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Uma abordagem baseada em agentes para simulação de tarifação viária e comunicação inter-veicular; An agent-based approach for simulation of road pricing and inter-vehicular communication in intelligent transportation systems

Tavares, Anderson Rocha
Fonte: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul Publicador: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul
Tipo: Dissertação Formato: application/pdf
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
77.955493%
Sistemas de transporte são sistemas complexos compostos de diferentes entidades que interagem entre si. A otimização do uso da infraestrutura de transporte existente, que é cada vez mais necessária dado o crescente aumento da demanda por mobilidade, passa pela simulação de novas tecnologias que podem vir a ser utilizadas no futuro, como a comunicação inter-veicular (IVC) e a tarifação viária adaptativa. Esta dissertação apresenta uma abordagem baseada em agentes para simulação de comunicação inter-veicular e tarifação viária adaptativa em sistemas de transporte. Motoristas são modelados como agentes minimizadores de custo, composto pelo tempo de viagem e pelas despesas com tarifas viárias. Os motoristas podem usar IVC para expandir seu conhecimento do estado da rede viária. Entre os motoristas que usam IVC, podem existir agentes maliciosos, que buscam afastar os demais de suas rotas, através da divulgação de informações falsas. Os agentes maliciosos podem ainda agir de maneira coordenada, de modo a divulgarem informações falsas sobre as rotas de todos os agentes do grupo. Pelo lado da infraestrutura, gerentes viários percebem o fluxo de veículos nas vias da rede viária e definem as tarifas a serem aplicadas através de um esquema de aprendizado por reforço. Nos experimentos realizados...

Estudo da difusão de tecnologia de extração de sacarose no complexo agroindustrial canavieiro utilizando modelos de simulação anget-based; Study of the diffusion of sucrose extraction technology in the sugar-cane agroindustry using agent-based simulation models

André Berto Gimenez
Fonte: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp Publicador: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 28/02/2013 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
77.599697%
Este estudo insere-se na temática da evolução tecnológica da agroindústria canavieira. Este setor tem ganhado relevância conforme aumentam seu leque de produtos e a demanda por estes e conforme ele consolida-se como parcela crescente da matriz energética do país. Tendo estas perspectivas em vista, grandes esforços de pesquisa têm sido despendidos focados nas necessidades e potenciais do setor. Uma vez que estes esforços resultem em inovações, será relevante entender a dinâmica e os determinantes da difusão de inovações na agroindústria canavieira. Neste contexto, propõe-se elaborar e utilizar um modelo de simulação baseado em agentes para organizar, explicitar e testar hipóteses acerca dos determinantes do processo de difusão de nova tecnologia de extração de sacarose. Observa-se a competição entre duas tecnologias alternativas, uma baseada em ternos de moendas e outra baseada em difusores. A primeira, disponível há séculos, mantém-se, no período estudado, dominante sobre a segunda, adaptada da produção de açúcar de beterraba há poucas décadas. Pretende-se, com este estudo, contribuir ao entendimento dos determinantes do processo de difusão de tecnologias no setor. Os resultados obtidos pela simulação indicam que as hipóteses não foram capazes de replicar o fenômeno observado. Isso se mostra útil ao objetivo final da pesquisa conduzida...

Agent based simulation for group formation

Marreiros, Goreti; Santos, Ricardo; Ramos, Carlos; Neves, José
Fonte: European Council for Modelling and Simulation (ECMS) Publicador: European Council for Modelling and Simulation (ECMS)
Tipo: Conferência ou Objeto de Conferência
Publicado em /06/2005 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
87.79883%
Group decision making plays an important role in today’s organisations. The impact of decision making is so high and complex, that rarely the decision making process is made just by one individual. The simulation of group decision making through a Multi-Agent System is a very interesting research topic. The purpose of this paper it to specify the actors involved in the simulation of a group decision, to present a model to the process of group formation and to describe the approach made to implement that model. In the group formation model it is considered the existence of incomplete and negative information, which was identified as crucial to make the simulation closer to the reality.; Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia (FCT) - ArgEmotionAgents - POSI/EIA/56259/2004.

