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How Do We Improve Public Expenditure in Agriculture?

World Bank
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.41%
This paper synthesizes lessons learned from the Department for International Development-World Bank (DFID-WB) partnership, to provide guidance on ways to improve the allocation and efficiency of public spending for agricultural growth and poverty reduction. It includes lessons on how to improve data quality, the composition and impact of spending, budget execution, and the integration of off-budget expenditures. The paper synthesizes recurring lessons that have emerged from the commissioned work, to highlight key challenges that still remain to improve the efficiency of public expenditure planning and implementation in the agriculture sector, as well as offering options for improvement. The paper is accompanied by a separate document, the Agricultural Public Expenditure Reviews (AgPER) toolkit, which is a practical guide for practitioners tasked with carrying out AgPERs in the future. The paper is structured around the Budget Cycle Framework (BCF), to facilitate the identification of entry points to improve expenditure outcomes.

Uganda - Agriculture Public Expenditure Review

World Bank
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.44%
This Agriculture Public Expenditure Review (AgPER) comprehensively reviews public expenditures on agriculture in Uganda and analyzes their efficiency and effectiveness. Its genesis lies in Agriculture Sector Working Group (A-SWG) discussions, especially during the budget process, which raised concerns about the seemingly low budget allocations to the sector and the failure to align limited resources with recognized priorities in the sector. To address these concerns, the A-SWG resolved to undertake this AgPER. Aside from providing a better understanding of the nature and composition of agricultural pubic expenditures in Uganda, the review will specifically analyze their efficiency and effectiveness with a view to identifying the types of expenditures that will promote pro-poor growth. The report is structured as follows. Section two analyzes trends in nominal and real sector budgets. It highlights the current and projected importance of agricultural sector expenditure in the national budget and gross domestic product (GDP). An analysis of agricultural price distortions indicates the extent to which the sector benefits from supportive policies. Section three describes budget planning and implementation at the national and local level and presents policy recommendations to improve those processes. Section four focuses on the technical efficiency of public spending. By tracking resource flows and analyzing the unit costs of goods and service delivery. Section four sheds light on whether public resources are used efficiently and which actions could improve efficiency. The concluding section summarizes the major findings and policy recommendations.

Shaping the Future of Water for Agriculture : A Sourcebook for Investment in Agricultural Water Management

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.33%
Agricultural water management is a vital practice in ensuring reduction, and environmental protection. After decades of successfully expanding irrigation and improving productivity, farmers and managers face an emerging crisis in the form of poorly performing irrigation schemes, slow modernization, declining investment, constrained water availability, and environmental degradation. More and better investments in agricultural water are needed. In response, the World Bank, in conjunction with many partner agencies, has compiled a selection of good experiences that can guide practitioners in the design of quality investments in agricultural water. The messages of this publication center around the key challenges to agricultural water management, specifically: building policies and incentives; designing institutional reforms; investing in irrigation systems improvement and modernization; investing in groundwater irrigation; investing in drainage and water quality management; investing in water management in rain-fed agriculture; investing in agricultural water management in multipurpose operations; coping with extreme climatic conditions; and assessing the social...

Bank Ownership Type and Banking Relationships

Berger, Allen N.; Klapper, Leora F.; Martinez Peria, Maria Soledad; Zaidi, Rida
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.22%
The authors formulate and test hypotheses about the role of bank ownership types-foreign, state-owned, and private domestic banks-in banking relationships, using data from India. The empirical results are consistent with all of their hypotheses with regard to foreign banks. These banks tend to serve as the main bank for transparent firms, and firms with foreign main banks are most likely to have multiple banking relationships, have the most relationships, and diversify relationships across bank ownership types. The data are also consistent with the hypothesis that firms with state-owned main banks are relatively unlikely to diversify across bank ownership types. However, state-owned banks often do not provide the main relationship for firms they are mandated to serve (for example, small, opaque firms), and the predictions of negative effects on multiple banking and number of relationships hold for only one type of state-owned bank.

Plurinational State of Bolivia : Agriculture Public Expenditure Review

World Bank
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.33%
Agriculture is one of the most important sectors for reducing poverty, improving food security, and contributing to the development of Bolivia. There is a need for re-organization and re-prioritization of spending within the sector before an argument for more resources can be made. Recommendations include allocating more resources towards agricultural public goods (such as research and extension among others) to improve sectoral performance and to support a heterogeneous agricultural sector in the context of rapid technological change, climate pressures and food price volatility. There is a need for resource allocations towards research and extension, adherence to the types of production systems in the country. Improving the balance between current and capital expenditures in agriculture is imperative. Within the current component of sectoral expenditures, more money should be spent on human capital. Prioritization and targeting of public agricultural investments is a good starting point for improving sector performance. This prioritization within the agricultural sector should consider the diversity of production systems and agricultural economic units in rural areas. Bolivia needs a coordinated monitoring and evaluation system that enables the tracking of results of the sector as a whole and facilitates the planning of investments. Strong recommendations are made to ensure better implementation of available resources in agriculture.

