Drug desensitization is the induction, within hours to days, of a temporary state of tolerance to a drug which the patient has developed a hypersensitivity reaction to. It may be used for IgE and non-IgE mediated allergic reactions, and certain non-allergic reactions. The indication for desensitization is where no alternative medications are available for the treatment of that condition, and where the benefits of desensitization outweigh the risks. Desensitization is a therapeutic modality for drug allergy (similar to allergen specific immunotherapy for allergic rhinitis and insect venom anaphylaxis). In contrast, the drug provocation test is a diagnostic modality used to confirm or refute the diagnosis of drug allergy. This review discusses the clinical applications of desensitization for the treatment of common infectious, metabolic and cardiovascular diseases, and oncological conditions in the Asia-Pacific region.
Allergic conjunctivitis (AC) represents a spectrum of disorders, comprising seasonal allergic conjunctivitis (SAC), perennial allergic conjunctivitis (PAC), atopic keratoconjunctivitis (AKC), vernal keratoconjunctivitis (VKC) and giant papillary conjunctivitis. Of these ocular allergy types, SAC and PAC are the most common.The most striking difference within this group of ocular diseases is that SAC and PAC remain self-limited without ocular surface damage, while AKC and VKC can compromise the cornea, causing ulcers and scarring and can ultimately lead to vision loss. Data on AC in the Asia Pacific is scarce however some understanding of prevalence of the condition has been obtained from the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC) studies and more recently from the Allergies in Asia Pacific study as well as some information from individual country surveys. Unfortunately none of this data has been collected using validated survey instruments specifically designed for AC. Surveys such as ISAAC have been predominantly concerned with respiratory allergic symptoms with questions added that incorporate some ocular symptoms. These questionnaires do not detect individuals who may have AC in the absence of allergic rhinitis. Using hospital ophthalmology outpatient populations for prevalence studies of ocular allergy immediately introduces a bias towards the more severe...
Radiocontrast media (RCM) is a major cause of drug hypersensitivity reactions as the medical application of RCM is increasing recently. RCM induced hypersensitivity reactions are considered as unpredictable type B reactions. Underlying mechanism of RCM induced hypersensitivity was previously regarded as nonimmunological mechanisms but recent studies suggest that immunological mechanisms could also be involved. As a result, the roles of skin tests and premedication are revisiting. As there has been no report that comprehensively summarized and analyzed the results of the studies on RCM hypersensitivity in the Asia Pacific region, we aimed to review the literatures on hypersensitivity reactions to RCM in terms of prevalence clinical manifestations, diagnostic approach, and preventive measures in the Asia Pacific region.
Introduction: The paper then seeks to go beyond rhetoric and emotive debates and develop a framework for facilitating effective technology development and transfer in different countries in the Asia-Pacific region. By focusing on issues related to agrarian structure, agricultural systems, and the nature of global and regional integration, a heterodox and heterogeneous approach to the analysis of technology uptake and impact assessment will be developed. It is argued that such an approach is essential for formulating effective policies for agricultural biotechnology.; no
This paper argues that the most important environmental challenge within the Asia-Pacific region is that of uninternalised externalities. While developed countries have put in place mechanisms of governance and regulatory structures that internalise most of their domestic environmental external effects the same cannot be said of domestic environmental external effects of developing countries and transnational environmental external effects, although these are some of the most pressing environmental problems facing the countries in the region. Whereas developing countries are paying a high price for uninternalised domestic externalities they and the developed countries have an important stake in finding internalisation solutions to transnational environmental externalities. The paper argues that absence of linkage among these issues and other outcomes of keen interest to developing countries (viz. trade negotiations and the possibility of side payments) has made progress in this area impossible. Hence there is a case for institutional innovation to facilitate Coasian deal-making among these countries through issue linkage.; no
The Asia Pacific region is home to more than 60% of the world’s population. Life expectancy at birth differs between countries by as much as 27 years. This article suggests that asymmetric economic growth, unplanned urbanization, marked environmental change, unequal improvements in daily living conditions, and the unequal distribution and access to quality health care have contributed to health inequities in the Asia Pacific region. Contextually specific evidence and action are needed. This requires ongoing monitoring of health inequities and systematic evaluation of societal changes and their impact on health inequities. It requires better understanding of how to translate theoretical and empirical demonstrations of the social and environmental impact on health inequities into evidence-informed policies and programs, in diverse geopolitical, socioeconomic, and sociocultural contexts across the Asia Pacific region and the range of associated complex policy processes. A spotlight is needed on health inequities and their causes else the status quo will persist.
