Página 1 dos resultados de 642 itens digitais encontrados em 0.024 segundos

Determinantes da disponibilidade de crédito de longo prazo no Brasil: uma análise da linha Finem do BNDES; Determinants of long-term credit availability in Brazil: an analysis of the Finem line of credit from BNDES

Menegário, Alexandre Hattnher
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 30/05/2012 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.11%
A busca por maior disponibilidade de crédito de longo prazo para investimentos produtivos vem adquirindo importância no Brasil, pois possibilita que empresas se lancem em empreendimentos de média e grande escala, alimentando o processo de crescimento econômico e desenvolvimento do País. A modalidade Financiamento a Empreendimentos (Finem) do BNDES é uma das poucas linhas de crédito bancário interna que oferece a possibilidade de financiamento de projetos de investimento de montantes elevados e longo prazo de maturação. No entanto, o montante disponibilizado por essa linha vem apresentando pequena evolução em relação ao PIB. Esperava-se aumento dessa disponibilidade com o Plano Real e a criação de um ambiente econômico propício ao planejamento de longo prazo, o que não ocorreu. Assim, este estudo tem por objetivo avaliar os principais fatores que influenciam a disponibilidade de crédito de longo prazo no Brasil destinado a investimentos produtivos, visando não somente expandir essa disponibilidade como também criar condições para que bancos múltiplos venham a atuar com maior vigor nesse processo. No modelo estudado, foram incluídas como variáveis, além daquela de maior interesse, os desembolsos da linha Finem...

A Review of Credit Guarantee Schemes in the Middle East and North Africa Region

Saadani, Youssef; Arvai, Zsofia; Rocha, Roberto
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
76.04%
Many countries in the MENA region have established partial credit guarantee schemes to facilitate SME access to finance. These schemes can play an important role, especially in a period where MENA governments are making efforts to improve the effectiveness of credit registries and bureaus and strengthen creditor rights. This paper reviews the design of partial credit guarantee schemes in MENA, and assesses their preliminary outcomes. The paper is based on a survey conducted in 10 MENA countries in early 2010. The authors find that the average size of guarantee schemes in MENA (measured by the total value of outstanding guarantees) is in line with the international average, although there are wide differences across countries, and some schemes seem too small to make any significant impact. Most importantly, the number of guarantees looks generally small while their average value looks large. This suggests that guarantee schemes are not yet reaching the smaller firms. Guarantee schemes in MENA look financially sound and most schemes have room to grow. However...

The Impact of the Business Environment on Young Firm Financing

Chavis, Larry W.; Klapper, Leora F.; Love, Inessa
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.16%
This paper uses a dataset of more than 70,000 firms in over 100 countries to systematically study the use of different financing sources for new and young firms, in comparison to mature firms. The authors find that in all countries younger firms rely less on bank financing and more on informal financing. However, they also find that younger firms use more bank finance in countries with stronger rule of law and better credit information, and that the reliance of young firms on informal finance decreases with the availability of credit information. Overall, the results suggest that improvements to the legal environment and availability of credit information are disproportionately beneficial for promoting access to formal finance by young firms.

Market Power and the Matching of Trade Credit Terms

Fabbri, Daniela; Klapper, Leora
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
96.05%
This paper studies the decision of firms to extend trade credit to customers and its relation with their financing decisions. The authors use a novel firm-level database of Chinese SMEs with unique information on market power in both output and input markets and on the amount, terms, and payment history of trade credit simultaneously extended to customers (accounts receivable) and received from suppliers (accounts payable). The analysis shows that suppliers with relatively weaker market power are more likely to extend trade credit and have a larger share of goods sold on credit. Examination of the importance of financial constraints reveals that access to bank financing and profitability are not significantly related to trade credit supply. Rather, firms that receive trade credit from their own suppliers are more likely to extend trade credit to their customers, and to "match maturity" between the contract terms of payables and receivables. This matching practice is more likely used when firms face strong competition in the product market (relative to their customers)...

When Do Creditor Rights Work?

Safavian, Mehnaz; Sharma, Siddharth
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.04%
Creditor-friendly laws are generally associated with more credit to the private sector and deeper financial markets. But laws mean little if they are not upheld in the courts. The authors hypothesize that the effectiveness of creditor rights is strongly linked to the efficiency of contract enforcement. This hypothesis is tested using firm level data on 27 European countries in 2002 and 2005. The analysis finds that firms have more access to bank credit in countries with better creditor rights, but the association between creditor rights and bank credit is much weaker in countries with inefficient courts. Exploiting the panel dimension of the data and the fact that creditor rights change over time, the authors show that the effect of a change in creditor rights on change in bank credit increases with court enforcement. In particular, a unit increase in the creditor rights index will increase the share of bank loans in firm investment by 27 percent in a country at the 10th percentile of the enforcement time distribution (Lithuania). However...