World Bank Research Digest, Vol. 5(1)

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Português
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56.33%
In this issue: charting new directions in development economics; focus: agriculture for development, revisited; too big to fail or too big to save? Bank runs in emerging economies; closer scrutiny of mashup indices; ethnic discrimination and political competition in Sri Lanka; and interactions between formal and informal institutions.

World Bank Lending for Financial Inclusion

Kumar, Anjali; Narain, Sushma; Rubbani, Swizen
Fonte: World Bank Group, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank Group, Washington, DC
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.25%
The purpose of the paper is to present a more granular view of such projects through the in-depth focus on a limited number of case studies, with a view to understanding what factors in the design of such lending have helped achieve objectives of expanded access, and what forms of interventions may have been less successful. It examines the nature of Bank lending vehicles, the partnering borrower institutions, the country environments in which its loans were extended, as well as broader elements of good practice that make for loan success. It examines the beneficiaries targeted and results achieved. It aims to draws lessons that suggest what factors could lead to success or failure in Bank operations focused on financial access. The remainder of the paper is organized as follows: section two briefly describes the set of the Bank s projects selected for detailed review. Sections three to six contain the core findings of the review. Section 3 focuses on alternative forms of borrower institutions that have served as vehicles for Bank projects...

Cambodian Agriculture in Transition

World Bank Group
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Relatório
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.39%
This report seeks to understand the successes, challenges and opportunities of Cambodia’s agricultural transformation over the past decade to derive lessons and insights on how to maintain future agricultural growth, and particularly on the government’s role in facilitating it. It is prepared per the request of the Supreme National Economic Council and the Ministry of Agriculture Forestry and Fisheries and is based on the primary farm data surveys from 2005 and 2013, and the secondary data from various sources. In 2013-2014, the agricultural growth slowed down to 1 percent from its average of 5.3 percent over 2004-2012. Is the country in transition to a slower agricultural growth? Cambodia can ill afford it because agricultural growth will be critical to continued poverty reduction in the country, given its large size in the economy. Market and private investment friendly policies and targeted public sector investments in irrigation, extension, and other ‘public good’ agricultural services, as feasible within the government’s total budget...

Gender in Climate-Smart Agriculture; Module 18 for Gender in Agriculture Sourcebook

World Bank Group; FAO; IFAD
Fonte: World Bank, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, and the International Fund for Agricultural Development Publicador: World Bank, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, and the International Fund for Agricultural Development
Tipo: Working Paper; Publications & Research :: Working Paper; Publications & Research
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.43%
This module provides guidance and a comprehensive menu of practical tools for integrating gender in the planning, design, implementation, and evaluation of projects and investments in climate-smart agriculture (CSA). The module emphasizes the importance and ultimate goal of integrating gender in CSA practices, which is to reduce gender inequalities and ensure that men and women can equally benefit from any intervention in the agricultural sector to reduce risks linked to climate change. Climate change has an impact on food and nutrition security and agriculture, and the agriculture sector is one of the largest emitters of greenhouse gases. It is crucial to recognize that climate change affects men and women differently. The content is drawn from tested good practice and innovative approaches, with an emphasis on lessons learned, benefits and impacts, implementation issues, and replicability. These insights and lessons related to gender in CSA will assist practitioners to improve project planning, design...

The World Bank Group A to Z 2016

World Bank Group
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
Tipo: Book; Publications & Research; Publications & Research :: Publication
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.24%
The World Bank Group A to Z provides concise and essential information about the mission, policies, procedures, products, and services of the new World Bank Group. This second edition is a follow-up to the first volume released for the 2014 Annual Meetings. The World Bank Group A to Z series builds on previous editions of A Guide to the World Bank to include features not found in its predecessors including: a graphical introduction to the World Bank Group, highlighting the Bank Group’s goals, financials, regions, and results; examples and photos of Bank Group projects and programs; and tools to guide you to the information you are looking for (even if you don’t know exactly what that is). It also reflects the wide-ranging reforms that have taken place within the World Bank Group in recent years, including the launch of the new World Bank Group Strategy; new approaches to development; the establishment of new Global Practice Groups and Cross Cutting Solutions Areas; and the goal of becoming a “Solutions Bank,” one that will marshal the vast reserves of evidence and experiential knowledge across the five World Bank Group agencies and apply them to local problems. With more than 280 entries arranged in encyclopedic A-to-Z format...