An Agent-based Model of Team Coordination and Performance

Rojas-Villafane, Jose A
Fonte: FIU Digital Commons Publicador: FIU Digital Commons
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/pdf
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
78.06221%
This research is based on the premises that teams can be designed to optimize its performance, and appropriate team coordination is a significant factor to team outcome performance. Contingency theory argues that the effectiveness of a team depends on the right fit of the team design factors to the particular job at hand. Therefore, organizations need computational tools capable of predict the performance of different configurations of teams. This research created an agent-based model of teams called the Team Coordination Model (TCM). The TCM estimates the coordination load and performance of a team, based on its composition, coordination mechanisms, and job’s structural characteristics. The TCM can be used to determine the team’s design characteristics that most likely lead the team to achieve optimal performance. The TCM is implemented as an agent-based discrete-event simulation application built using JAVA and Cybele Pro agent architecture. The model implements the effect of individual team design factors on team processes, but the resulting performance emerges from the behavior of the agents. These team member agents use decision making, and explicit and implicit mechanisms to coordinate the job. The model validation included the comparison of the TCM’s results with statistics from a real team and with the results predicted by the team performance literature. An illustrative 26-1 fractional factorial experimental design demonstrates the application of the simulation model to the design of a team. The results from the ANOVA analysis have been used to recommend the combination of levels of the experimental factors that optimize the completion time for a team that runs sailboats races. This research main contribution to the team modeling literature is a model capable of simulating teams working on complex job environments. The TCM implements a stochastic job structure model capable of capturing some of the complexity not capture by current models. In a stochastic job structure...

A Dynamic View of Litigation. Agent-Based Simulation Insights on Medical Liability Cases

MAYOR, Eunate; SARTOR, Giovanni
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento Formato: application/pdf; digital
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
97.69377%
All substantive areas of law with no exception have a common concern for the processes by which legal disputes get resolved. Naturally, the success of any particular litigation strategy in a legal dispute depends on a number of factors. Examples of influential factors are procedural costs, the judge’s accuracy and, most importantly, the litigation strategy followed by the counterpart in dispute. Previous work has focused on analysing legal disputes individually, thus providing an answer to the question: What litigation strategy may be most appropriate when confronted with a particular counterpart’s strategy? The problem, of course, is that the counterpart’s strategy is rarely known in advance. In contrast, in this paper we adopt a dynamic view of the legal system as a whole. To do this, we assume that the most successful litigation strategies at a certain time are more likely to be followed in the future, so the prevalence of different strategies in the system will generally change in time. Importantly, this change in the frequency of litigation strategies in the legal system will in turn affect the relative success of each litigation strategy, thus creating a double feedback loop between prevalence and success of litigation strategies...

Simulação baseada em agentes para análise econômica de sistemas de apoio à decisão hospitalar em indicação de Unidades de Terapia Intensiva; Economic analysis of hospitalar intensive care indications using decision suport systems through agent based simulation

Guimarães, Gabriel Magalhães Nunes
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 21/10/2014 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
77.60566%
Sistemas gerenciais em estabelecimentos de saúde podem ser considerados sistemas complexos, tendo em vista interação entre diferentes tipos de agentes na tomada de decisão (médico, paciente, gestor, entre outros), observação de transições de fase em epidemiologia, emergência de padrões de comportamento auto-organizado entre profissionais de saúde e incertezas quanto ao desfecho em saúde pós-tratamento. Em geral, os sistemas de apoio à decisão médica buscam maximizar resultados positivos e minimizar riscos em saúde aos pacientes, assim como propor diretrizes terapêuticas padronizadas e controlar custos em saúde. Há evidências de diferenças nos custos e benefícios derivados de sistemas decisórios Bayesianos centralizados (única distribuição a priori) e descentralizados (uma distribuição a priori por médico) aplicados ao processo de decisão de reserva de leito de Unidades de Terapia Intensiva (UTI) para períodos pós-operatórios. A existência de interação entre médicos com diferentes papéis no sistema decisório de indicação de UTI requer técnicas sofisticadas de avaliação econômica para comparação de vantagens e desvantagens associadas sistemas decisórios Bayesianos centralizados e descentralizados; tendo em vista que a aplicação de técnicas simples...