Bank Lending to Small and Medium Enterprises : The Republic of Serbia

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.05%
This report presents findings of a study of Bank lending to small and medium enterprises (SME) in Serbia. The study uses methodology developed by the Bank and already used in a number of studies in South America. The study is based on answers to standard questionnaires and detailed on-site interviews with eight banks. The interviewed banks are the most active in SME lending in Serbia and account for about 70 percent of the total market. Banks are currently offering a fairly broad range of both tailored and standardized products and are increasingly flexible with product pricing. This includes checking, savings and time deposit accounts; export and import loans; overdrafts for working capital and investment loans; business credit cards; various types of payment services; Internet and phone banking. The report is organized as follows: section two describes the banking sector and markets in Serbia, reviews definition of SMEs and provides key characteristics of the SME finance market in Serbia. Section three discusses details of SME access to finance. It describes the drivers and obstacles...

Financing Small and Medium Enterprises in the Republic of South Africa

Fuchs, Michael; Iacovone, Leonardo; Jaeggi, Thomas; Napier, Mark; Pearson, Roland; Pellegrini, Giulia; Villegas Sanchez, Carolina
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
76.12%
Numerous studies worldwide have highlighted the important contribution made by small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) to employment, income and economic growth. In a study of 76 developed and developing economies, Ayyagari and others (2007) found that SMEs account for more than 60 percent of total manufacturing employment and that SMEs contributed significant proportions of Gross Domestic Product (GDP). SME growth requires external financing, but constraints to accessing credit, consistently rated as some of the greatest barriers to the operation and growth of firms, affect SMEs more severely than large firms (Beck and Demirguc-Kunt 2006; Beck and others 2006). The purposes of this report are to: a) analyze the availability of bank finance to SMEs in South Africa and how availability might be enhanced in the context of the economic downturn; and b) offer concrete policy recommendations on how to lessen obstacles to bank SME financing and reduce the negative effects of the economic downturn (or of a similar downturn in future) on access to finance. The report is structured in 5 sections: section two provides a short overview of existing studies and data on SME finance in South Africa. Section three presents the main results of the surveys. Section four provides policy considerations. Section five concludes.

East Asia and Pacific Update, April 2009 : Battling the Forces of Global Recession

World Bank
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.08%
Developing East Asia is battling the forces of global recession. The impact of the crisis in the advanced countries was transmitted to the economies of the region with unusual speed. In the region, the initial global financial turbulence was marked by sudden reversals of capital flows in the middle-income economies, rapidly declining equity market prices, a sharp increase in the price of external private capital, a shortage of dollar liquidity, and in some cases, a depreciating currency. Now with aggregate global demand falling precipitously, region-wide declines in exports and industrial production are triggering widespread factory closures, rising unemployment, and lower real wages, with disproportionate effects on the poor and near-poor. Authorities in many countries are implementing social programs and cash transfers to assist those most in need. Where possible, policymakers have responded quickly with expansionary monetary and fiscal policies, including fiscal stimulus packages, although in most cases these measures will only mitigate, not overcome, the contraction forces operating on their economies.

Financial Sector Assessment : Republic of Latvia

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.04%
Latvia has a well-developed financial sector, but in the aftermath of the 2008-09 global financial crisis, access to finance has become a major constraint for the development of private enterprises. Credit to the private sector in Latvia, at above 100 percent of Gross Domestic Product, or GDP, is one of the highest in Eastern Europe, after significant growth over the last decade. However, in the aftermath of the 2008-09 financial crisis, credit growth has been negative (average annual growth of -7 percent between FY2009-2011) and access to finance has become one of the most significant obstacles for growth according to enterprises (close to 30 percent of firms identify it as an obstacle in 2009, versus 2 percent before the crisis). This contributed to a significant decline in the volume of private investment, which dropped by 48 percent between 2008 and 2010. Credit constraints are more severe in specific segments, including smaller firms. In response to these challenges, the Government has supported credit to the private sector through various instruments...

Credit Reporting and Financing Constraints

Love, Inessa; Mylenko, Nataliya
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.02%
The authors combine firm-level data from the World Bank Business Environment Survey (WBES) with data on private and public credit registries to investigate whether the presence of a credit registry in a country is associated with lower financing constraints, as perceived by managers, and with higher share of bank financing. They find that the existence of private credit registries is associated with lower financing constraints and higher share of bank financing, while the existence of public credit registries does not seem to have a significant effect on these perceived financing constraints. The authors also find that small- and medium-sized firms tend to have a higher share of bank financing in countries where private registries exist and stronger rule of law is associated with more effective private credit registries. Finally, the authors find some evidence that the presence of a public credit registry benefits younger firms relatively more than older firms.

