 협정을 체결한 국가 국민들을 계절근로자로 활용해 왔고, 최근에는 새로운 단순기능 외국인력 제도를 도입하면서 외국인력의 국적이나 고용계약 기간에 있어서 농업경영인들의 선택폭이 훨씬 넓어졌다.; Graeme Hugo...

Domestic Terms of Trade in Pakistan : Implications for Agricultural Pricing and Taxation Policies

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Other Agricultural Study; Economic & Sector Work
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.39%
In 2008 the Government of Pakistan agreed with the International Monetary Fund (IMF) to increase the tax/Gross Domestic Product (GDP) ratio by 3.5 percentage points over the medium term. This commitment has rekindled the debate regarding the agricultural income tax. Advocates of an agricultural income tax argue that the sector remains protected by political interests, while opponents to such a tax maintain that agriculture is already subject to significant indirect taxation, mainly because of prevailing price distortions in agricultural product markets. This paper reviews the literature on domestic terms of trade analysis in Pakistan and calculates an updated set of terms of trade indices for agriculture relative to industry. The paper also discusses key issues with regard to the imposition of agricultural income tax in Pakistan, and uses simulation results from a Computable General Equilibrium (CGE) model for the Pakistan economy to analyze the potential effects of the imposition of an agricultural income tax on poverty and fiscal revenues. The results suggest that the domestic terms of trade have remained unfavorable for Pakistan's agriculture during almost the entire 2000-2009 period. Agriculture's terms of trade declined from 2001-02 to 2003-04 before improving only slightly during the period from 2004-05 to 2006-07. As of 2007 however...

Pakistan Poverty Trends, Scenarios and Drivers

Lopez-Calix, Jose; Mejia, Carolina; Newhouse, David; Sobrado, Carlos
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Working Paper; Publications & Research
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.37%
This policy paper examines recent poverty trends in Pakistan. Official statistics continue to indicate strong poverty reduction through 2010-11, thanks in large part to policies and investments that boosted productivity in the non-agricultural sector. Poverty fell a bit more than other countries with similar rates of growth, as growth was slightly pro-poor and also benefited the bottom 40 percent. Alternative indicators such as access to public services have also improved, though at a slower rate since 2008 the year of twin global and domestic crises that hardly hit Pakistan. While increased productivity among non-agricultural workers has been a key factor driving poverty reduction, cash transfers through the Benazir Income Support Program (BISP) and workers' remittances from abroad also made moderate contributions. Simulations suggest that higher growth rates would further accelerate poverty reduction, but would have smaller effects on attaining other Millennium Development Goals. Despite this progress on poverty reductions...

Vitamin D status and latent tuberculosis infection : a preliminary study in a group of healthy Mexican agricultural workers

Merion, Timna.
Fonte: Brock University Publicador: Brock University
Tipo: Electronic Thesis or Dissertation
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.31%
Vitamin D metabolites are important in the regulation of bone and calcium homeostasis, but also have a more ubiquitous role in the regulation of cell differentiation and immune function. Severely low circulating 25-dihydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentrations have been associated with the onset of active tuberculosis (TB) in immigrant populations, although the association with latent TB infection (LTBI) has not received much attention. A previous study identified the prevalence of LTBI among a sample of Mexican migrant workers enrolled in Canada's Seasonal Agricultural Workers Program (SA WP) in the Niagara Region of Ontario. The aim of the present study was to determine the vitamin D status of the same sample, and identify if a relationship existed with LTBI. Studies of vitamin D deficiency and active TB are most commonly carried out among immigrant populations to non-endemic regions, in which reactivation of LTBI has occurred. Currently, there is limited knowledge of the association between vitamin D deficiency and LTBI. Entry into Canada ensured that these individuals did not have active TB, and L TBI status was established previously by an interferon-gamma release assay (IGRA) (QuantiFERON-TB Gold In-Tube®, Cellestis Ltd....

