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Ilusões temporais: um estudo sobre percepção de tempo em função de contingências de reforçamento e punição, a partir do relato verbal; Temporal illusions: A study about time perception as a function of contingencies of reinforcement and punishment, stated through verbal report

Gerab, Flavio Karpinscki
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 03/02/2014 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
17.803533%
As alteracoes na percepcao da passagem do tempo dos seres humanos tem sido investigadas em relacao as caracteristicas de diversos estimulos, condicoes corporais ou determinados tipos de tarefa. Porem, pouco se sabe sobre essas alteracoes como funcao das contingencias reforcadoras ou punitivas que controlam o comportamento. Este estudo visou investigar essa questao experimentalmente atraves do uso de um jogo virtual em computador simulando percursos de um avatar em um labirinto com 36 situacoes de escolha entre esquerda e direita. Pontos poderiam ser ganhos ou perdidos, sendo a pontuacao final convertida em titulos de nobreza hipoteticos dentro de um ranking previamente estabelecido. Tres contingencias foram manipuladas: sob Punicao (P) escolhas erradas entre direita e esquerda produziam perda de pontos; sob Reforcamento (R) escolhas certas produziam ganho de pontos; na condicao Controle (C) nao havia alteracao nos pontos. No Experimento 1 (n=60), tres grupos foram manipulados, cada um exposto a uma dessas contingencias; no Experimento 1A (n=40) novos participantes passaram pelas condicoes P e R, porem com uma alteracao na instrucao explicitando o nao perigo de morte do avatar; no Experimento 2 (n=6), cada participante foi exposto as tres condicoes experimentais...

A introdução de avatares como fator de sociabilidade em sítios de comércio eletrónico : perspetivas para as empresas de comércio tradicional

Alves, António Manuel Almeida
Fonte: Universidade do Minho Publicador: Universidade do Minho
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado
Publicado em //2012 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
28.094822%
Dissertação de mestrado em Marketing e Gestão Estratégica; A falta de sociabilidade e calor humano das plataformas de venda na Internet tem sido apontada como um dos principais entraves à sua adoção generalizada. Vários estudos demonstram que a introdução de estímulos sociais aumenta a confiança apercebida e a credibilidade das lojas online. Estes fatores têm um impacto determinante na adoção de comportamentos de compra e fidelização por parte dos consumidores. Esta dissertação aborda o tema da introdução de avatares como estímulos de sociabilidade e calor humano em sítios de comércio eletrónico e as suas implicações para o marketing digital. Simultaneamente tenta levantar perspetivas de aproveitamento do enorme manancial de conhecimento sobre relacionamento personalizado com os clientes que as empresas de comércio tradicional possuem e aplicá-lo a esta tecnologia. A combinação da tecnologia de avatares com a expertise destas empresas, aplicada numa loja online, pode tornar-se numa vantagem competitiva para elas. Levamos a efeito uma experiência online onde três grupos independentes de sujeitos foram expostos, cada um, a uma loja eletrónica correspondente a um nível de sociabilidade distinto: loja com texto e imagem apenas...

Virtually Naked: Virtual Environment Reveals Sex-Dependent Nature of Skin Disclosure

Lomanowska, Anna M.; Guitton, Matthieu J.
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 26/12/2012 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
17.18738%
The human tendency to reveal or cover naked skin reflects a competition between the individual propensity for social interactions related to sexual appeal and interpersonal touch versus climatic, environmental, physical, and cultural constraints. However, due to the ubiquitous nature of these constraints, isolating on a large scale the spontaneous human tendency to reveal naked skin has remained impossible. Using the online 3-dimensional virtual world of Second Life, we examined spontaneous human skin-covering behavior unhindered by real-world climatic, environmental, and physical variables. Analysis of hundreds of avatars revealed that virtual females disclose substantially more naked skin than virtual males. This phenomenon was not related to avatar hypersexualization as evaluated by measurement of sexually dimorphic body proportions. Furthermore, analysis of skin-covering behavior of a population of culturally homogeneous avatars indicated that the propensity of female avatars to reveal naked skin persisted despite explicit cultural norms promoting less revealing attire. These findings have implications for further understanding how sex-specific aspects of skin disclosure influence human social interactions in both virtual and real settings.

Children and Adults use Attractiveness as a Social Cue in Real People and Avatars

Principe, Connor P.; Langlois, Judith H.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
17.833359%
Observing social interactions between children and adults is a major method in the toolkit of psychologists who examine social development and social relationships. Although this method has revealed many interesting phenomena, it cannot determine the effect of behavior independent of other traits. Research on the role of attractiveness in social development provides an example of this conundrum: Are attractive and unattractive children/adults treated differently because of their attractiveness (independent of their behavior), do they behave differently and thus elicit differential treatment, or both? Virtual world and avatar-based technologies allow researchers to control the social behaviors of targets; however, whether children and adults use the facial attractiveness of avatars as a social cue in the same way they do real peers is currently unknown. Using Mii™ avatars from the popular Nintendo® Wii™ video game console, Study 1 found that the facial attractiveness ratings of real people strongly predicted the attractiveness ratings of avatar faces based on the former group. Study 2 revealed that adults (n = 46) and children (n = 42) prefer attractive avatars as social partners. The results of this set of methodological studies may help to clarify future research on the relationship between attractiveness and behavior throughout the lifespan. Furthermore...