Designing Credit Lines for Energy Efficiency

Sarkar, Ashok; Sinton, Jonathan; de Wit, Joeri
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.1%
Many economically attractive opportunities to invest in energy efficiency are forgone because of various market barriers, notably the limited availability of commercial financing for energy efficiency projects. Once a government decides, as a matter of policy, to scale up energy efficiency, it typically must engage commercial banks to provide financing to the private end users who will carry out the energy efficiency projects needed to make the national policy a reality. Credit lines help banks establish an energy efficiency business line by mitigating the perceived high financial risk of energy efficiency projects and of the energy service companies that carry them out, and sometimes by building into the credit line a technical assistance component to improve understanding of the fundamentals of energy efficiency projects. Energy efficiency credit lines make funds available to participating financial institutions (including local banks). The success of a credit line depends to a great extent on the selection of competent and committed financial institutions. A technical assistance component built into the credit line helps lower the technical and financial risk of projects.

Facilitating SME Financing through Improved Credit Reporting

International Committee on Credit Reporting
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Relatório
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.03%
The general principles for credit reporting were issued by the World Bank in September 2011. Since then, the World Bank and the international committee on credit reporting (ICCR) have been leading efforts towards the implementation of the general principles worldwide. This report is one of the concrete outputs of the work following the general principles. It addresses one of the most significant problems that limit the ability of most small and medium enterprises (SMEs) around the world to obtain adequate external financing to underpin their productive activities: information asymmetries. Creditors assess the creditworthiness of credit and loan applicants based on two basic criteria: ones financial capacity or ability to repay a loan, and ones willingness to repay the loan. A credit reporting system s (CRS) basic objective is to address information asymmetries, which is crucial for determining repayment capacity and repayment willingness. Credit reporting can therefore be extremely valuable to creditors for enhanced...

Potentials and Constraints of Using Warehouse Receipts Financing

World Bank Group
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.05%
The paper starts with an overview of Cambodia’s rice sector, with a particular attention to aspects which affect its need for external working capital finance, and characteristics and constraints that could hinder access to such finance (e.g., warehousing capacity, processing constraints, logistics, and market risks). Chapter two describes the general conditions for crop-based financing in Cambodia’s rice sector. Chapter three discusses policy options for enhancing the use of paddy and rice as collateral for financing. The chapter sets out the two main modalities: collateral management, and public warehousing. Both collateral management and public warehousing work best when certain support structures are in place, in particular an indemnity system, a system for the electronic trading of warehouse receipts, and a facility for refinancing warehouse receipt loans (which could be managed by the Central Bank or outsourced to another competent entity such as an investment fund). These are discussed in separate sections. The various sections describe the situation as currently prevails in Cambodia...

Determinants of Long-Term versus Short-Term Bank Credit in EU Countries

Park, Haelim; Ruiz, Claudia; Tressel, Thierry
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Working Paper; Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.04%
This paper empirically examines the determinants of credit at different maturities across European Union countries during the last decade. The paper documents the lengthening of maturities since the early 2000s, and whether these patterns were driven by similar factors in advanced countries and in emerging market countries. Before the 2008 crisis, long-term credit expanded faster than short-term credit in most countries in the sample, and contracted less than short-term credit after 2008. The paper finds that domestic deposits and foreign liabilities were more important sources of funding in emerging market countries than in advanced countries. Moreover, trade openness and initial banking sector depth matter more for emerging market countries than for advanced countries.

From Pawn Shops to Banks : The Impact of Formal Credit on Informal Households

Ruiz, Claudia
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.05%
This paper examines the effects of expanding access to credit on the decisions and welfare of households. It focuses on the entry of Banco Azteca, the first bank in Mexico targeting households from the informal sector. Panel data suggest that informal households in municipalities with Banco Azteca branches experienced several changes in their saving, credit and consumption patterns. In order to estimate the impact of Azteca's entry, the paper develops a dynamic model of household choices in which the bank is endogenously selecting the municipalities for branch openings. The analysis finds that in municipalities in which the bank entered, households were better able to smooth their consumption and accumulate more durable goods even though the overall proportion of households that save went down by 6.6 percent. These results suggest that the use of savings as a buffer on income fluctuations declines once formal credit is available. What is more, these effects vary across households. Among informal households...