Modeling robot swarms using agent-based simulation

Dickie, Alistair James
Fonte: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: xx, 109 p. : ill. (some col.) ;
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
98.01101%
Approved for public release: distribution is unlimited; In the near future advances in mechanical and electrical engineering will enable the production of a wide variety of relatively low cost robotic vehicles. This thesis investigates the behavior of swarms of military robots acting autonomously. The Multi-Agent Robot Swarm Simulation (MARSS) was developed for modeling the behavior of swarms of military robots. MARSS contains state, sensing, and behavioral model building tools that allow a range of complex entities and interactions to be represented. It is a model-building tool that draws theory and ideas from agent-based simulation, discrete event simulation, traditional operations research, search theory, swarm theory, and experimental design. MARSS enables analysts to explore the effect of individual behavioral factors on swarm performance. The performance response surface can be explored using designed experiments. A model was developed in MARSS to investigate the effects of increasing behavioral complexity for a search scenario involving a swarm of Micro Air Vehicles (MAV's) searching for mobile tanks in a region. Agreement between theoretical and simulated search scenarios for simple searchers was found. The effect of increased MAV sensory and behavioral capability was demonstrated to be important. Little improvement was observed in swarm performance with these capabilities...

Sanction as a Viable Tool for Promoting Cooperation: A Cognitive and Simulation Model

ANDRIGHETTO, Giulia; VILLATORO, Daniel
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento Formato: application/pdf
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
77.6245%
Punishment plays a crucial role in achieving and maintaining norm compliance. Several works have shown that cooperation greatly increases when punishment opportunities are allowed. However, these studies have mainly looked at punishment from the classical economic perspective, as a way of changing people's conduct by increasing the cost of undesired behaviour. In this paper, we distinguish between two enforcing mechanisms, punishment and sanction, focusing on the specific ways in which they promote and maintain cooperation. In particular, by punishment we refer to a practice that works only by imposing a cost, while by sanction we indicate a practice that in addition to that also signals the existence of a norm and that its violation is not condoned. To achieve this, we have developed a normative agent able both to punish and sanction offenders and to be affected by these enforcing mechanisms itself.The results obtained through agent-based simulation show us that sanction is more effective and makes the population more resilient to sudden changes than mere punishment.

The norm-signaling effects of group punishment : combining agent-based simulation and laboratory experiments

VILLATORO, Daniel; ANDRIGHETTO, Giulia; BRANDTS, Jordi; NARDIN, Luis Gustavo; SABATER-MIR, Jordi; CONTE, Rosaria
Fonte: Sage Publications Inc Publicador: Sage Publications Inc
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
97.69377%
Punishment plays a crucial role in favoring and maintaining social order. Recent studies emphasize the effect of the norm-signaling function of punishment. However, very little attention has been paid so far to the potential of group punishment. We claim that when inflicted by an entire group, the recipient of punishment views it as expressing norms. The experiments performed in this work provide evidence that humans are motivated not only by material incentives that punishment imposes but also by normative information that it conveys. The same material incentive has a different effect on the individuals' future compliance depending on the way it is implemented, having a stronger effect when it also conveys normative information. We put forward the hypothesis that by inflicting equal material incentives, group punishment is more effective in enhancing compliance than uncoordinated punishment, because it takes advantage of the norm-signaling function of punishment. In support of our hypothesis, we present cross-methodological data, that is, data obtained through agent-based simulation and laboratory experiments with human subjects. The combination of these two methods allows us to provide an explanation for the proximate mechanisms generating the cooperative behavior observed in the laboratory experiment.; The authors disclosed receipt of the following financial support for the research...

Agent based simulation for group formation

Marreiros, Goreti; Santos, Ricardo; Ramos, Carlos; Neves, José
Fonte: Instituto Politécnico do Porto Publicador: Instituto Politécnico do Porto
Tipo: Conferência ou Objeto de Conferência
Publicado em //2005 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
77.759463%
Group decision making plays an important role in today’s organisations. The impact of decision making is so high and complex, that rarely the decision making process is made just by one individual. The simulation of group decision making through a Multi-Agent System is a very interesting research topic. The purpose of this paper it to specify the actors involved in the simulation of a group decision, to present a model to the process of group formation and to describe the approach made to implement that model. In the group formation model it is considered the existence of incomplete and negative information, which was identified as crucial to make the simulation closer to the reality.