Strengthening Quality, Growth, and Performance in Agriculture Finance : Lessons from India

AgriFin
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Other Agricultural Study; Economic & Sector Work
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.56%
This report presents the key message, lessons, and insights from agrifin's first knowledge exchange event, held in Hyderabad, India, March 7-12, 2011. Agrifin is a special initiative aimed at building capacity in agriculture finance for commercially-oriented smallholders and small and medium enterprise (SME) agribusiness market segments. The initiative, managed by the World Bank, through generous support from the bill and Melinda gates foundation, provides matching grant funding to financial institutions and regulated microfinance institutions that have a demonstrated potential for scaling up sustainable business models in agriculture finance. in complement to the grant funding, agrifin fosters learning in the agriculture finance space by facilitating peer-to-peer exchanges, such as this event, as well as by documenting and sharing lessons learned with the broader public, based but not exclusively on agrifin grant recipients' experiences. This event provided an opportunity for agrifin's partner financial institutions in Burkina Faso...

Zambia - Commercial Value Chains in Zambian Agriculture : Do Smallholders Benefit?

World Bank
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Other Rural Study
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.34%
Agriculture and agroprocessing are important in Zambia's economy, representing more than 40 percent of gross domestic product (GDP) and contributing about 12 percent of national export earnings. Agriculture employs some 67 percent of the labor force and supplies raw materials to agricultural industries, which account for some 84 percent of manufacturing value-added in the country. Smallholder agriculture dominates the rural economy. It provides livelihoods for the overwhelming majority of rural households. The commercialization of smallholder agriculture is an important element of Zambia's strategy to increase economic growth in an equitable manner and diversify smallholder agriculture. This study therefore asks: 'do Zambian smallholders benefit from greater participation in value chains?' It provides an evidence-based analysis of the benefits and constraints associated with smallholders' integration into specific commercial value chains. The study also investigates whether the benefits of participating in these value chains can be increased for smallholders and provides corresponding policy and investment recommendations.

Sudan - Toward Sustainable and Broad-Based Growth

World Bank
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Country Economic Memorandum
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.3%
Sudan is in the 10th year of its longest and strongest growth episode since independence, benefiting from the advent of oil in 1999. This report proposes a growth strategy for Sudan that reduces its dependence on oil, while building an economic foundation for a diversified, inclusive and sustainable growth path. Specifically, Sudan's near term strategy should focus on: a) developing and maintaining the necessary enabling environment for growth, specifically macroeconomic stability and effective fiscal management (chapter one); b) implementing policies aimed at improving the investment climate and broadening private sector-led growth (chapters two and five); c) increasing returns to the agriculture sector as the highest potential engine of growth and poverty reduction over the medium-term (chapter four); d) developing a comprehensive reconstruction plan for the South (chapter six); and e) complementing technocratic reforms with good governance. Sudan needs a new, more balanced growth vision that is less reliant on oil...

Mozambique - Analysis of Public Expenditure in Agriculture : Core Analysis

World Bank
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Other Agricultural Study
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.39%
The objective of this Agriculture Public Expenditure Review (AgPER) is to provide an assessment of the present situation and to offer recommendations to improve the effectiveness and efficiency of public spending in agriculture in Mozambique. The report provides a sectorwide picture of the magnitude and structure of public spending for agriculture in Mozambique over the past six years, and an overall assessment of the budget process in agriculture. It is intended that this analysis will inform future decisions over priority public expenditures for agriculture and the shifts in expenditure allocations and other measures that are necessary to make the most effective and efficient use of government budgetary resources and donors' contributions in the agriculture sector. The information is also meant to inform the New Partnership for Africa's Development (NEPAD) secretariat about the level and structure of spending in agriculture in Mozambique, and help the Ministry of Agriculture; since 2005 (MINAG) to report suitable figures to NEPAD. The report discusses the budget process in agriculture (budget planning...

Practitioners' Toolkit for Agriculture Public Expenditure Analysis; Manuel d'analyse des depenses publiques dans l'agriculture destine aux professionnels

World Bank
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Pre-2003 Economic or Sector Report
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.25%
This toolkit for analyzing public expenditures in agriculture contributes to a broader effort to enhance the focus, quality, and appropriate scaling of public spending in the sector. More specifically, the toolkit has two goals: to provide checklists for practitioners conducting various kinds of agriculture public expenditure analyses, and to provide selected examples on aspects of the checklist to help guide analysis. The toolkit presents a diversity of approaches and describes experiences both positive and negative in conducting agricultural public spending analyses in different settings and with different objectives. It offers checklists of issues and options, rather than a minimum list of issues to be covered. Needs, existing work time, and budget constraints will likely drive the selection of the checklist topics to be covered in any given analysis of public expenditures. The toolkit is organized to facilitate this selectivity of topic, while maintaining a strategic perspective. The supporting examples draw on numerous analyses of public expenditures in agricultures.