Production under glass : working conditions and class-consciousness of the Niagara greenhouse workers

Hofman, Karen.
Fonte: Brock University Publicador: Brock University
Tipo: Electronic Thesis or Dissertation
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.41%
This study applies a Marxist theoretical paradigm to examine the working conditions of greenhouse workers in the Niagara Region, and the range of factors that bear upon the formation of their class-consciousness. The Niagara greenhouse industry represents one of the most developed horticultural regions in Canada and plays a prominent role in the local economy. The industry generates substantial revenues and employs a significant number of people, yet the greenhouse workers are paid one of the lowest rates in the region. Being classified as agricultural workers, the greenhouse employees are exempted from many provisions of federal and provincial labour regulations. Under the current provincial statutes, agricultural workers in Ontario are denied the right to organize and bargain collectively. Except for a few technical and managerial positions, the greenhouse industry employs mostly low-skilled workers who are subjected to poor working conditions that stem from the employer's attempts to adapt to larger structural imperatives of the capitalist economy. While subjected to these poor working conditions, the greenhouse workers are also affected by objectively alienated social relations and by ruling class ideological domination and hegemony. These two sets of factors arise from the inherent conflict of interests between wage-labour and capital but also militate against the development of class-consciousness. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 12 greenhouse workers to examine the role played by their material circumstances in the formulation of their social and political views as well as the extent to which they are aware of their class location and class interests. The hegemonic notions of 'common sense' acted as impediments to formation of classconsciousness. The greenhouse workers have virtually no opportunities to access alternative perspectives that would address the issues associated with exploitation in production and offer solutions leading to 'social justice'. Fonnidable challenges confront any organized political body seeking to improve the conditions of the working people.

Preliminary epidemiological study of latent tuberculosis in Mexican agricultural workers in the Niagara region, Canada

Duarte, Angela.
Fonte: Brock University Publicador: Brock University
Tipo: Electronic Thesis or Dissertation
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.44%
It is well documented that the majority of Tuberculosis (TB) cases diagnosed in Canada are related to foreign-bom persons from TB high-burden countries. The Canadian seasonal agricultural workers program (SAWP) operating with Mexico allows migrant workers to enter the country with a temporary work permit for up to 8 months. Preiimnigration screening of these workers by both clinical examination and chest X-ray (CXR) reduces the risk of introducing cases of active pulmonary TB to Canada, but screening for latent TB (LTBI) is not routinely done. Studies carried out in industrialized nations with high immigration from TBendemic countries provide data of lifetime LTBI reactivation of around 10% but little is known about reactivation rates within TB-endemic countries where new infections (or reinfections) may be impossible to distinguish from reactivation. Migrant populations like the SAWP workers who spend considerable amounts of time in both Canada and TBendemic rural areas in Mexico are a unique population in terms of TB epidemiology. However, to our knowledge no studies have been undertaken to explore either the existence of LTBI among Mexican workers, the probability of reactivation or the workers' exposure to TB cases while back in their communities before returning the following season. Being aware of their LTBI status may help workers to exercise healthy behaviours to avoid TB reactivation and therefore continue to access the SAWP. In order to assess the prevalence of LTBI and associated risk factors among Mexican migrant workers a preliminary cross sectional study was designed to involve a convenience sample of the Niagara Region's Mexican workers in 2007. Research ethics clearance was granted by Brock University. Individual questionnaires were administered to collect socio-demographic and TB-related epidemiological data as well as TB knowledge and awareness levels. Cellular immunity to M tuberculosis was assessed by both an Interferon-y release assay (lGRA)...