Evaluation of the effectiveness of an organization in the field of brand perception using a computer agent-based simulation system

Eraso Sarmiento, María Fernanda
Fonte: Facultad de administración Publicador: Facultad de administración
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/bachelorThesis; info:eu-repo/semantics/submittedVersion Formato: application/pdf
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
98.0535%
Este proyecto de investigación busca usar un sistema de cómputo basado en modelación por agentes para medir la percepción de marca de una organización en una población heterogénea. Se espera proporcionar información que permita dar soluciones a una organización acerca del comportamiento de sus consumidores y la asociada percepción de marca. El propósito de este sistema es el de modelar el proceso de percepción-razonamiento-acción para simular un proceso de razonamiento como el resultado de una acumulación de percepciones que resultan en las acciones del consumidor. Este resultado definirá la aceptación de marca o el rechazo del consumidor hacia la empresa. Se realizó un proceso de recolección información acerca de una organización específica en el campo de marketing. Después de compilar y procesar la información obtenida de la empresa, el análisis de la percepción de marca es aplicado mediante procesos de simulación. Los resultados del experimento son emitidos a la organización mediante un informe basado en conclusiones y recomendaciones a nivel de marketing para mejorar la percepción de marca por parte de los consumidores.; Centro de Estudios Empresariales para la Perdurabilidad; The present research project tries to use a computer simulation using agent-based modeling to measure the brand’s perception of an organization in the context of a heterogeneous population. This will provide information useful for the organization to better understand its customers’ behaviors towards the brand. The purpose of this agent-based simulation system is to model a person’s perception-reasoning-action process to simulate a reasoning process as the outcome of an accumulation of perceptions that eventually will result in a customer action. This result will define the customers’ brand acceptance or rejection decisions towards the enterprise. A research process was needed to gather information about a specific organization in the field of marketing. After collecting and processing enterprise data...

Demographic agent-based simulation of gambians immigrants in Spain

Montañola-Sales, Cristina; Casanovas Garcia, Josep; Kaplan-Marcusán, Adriana; Cela-Espín, Jose Maria
Fonte: Universidade Autônoma de Barcelona Publicador: Universidade Autônoma de Barcelona
Tipo: Conferência ou Objeto de Conferência Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em //2014 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
87.90099%
Changes in our society have created a challenge for policymakers, who confront a need of tools to evaluate the possible effects of their policies. Agent-based modelling and simulation is a promising methodology which can be used in the study of population dynamics. In this paper we introduce an agent-based simulation approach to project the population of Gambian migrants in Spain during 10 years. Our approach not only enables to simulate the life course of individuals, but also allows deeping on the movements, interactions, and behaviours of the target population. The model is able to capture individual characteristics and to overcome some data-related limitations with assumptions on behavioural rules. With this methodology, we want to show the potential of the tool with the study of a real case scenario.

Information technology and the topologies of transmission : a research area for historical simulation

Gotts, Nicholas Mark
Fonte: Universidade Autônoma de Barcelona Publicador: Universidade Autônoma de Barcelona
Tipo: Conferência ou Objeto de Conferência Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em //2014 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
77.62276%
This paper surveys possibilities for applying the methods of agent-based simulation to the study of historical transitions in communication technology.

Multi-scale agent-based simulation of long-term dispersal processes : challenges in modeling hominin biogeography and expansion

Timm, Ingo J.; Lorig, Fabian; Holzchen, Ericson; Hertler, Christine
Fonte: Universidade Autônoma de Barcelona Publicador: Universidade Autônoma de Barcelona
Tipo: Conferência ou Objeto de Conferência Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em //2014 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
87.69377%
The Out-of-Africa-Theory, as a model of the early migration of anatomically modern humans, describes Africa as geographical source of dispersal processes to Eurasia. However, there is no scientific consensus on the reason or the exact route of the migration. In this paper key challenges for modeling hominin biogeography and expansion using agent-based approaches are being proposed.

Transmob: an agent based simulation of transport demand and residential mobility in South East Sydney

Perez, Pascal; Huynh, Nam; Cao, Vu Lam,; Wickramasuriya, Rohan; Berryman, Matthew
Fonte: Universidade Autônoma de Barcelona Publicador: Universidade Autônoma de Barcelona
Tipo: Conferência ou Objeto de Conferência Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em //2014 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
98.01248%
This paper presents an agent-based simulation, called TransMob, of transport demand and residential mobility in South East Sydney, Australia. In this model, each agent represents an individual resident of the study area. Each agent is given an initial travel diary. Agents are grouped in various types of household which generate social interdependencies and additional constrains on travel diaries. This initial synthetic population is then allowed to evolve for 20 years, driven by natural growth parameters, social bonding and migration rates. A micro-simulation component calculates daily traffic conditions and individual travel times, allowing for multi-modal journeys. The transport mode choice component uses a multinomial logit model for individual decisions based on various fixed and variable costs as well as socio-economic characteristics. Residential mobility is simulated through a two-step process: first, deciding to move out; then, selecting a destination for relocation. The first step uses a multinomial logit model, while the second one uses a semi-empirical perceived liveability model to inform individual decisions.