This chapter provides an overview of Free Trade Agreements (FTAs) in the Asia-Pacific region. It examines the multiple interpretations of the ‘Asia-Pacific’ and asks about the usefulness of this concept as a focus of comparison. It explains the political and economic background of concluded agreements, the negotiations in progress and the formation of regional clusters of FTAs, and also shows the enormous differences in IP content in the various agreements. With the exception of Japan, Asia-Pacific countries appear as relatively reluctant converts to higher IP standards. Even the industrialized economies of the region that had to increase their IP standards after agreements with the US, EU or Japan do not necessarily impose the same standards on regional neighbours. Instead, ‘soft diplomacy’ in IP matters is important to countries in the region, as is new subject matter for intellectual property protection such as traditional knowledge and traditional cultural expressions.
Pt. 1. The Asia-Pacfic coastal zone: 1. Importance of Global Change for Coastal Management in the Asia-Pacific Region / Nick Harvey and Nobuo Mimura -- 2. State of the Environment in the Asia and Pacific Coastal Zones and Effects of Global Change / Nobuo Mimura -- Pt. 2. New directions in research: 3. Coastal Management In The Asia-Pacific Region / Nick Harvey and Mike Hilton -- 4. Catchment-Coast Interaction in the Asia-Pacific Region Shu Gao -- 5. Coastal Evolution in the Asia-Pacific Region / Patrick D. Nunn and Roselyn Kumar -- 6. Human responses to coastal change in the Asia-Pacific Region / Patrick D. Nunn ... [et al.] -- 7. Hotspots of Urbanization and Population Growth in the Asia-Pacific Region / Poh Poh Wong, Lee Boon-Thong and Maggi W H Leung -- 8. Pressures on Rural Coasts in the Asia-Pacific Region / Liana Talaue-McManus -- 9. Impacts of Pollutants the Asia-Pacific Region / Koshy Kayanathu and Zafar Adeel -- 10. Landscape Variability and the Response of Asian Megadeltas to Environmental Change / Colin D. Woodroffe ... [et al.] -- 11. New Directions for Global Change Coastal Research Related to Integrated Coastal Management in the Asia-Pacific Region / Nick Harvey and Nobuo Mimura.; Nick Harvey
BACKGROUND: Pancreatic cancer accounts for about 220,000 deaths each year. Known risk factors are smoking and type 2 diabetes. It remains to be seen whether these risk factors are equally important in Asia and whether other modifiable risk factors have important associations with pancreatic cancer. METHODS: An individual participant data analysis of 30 cohort studies was carried out, involving 420,310 Asian participants (33% female) and 99,333 from Australia/New Zealand (45% female). Cox proportional hazard models, stratified by study and sex and adjusted for age, were used to quantify risk factors for death from pancreatic cancer. RESULTS: During 3,558,733 person-years of follow-up, there were 324 deaths from pancreatic cancer (54% Asia and 33% female). Mortality rates (per 100,000 person-years) from pancreatic cancer were 10 for men and 8 for women. The following are age-adjusted hazard ratios (95% confidence interval) for death from pancreatic cancer: for current smoking, 1.61 (1.12-2.32); for diabetes, 1.76 (1.15-2.69); for a 2-cm increase in waist circumference, 1.08 (1.02-1.14). All three relationships remained significant (P < 0.05) after adjustment for other risk factors. There was no evidence of heterogeneity in the strength of these associations between either cohorts from Asia and Australia/New Zealand or between the sexes. In men...
Background Few prospective data from the Asia-Pacific region are available relating body mass index (BMI) to the risks of stroke and ischaemic heart disease (IHD). Our objective was to assess the age-, sex-, and region-specific associations of BMI with cardiovascular disease using individual participant data from prospective studies in the Asia-Pacific region. Methods Studies were identified from literature searches, proceedings of meetings, and personal communication. All studies had at least 5000 person-years of follow-up. Hazard ratios were calculated from Cox models, stratified by sex and cohort, and adjusted for age at risk and smoking. The first 3 years of follow-up were excluded in order to reduce confounding due to disease at baseline. Results A total of 33 cohort studies, including 310 283 participants, contributed 2 148 354 person-years of follow-up, during which 3332 stroke and 2073 IHD events were observed. There were continuous positive associations between baseline BMI and the risks of ischaemic stroke, haemorrhagic stroke, and IHD, with each 2 kg/m2 lower BMI associated a 12% (95% CI: 9, 15%) lower risk of ischaemic stroke, 8% (95% CI: 4, 12%) lower risk in haemorrhagic stroke, and 11% (95% CI: 9, 13%) lower risk of IHD. The strengths of all associations were strongly age dependent...