Egypt - Linking Funding to Outputs : Expenditures of the Ministry of Agriculture and Land Reclamation

World Bank
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Public Expenditure Review
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.36%
This review of the on-budget expenditure of the Ministry of Agriculture and Land Reclamation (MALR) in Egypt describes the broad outline of the MARL's expenditures and identifies key themes and issues. The report examines how the context of the agricultural sector has changed, and the adjustment challenge that such change poses for the MALR. It explains how the MALR is thinking about the future, describes the structures of the MALR, and presents expenditure trends for the MALR down to the sector or authority level. Also, the document identifies some key issues to be addressed and zooms in on the research institutions of the MALR, the Agricultural Research Centre and the Desert Research Centre.

Awakening Africa's Sleeping Giant : Prospects for Commercial Agriculture in the Guinea Savannah Zone and Beyond; Le reveil du geant assoupi : perspectives de l'agriculture commerciale dans les savanes africaines

World Bank
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.38%
This report summarizes the findings of the study on Competitive Commercial Agriculture for Africa (CCAA). The objective of the CCAA study was to explore the feasibility of restoring international competitiveness and growth in African agriculture through the identification of products and production systems that can underpin rapid development of a competitive commercial agriculture. The CCAA study focused on the agricultural potential of Africa's Guinea Savannah zone, which covers about 600 million hectares in Africa, of which about 400 million hectares can be used for agriculture, and of which less than 10 percent are cropped. The African Guinea Savannah is one of the largest underused agricultural land reserves in the world. In terms of its agro climatic features, the land is similar to that found in the Cerrado region of Brazil and in the Northeast Region of Thailand, with medium-to-high agricultural potential but also significant constraints in the form of infertile soils and variable rainfall. Based on a careful examination of the factors that contributed to the successes achieved in Brazil and Thailand...

Gender in Agriculture Sourcebook

World Bank; Food and Agriculture Organization; International Fund for Agricultural Development
Fonte: Washington, DC : World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC : World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.54%
Three out of every four poor people in developing countries live in rural areas, and most of them depend directly or indirectly on agriculture for their livelihoods. In many parts of the world, women are the main farmers or producers, but their roles remain largely unrecognized. The 2008 World development report: agriculture for development highlights the vital role of agriculture in sustainable development and its importance in achieving the millennium development goal of halving by 2015 the share of people suffering from extreme poverty and hunger. Climate change and rising food prices are reminders of the need to focus on food security and agriculture for development; and the material presented in the gender in agriculture sourcebook suggests that accounting for the different roles of women and men and gender equality in access to resources and opportunities is a necessary condition for doing so. This sourcebook is a particularly timely resource. It combines descriptive accounts of national and international experience in investing in agriculture with practical operational guidance on to how to design agriculture for development strategies that capitalize effectively on the unique properties of agricultural growth and rural development involving women and men as a high-impact source of poverty reduction. It looks at gender equality and women's empowerment...

Bulgaria : Public Expenditure Review for Agriculture and Rural Development

World Bank
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Public Expenditure Review
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.34%
Although Bulgaria now implements the European Union's (EU's) "common" agricultural policy (CAP), national policymakers still maintain responsibility to tailor CAP implementation to meet the specific development needs of the country. The National Rural Development Program (NRDP) very appropriately lays out the challenges that Bulgarian agriculture and rural development face, but the early implementation of a relatively high number of support schemes falls short of adequate administrative capacities and planning. With CAP resources projected to increase substantially over the coming years under pillar two, Bulgarian authorities must take appropriate corrective measures now so that the opportunity to impact long-term sector growth is not missed. The major challenge facing Bulgaria's rural sector is the significant fragmentation of land ownership and the highly polarized farming structure. As of 2003, there were 665,500 agricultural holdings operating in Bulgaria. About 75 percent of agricultural holdings account for less than 7 percent of the utilized agricultural area (UAA). They cultivate plots of no more than one hectare. In contrast...

Myanmar Agricultural Development Bank : Initial Assessment and Restructuring Options

World Bank
Fonte: Bangkok Publicador: Bangkok
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Working Paper; Publications & Research
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.63%
Myanmar is an agricultural country. It is estimated that the agriculture sector represents between 35 to 40 percent of gross domestic product (GDP) and that up to 70 percent of the labor force (of 32.5 million) is directly or indirectly engaged in agricultural activities or depend on agriculture for their income. Given agriculture's important contribution to the economy, the modernization of the agriculture sector is a top priority in the economic and social development agenda of the Government of Myanmar. Among the government institutions supporting the agriculture sector, the Myanmar Agriculture Development Bank (MADB) plays an important role. MADB was established in June 1953 by the Government of Myanmar to support the development of agriculture, livestock, and rural enterprises in Myanmar. MADB is currently the largest financial institution serving the rural areas and financing agriculture activities. At the end of 2012, MADB served 1.87 million customers, mostly farmers, and had a network of 206 branches (which accounted for 23 percent of all banks' branches in Myanmar). Since its creation...