Análise do impacto do salário mínimo sobre a distribuição de renda na agricultura brasileira : recortes segundo a posição na ocupação; Analysis of minimum wage impacts on income distribution in the Brazilian agricultural sector

Regis Borges de Oliveira
Fonte: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp Publicador: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 28/02/2014 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.45%
Este trabalho analisa o impacto do salário mínimo sobre a distribuição dos rendimentos no setor agrícola brasileiro entre os anos de 1995 e 2012. Mais precisamente, estuda o efeito do salário mínimo na determinação do rendimento de diferentes categorias de trabalhadores agrícolas, quais sejam: empregados permanentes com ou sem carteira, empregados temporários com ou sem carteira e trabalhadores por conta-própria. Nos últimos 18 anos, o salário mínimo real apresentou crescimento sistemático com efeitos importantes sobre os rendimentos no mercado de trabalho. Paralelamente, observou-se, no Brasil, um movimento sem precedentes, que combinou o crescimento econômico com a redução da desigualdade, tanto quando se analisam os rendimentos do trabalho como o rendimento domiciliar per capita. Evidências empíricas mostraram que o SM foi um dos fatores que contribuiu para a redução da desigualdade, porém seu efeito é distinto quando são considerados as categorias de empregados agrícolas. Utilizando estatísticas descritivas e dois métodos não-paramétricos (densidades de kernel e regressões quantílicas) aplicados aos dados da PNAD/IBGE, o trabalho mostra que para os empregados sem carteira no setor agrícola o SM tem impacto concentrador...

Deaths from primary brain cancers, lymphatic and haematopoietic cancers in agricultural workers in the Republic of Ireland.

Dean, G
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /08/1994 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.45%
STUDY OBJECTIVE--To ascertain if agricultural workers in the Republic of Ireland had a higher than expected mortality from brain and haematopoietic cancers than occurred in the general population. DESIGN--The Central Statistics Office of Ireland provided computer analysis of all deaths coded as cancer of the brain, ICD 191, and of lymphatic and haematopoietic cancers, ICD codes 200-208, by socioeconomic, sex, and age groups, from 1971 to 1987. The deaths were then analysed by socioeconomic group and compared with the expected number of deaths in the general population. SETTING--A cluster of four deaths from primary brain cancer, three from leukaemia, and one from Hodgkin's disease, occurred in the research and technical staff of the former Agricultural Institute of the Republic of Ireland in men under the age of 65. This raised the question, were farmers more likely to get these forms of cancer due to exposure to herbicides or fertilisers? SUBJECTS--All deaths in the Republic of Ireland from 1971 to 1987 by socioeconomic group. MAIN RESULTS--Although deaths reported as due to primary brain cancers had increased in all socioeconomic groups in the two time periods studied, there was no greater increase in farmers and a smaller increase in other agricultural workers and fishermen. Deaths from Hodgkin's disease and multiple myeloma...

Towards designing a new agricultural extension service for the Eastern Cape Province: A perception analysis

van Niekerk,J.A.; Stroebel,A.; van Rooyen,C.J.; Whitfield,K.P.; Swanepoel,F.J.C.
Fonte: South African Journal of Agricultural Extension Publicador: South African Journal of Agricultural Extension
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2009 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.37%
South Africa is in the process of rectifying the social injustices of the past and building a new future towards "equitable access and participation " in the agricultural sector (DoA, 2001) through the transference of farmland to emerging-black farmers and communities. This new class of farmers needs an effective extension service to help them become commercial farmers. However, agricultural extension is generally viewed to be ineffective. Thus, there is also a need for a revised extension model for, in this case, the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa. Eight factors were identified and were included in this study. The eight factors, viz. Personal characteristics of extension workers; Community cooperation and networks; Training of extension workers; Leadership and mentoring ability; Financial support; Institutional support (technical and skills); Communication; and Staffing. This paper is aimed at discussing the identified factors, related to organizational and human capital development, that are essential for effective extension and will propose the basis and design framework of an extension model discussed in a later paper. Researchers who are currently undergoing an academic programme/training at the University of the Free State and extension officers were interviewed via questionnaires in order to determine their perceived importance of the identified factors. The results revealed their perceptions regarding those eight identified factors and also their misconceptions relating to these factors...