This study is a part of the research project “Public, Elite and Media Perceptions of the European Union in Asia Pacific Region: A comparative Study” which is broadly concerned with how information about the EU is organized and structured in media discourses in Australia, Korea, New Zealand, and Thailand, and focuses on how that information compares with public and elite perceptions of the EU in those countries. More specifically, this study draws on evidence relating to the flow and structure of EU news in print media in the four respective countries. To examine that, a systematic analytical approach featuring a set of formal characteristics of dynamics, length, placement, sources, leading topics, degree of centrality and foci of domesticity is employed. Data comes from the daily coverage of the EU in 20 influential regional dailies in the first half of 2004. Results of this research are viewed as a baseline from which to consider dominating images, perceptions and attitudes towards the EU in Asia-Pacific in a greater detail; Natalia Chaban, Kim Se Na, Katrina Stats and Paveena Sutthisripok
Purpose – This paper aims to provide an investigation into whether financial analysts' forecast accuracy differs between the pre- and post-adoption of the international financial reporting standards (IFRS) in the Asia-Pacific region, namely, for the countries of Australia, Hong Kong and New Zealand. In particular, this study seeks to examine whether the treatment of intangibles capitalized in the post-IFRS period have positively aided analysts in forecasting future earnings of a firm. Design/methodology/approach – Panel data analysis is applied over a period from 2001 to 2008. Findings – Evidence is found to show intangibles capitalized under the new recognition and measurement rules of IFRS are negatively associated with analysts' earnings forecast errors. The results are robust to several model specifications across each of the countries, suggesting that the adoption of IFRS may indeed provide more value-relevant information in financial statements for the users of financial reports. Originality/value – This paper analyzed whether the adoption of IFRS has led to any changes in the accuracy of earnings forecasts. The results will be of help to analysts' earnings forecast activity and those with interest in the subject.; Chee Seng Cheong...
The paper examines Japan's policy on multilateral security cooperation in the Asia-Pacific region. The central question the paper addresses is why Japan shifted its position from opposition to endorsement. Japanese policy is examined from two dimensions, namely functional and geopolitical. The former looks at Tokyo's policy change from its previous multilateral diplomacy whereas the latter analyses the shift from its Asian (Asia-Pacific) diplomacy. The paper finds that while there are five major factors that influenced Japanese policy-making, the reduction of U.S. military presence after the end of the Cold War and Japan's bitter experience in the Persian Gulf crisis were the driving forces behind Japan's policy change.; no
On 4 June 2008 Prime Minister Kevin Rudd proposed the establistunent of an Asia
Pacific Community in an address to the Asia Society Australasia Centre in Sydney.
He deemed the 21st century the Asia Pacific Century and proposed the establistunent
of an Asia Pacific Community as an ideal way for Australia to approach the changing
times. The community Rudd described was to be inclusive of all states in the Asia
Pacific region and to tackle all economic, political, and security matters the region
faced. He described the community as a means by which Australia could maximise its
opportunities and minimise its threats, given its unique geographical position.
The announcement of such a significant organisation required examination. Before
being able to judge whether or not the idea was feasible, reasons for the proposal had
to be examined. As the proposal was such a recent revelation and the details of the
community unknown even to Rudd himself, research had to be carried out in a
number of ways, including interviewing people with varied expertise. Each
interviewed person stressed the uncertain nature of the 21st centt1ry; the Asia Pacific
Century, according to Rudd, or the Asian Century, according to most others. Since the
end of the Cold War global interaction has been dominated by the Western liberal
order as the United States has enjoyed supreme economic...
The Australian Parliament has been involved in an extensive range of capacity
building activities to strengthen parliamentary democracy in the Asia Pacific
region. There are many different actors involved in this are within the
Australian Parliament, they all work with similar objectives for the Australian
Parliament. By parliamentary democracy, they want the establishment of a
better-functioning legislative sector, which can resolve immediate legislative issues.
Also, they believe that the efficiency of the legislative process, transparency, and
accountability of indigenous culture and existing rules are necessary to be
achieved for a better-functioning legislative sector, or parliamentary democracy.
The actors in the Australian Parliament are seeking for national benefits of
Australia by being engaged in the activities for parliamentary democracy;
regional stability and dialogues with other states in the region.
Many different actors within the Australian Parliament are involved in
activities to strengthen parliamentary democracy in Asia Pacific. When the
Australian Parliament engages itself with the partner parliament directly, it
organises study tour programs as its major method. They reflect the Australian
Parliament's desire for parliamentary democracy in Asia Pacific...
APEC was formed in 1989 in response to a call from the former Australian Prime
Minister Mr. Bob Hawke for more effective economic cooperation across the Asia
Pacific Region. The first informal meetings were attended by twelve member
countries. Since then APEC has grown to include 21 members and has become
the region's leading forum. Economic leaders meet annually to develop strategies
for promoting growth and economic development in the Asia-Pacific region.