An agent-based simulation of the emergence of partnership systems in early renaissance florence

Comer, Kevin T.; Comer, Kenneth W.
Fonte: Universidade Autônoma de Barcelona Publicador: Universidade Autônoma de Barcelona
Tipo: Conferência ou Objeto de Conferência Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em //2014 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
77.60566%
The emergence of the partnership system in Early Renaissance Florence is often noted as a pivotal moment in the formation of capitalism. However, this social invention was not developed as a completely redefined system, but was the gradual process of adapting guild partnerships to domestic and international business. The purpose for this paper is to describe a simplistic agent-based model, where individuals form partnerships based on paradigms common in the medieval Florentine economy, as well as the results of the simulations. The final result is the emergence of entirely different partnership network structures, consistent with the structures seen in the early 15th century, as well as a rise in individual capital which led to the success of this system replicating itself across the European landscape.

Moderate and polarized opinions. Using empirical data for an agent-based simulation

Stefanelli, Annalisa; Seidl, Roman
Fonte: Universidade Autônoma de Barcelona Publicador: Universidade Autônoma de Barcelona
Tipo: Conferência ou Objeto de Conferência Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em //2014 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
77.765283%
The selection of a potential site for a deep ground repository for nuclear waste in Switzerland is designed as a participatory process where the citizens’ opinions play a central role. Understanding how Swiss citizens form and change their opinions over time on this specific issue is this study’s main goal. For this purpose, different methodological approaches are needed. First, a longitudinal online survey based on an argumentative approach aims to show the main dynamics and changes of the opinions over time. Second, an agent-based model simulates opinion changes based on the empirical data and sociopsychological theories. Results of the online survey show the replication of a four-opinion cluster (i.e., in favor, opposing, ambivalent, indifferent) and the relevance of using the dimensions of valence and importance for the arguments. The implementation of the agent-based simulation is discussed.

An Agent Based Simulation of Smart Metering Technology Adoption

Zhang, Tao; Nuttall, William J.
Fonte: Faculty of Economics, University of Cambridge, UK Publicador: Faculty of Economics, University of Cambridge, UK
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
87.60565%
Based on the classic behavioural theory ?the Theory of Planned Behaviour?, we develop an agent-based model to simulate the diffusion of smart metering technology in the electricity market. We simulate the emergent adoption of smart metering technology under different management strategies and economic regulations. Our research results show that in terms of boosting the take-off of smart meters in the electricity market, choosing the initial users on a random and geographically dispersed basis and encouraging meter competition between energy suppliers can be two very effective strategies. We also observe an ?S-curve? diffusion of smart metering technology and a ?lock-in? effect in the model. The research results provide us with insights as to effective policies and strategies for the roll-out of smart metering technology in the electricity market.

Fuel Panics - insights from spatial agent-based simulation

Upton, Eben; Nuttall, William J.
Fonte: EPRG, Faculty of Economics, University of Cambridge Publicador: EPRG, Faculty of Economics, University of Cambridge
Tipo: Working Paper; not applicable
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
87.60565%
The United Kingdom has twice suffered major disruption as a result of fuel panics first in September 2000 coincident with a wave of fuel protests and more recently in March 2012 following politcal warnings of possible future supply chain disruption. In each case the disruption and economic consequences were serious. Fuel distribution is an example of a supply chain. Approaches to supply-chain planning based on linear programming are poorly suited to modelling non-equilibrium effects, while coarse-grained system dynamics models often fail to capture local phenomena which contribute to the evolution of global demand. In this Paper, we demonstrate that agent-based techniques offer a powerful framework for cosimulation of supply chains and consumers under conditions of transient demand. In the case of fuel panic crisis, we show that even a highly abstract model can reproduce a range of transient phenomena seen in the real world, and present a set of practical recommendations for policymakers faced with panic-buying.

AGENT-BASED SIMULATION APPROACH TO URBAN DYNAMICS MODELING

LIÉVANO MARTÍNEZ,FEDERICO; OLAYA MORALES,YRIS
Fonte: DYNA Publicador: DYNA
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/06/2012 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
97.69377%
This article presents a general agent-based simulation approach that captures agents' decision-making processes and dynamic relationships that determine urban shape. The article shows how to simulate urban growth patterns and land-use change dynamics using economic assumptions and by modeling the interactions of computational agents.