Mortgage Lending in the Palestinian Territories : Fundamentals for Judges and Lawyers

Palestinian Judicial Training Institute; World Bank; USAID
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Other Financial Sector Study; Economic & Sector Work
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
76.01%
This document describes the training course for lawyers and judges in the Palestinian Territories, which was designed as an introduction to residential mortgage lending, and the use of mortgage collateral. These materials begin with a technical description of mortgage lending and mortgage collateral, the purposes and content of mortgage law, and the general conditions for development and expansion of residential mortgage lending activity. This is followed by a discussion of mortgage lending from the perspective of the financial institutions that originate most loans, including the process of making the loan and the economics of mortgage lending. The sections on economics of mortgage lending include the costs to the creditor, the risks faced by residential mortgage creditors, how creditors determine interest rates and other loan terms, and the effect of loan terms on the ability of citizens to borrow. The discussion of the economics of mortgage lending also focuses on recent research showing how laws affecting creditors' rights and court enforcement of creditors' rights may affect the amount and terms of mortgage lending in a country. The document includes a review and discussion of the current mortgage law in the West Bank and Gaza...

Local Sources of Financing for Infrastructure in Africa : A Cross-Country Analysis

Irving, Jacqueline; Manroth, Astrid
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.03%
With the exception of South Africa, local financial markets in sub-Saharan Africa remain underdeveloped and small, with a particular dearth of financing with maturity terms commensurate with the medium- to long-term horizons of infrastructure projects. But as financial market reforms gather momentum, there is growing awareness of the need to tap local and regional sources. Drawing on a comprehensive new database constructed for the purpose of this research, the paper assesses the actual and potential role of local financial systems for 24 African countries in financing infrastructure. The paper concludes that further development and more appropriate regulation of local institutional investors would help them realize their potential as financing sources, for which they are better suited than local banks because their liabilities would better match the longer terms of infrastructure projects. There are clear signs of positive change: private pension providers are emerging in Africa, there is a shift from defined benefit toward defined contribution plans...

How Bank Competition Affects Firms' Access to Finance

Love, Inessa; Martínez Peria, María Soledad
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.16%
Combining multi-year, firm-level surveys with country-level panel data for 53 countries, the authors explore the impact of bank competition on firms' access to finance. They find that low competition, as measured by high values of the Lerner index, diminishes firms' access to finance, while commonly-used bank concentration measures are not robust predictors of firms' access to finance. In addition, they find that the impact of competition on access to finance depends on the environment that banks operate in. Some features of the environment, such as greater financial development and better credit information, can mitigate the damaging impact of low competition. But other characteristics, such as high government bank ownership, can exacerbate the negative effect.

Bank Competition, Concentration, and Credit Reporting

Bruhn, Miriam; Farazi, Subika; Kanz, Martin
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.04%
This paper explores the empirical relationship between bank competition, bank concentration, and the emergence of credit reporting institutions. The authors find that countries with lower entry barriers into the banking market (that is, a greater threat of competition) are less likely to have a credit bureau, presumably because banks are less willing to share proprietary information when the threat of market entry is high. In addition, a credit bureau is significantly less likely to emerge in economies characterized by a high degree of bank concentration. The authors argue that the reason for this finding is that large banks stand to lose more monopoly rents from sharing their extensive information with smaller players. In contrast, the data show no significant relationship between bank competition or concentration and the emergence of a public credit registry, where banks' participation is mandatory. The results highlight that policies designed to promote the voluntary creation of a credit bureau need to take into account banks' incentives to extract monopoly rents from proprietary credit information.

Belarus - Industrial Performance Before and During the Global Crisis : Belarus Economic Policy Notes : Note No. 2

World Bank
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Country Economic Memorandum
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
75.84%
This note attempts to analyze and tentatively answer these questions by focusing on the drivers of growth and productivity, labor markets and enterprise restructuring, as well as the state system of enterprise support, which is key to understanding the interplay between the state and the economy in Belarus. The period of analysis covers 2004-08 with appropriate references to the previous periods and comparisons with Russia and/or other Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) countries. The final section explores the Belarus's industrial performance in the period of the global crisis (late 2008-09) and reviews the government's policies that have been largely responsible for a relatively mild effect of the crisis on economic dynamics in the country. The analysis is based on the official statistics provided to the team by the National Statistics Committee (Belstat), National Bank, and various ministries, as well as statistics from other national and international statistical sources. In addition, the analysis benefited from the data provided by various enterprise surveys undertaken by the Research Institute by the Ministry of Economy (RIME) and from two sector case studies (in machinery and dairy sub-sectors). Belarus has weathered the crisis so far better than most of its neighbors...