There are currently three Latin American nations in APEC; Mexico, Chile and
Peru. Mexico was the first Latin American nation to join APEC in 1993, followed a
year later by Chile. Peru was given entry in to the group in 1998.
The validity of the involvement of Latin American countries in APEC has been
questioned by certain commentators. It is argued that APEC is a forum for the
Asia-Pacific and that Latin America does not fit in this region.
Statistics show that APEC is dominated by the economies from North East Asia
and North America. These economies are responsible for the majority of APEC's
exports and are the major destination for imports from other countries. This fact
does not either support or refute the relevance of the Latin American economies
to APEC. A closer analysis of the Latin American economies does however
demonstrate that since joining APEC their trade with East Asia has not only
The Asia Pacific region has its share of security concerns. The Taiwan issue is one dimension of
Asia Pacific security which has often been defined by and referred to with 'ambiguous' policies,
making the potential for actual conflict harder to ascertain. The perspectives of the United States
(US), and its closest Asia-Pacific allies - Australia and Japan - will have a great effect on how
future policies are developed regarding Taiwan, particularly in light of recent developments which
have taken place over the last decade or so.
The Bush administration has defined the terms of the Taiwan Relations Act (TRA) according to its
defensive nature, providing the small island with guarantees of defence in the event of an attack,
'whilst simultaneously discouraging moves for independence. The US perspective is increasingly
important because of this, and because of the developing hegemonic rivalry with China. Questions
about the potential for conflict have been raised, as tensions increase over the undetermined
sovereignty of Taiwan. The US is perceived as an imposing power, with motives to contain' China in
what China perceives are its own, internal affairs. Although conflict is not likely for the near
future, moves which exacerbate cross-strait tensions should be averted at all costs in order to
maintain Asia-Pacific stability. This will require China and the US to acknowledge each others
superiority as part of the current world order...
Since emerging as a leading industrial economy, Japan has played an important role in promoting Asia Pacific economic cooperation. Japan has been instrumental in every major initiative in economic cooperation in the region over the past three decades, including the Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) forum launched in 1989. Japan’s commitment to free trade, reinforced by its own experience of discriminatory trade policies in the immediate postwar period, has made it a strong advocate of the principle of ‘open regionalism’ on which APEC is founded. Commitment to this principle has provided the basis for a process of unilateral liberalisation of trade, including agreed time frames, which allows the developing economies of the Asia Pacific region to progress towards free trade in a flexible manner and provides some protection against ‘free riders’. The strength of this commitment will assist member economies to counter pressure for preferential trading arrangements and facilitate the extension of free trade to sectors which involve cooperation with economies outside the Asia Pacific region.; no
BACKGROUND: About half of the world's cases of cardiovascular disease occur in the Asia-Pacific region. The contribution of serum total cholesterol (TC) to this burden is poorly quantified. DESIGN: The most recent nationally representative data on TC distributions for countries in the region were sought. Individual participant data from 380,483 adults in the Asia Pacific Cohort Studies Collaboration were used to estimate associations between TC and cardiovascular disease. METHODS: High TC was defined as > or =6.2 mmol/l, and nonoptimal TC as > or =3.8 mmol/l. Hazard ratios for fatal coronary heart disease (CHD) and ischaemic stroke (IS) were found from Cox models. Sex-specific population attributable fractions for high TC and nonoptimal TC were estimated for each country. The former used conventional methods, based on single measures of TC and a fixed dichotomy of risk strata; the latter took account of the continuous positive association between TC and both CHD and IS and regression dilution. RESULTS: Data were available from 16 countries. Where reported, the prevalence of high TC ranged from 4 to 27%. The fraction of fatal CHD and IS attributable to high TC ranged from 0 to 14% and 0 to 15%, respectively. Although leaving the relative ranking of countries much the same...
The rapid growth of the populous Asian economies provokes profound economic changes and a shift in the balance of power. On the economic front, Asian leaders are confronted with the need to preserve the stability that has underpinned their prosperity, maintain an environment conducive to trade and investments and encourage domestic consumption while avoiding ecological disasters. Internationally, business competition will intensify with the strong presence of Asian manufacturers in global supply chains, growing price competition from Asian firms in domestic markets and global competition for energy, food, minerals and other commodities. Geopolitical concerns stem, in part, from Asia’s global quest for critical resources, conflicting territorial and maritime disputes and increasing military expenditures which affect security dynamics. China’s assertiveness over its periphery prompts an arm’s race in the region and concerns about Sino-American relations even though U.S.-Chinese relations may be less risky than China’s relations with its neighbours. The United States remains a key player in the Asia-Pacific region, with the capacity to alter balances and affect outcomes. Globally, the United States capacity to lead is now diminished and will continue to be so for the foreseeable future. Since no rising power is capable of exercising global leadership...