A Randomized Trial of an Avatar-Hosted Multiple Behavior Change Intervention for Young Adult Smokers

An, Lawrence C.; Demers, Michele R. S.; Kirch, Matthias A.; Considine-Dunn, Shannon; Nair, Vijay; Dasgupta, Kohinoor; Narisetty, Naveen; Resnicow, Ken; Ahluwalia, Jasjit
Fonte: Oxford University Press Publicador: Oxford University Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
16.98262%

Cultures of Trust: Effects of Avatar Faces and Reputation Scores on German and Arab Players in an Online Trust-Game

Bente, Gary; Dratsch, Thomas; Kaspar, Kai; Häßler, Tabea; Bungard, Oliver; Al-Issa, Ahmad
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 05/06/2014 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.521343%
Reputation systems as well as seller depictions (photos; avatars) have been shown to reduce buyer uncertainty and to foster trust in online trading. With the emergence of globalized e-markets, it remains an urgent question whether these mechanisms, found to be effective for Western cultures, also apply to other cultures. Hypothesizing that members of collectivistic cultures in contrast to those of individualistic cultures would rely more on visual social cues (seller faces) than on factual information (reputation scores), we compared buying decisions of Arab and German participants in an experimental trust game. Photo-realistic avatars were used instead of photos to control facial features and expressions. The results revealed significant main effects for both reputation scores and avatar faces. Moreover, both variables significantly affected the purchase behavior of Arab as well as German buyers, suggesting cross-cultural universals in the processing of trust cues. The results have implications for future cross-cultural studies in e-commerce as well as the design of online markets and shared virtual environments.

Brain-machine interfacing control of whole-body humanoid motion

Bouyarmane, Karim; Vaillant, Joris; Sugimoto, Norikazu; Keith, François; Furukawa, Jun-ichiro; Morimoto, Jun
Fonte: Frontiers Media S.A. Publicador: Frontiers Media S.A.
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 05/08/2014 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
16.98262%
We propose to tackle in this paper the problem of controlling whole-body humanoid robot behavior through non-invasive brain-machine interfacing (BMI), motivated by the perspective of mapping human motor control strategies to human-like mechanical avatar. Our solution is based on the adequate reduction of the controllable dimensionality of a high-DOF humanoid motion in line with the state-of-the-art possibilities of non-invasive BMI technologies, leaving the complement subspace part of the motion to be planned and executed by an autonomous humanoid whole-body motion planning and control framework. The results are shown in full physics-based simulation of a 36-degree-of-freedom humanoid motion controlled by a user through EEG-extracted brain signals generated with motor imagery task.

Computing Arm Movements with a Monkey Brainet

Ramakrishnan, Arjun; Ifft, Peter J.; Pais-Vieira, Miguel; Woo Byun, Yoon; Zhuang, Katie Z.; Lebedev, Mikhail A.; Nicolelis, Miguel A.L.
Fonte: Nature Publishing Group Publicador: Nature Publishing Group
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 09/07/2015 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
16.98262%
Traditionally, brain-machine interfaces (BMIs) extract motor commands from a single brain to control the movements of artificial devices. Here, we introduce a Brainet that utilizes very-large-scale brain activity (VLSBA) from two (B2) or three (B3) nonhuman primates to engage in a common motor behaviour. A B2 generated 2D movements of an avatar arm where each monkey contributed equally to X and Y coordinates; or one monkey fully controlled the X-coordinate and the other controlled the Y-coordinate. A B3 produced arm movements in 3D space, while each monkey generated movements in 2D subspaces (X-Y, Y-Z, or X-Z). With long-term training we observed increased coordination of behavior, increased correlations in neuronal activity between different brains, and modifications to neuronal representation of the motor plan. Overall, performance of the Brainet improved owing to collective monkey behaviour. These results suggest that primate brains can be integrated into a Brainet, which self-adapts to achieve a common motor goal.

Uma abordagem comportamental para inserção de robôs em ambientes culturais

Antunes, Viviane André
Fonte: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte; BR; UFRN; Programa de Pós-Graduação em Engenharia Elétrica; Automação e Sistemas; Engenharia de Computação; Telecomunicações Publicador: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte; BR; UFRN; Programa de Pós-Graduação em Engenharia Elétrica; Automação e Sistemas; Engenharia de Computação; Telecomunicações
Tipo: Dissertação Formato: application/pdf
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
18.244021%
In this work, we propose methodologies and computer tools to insert robots in cultural environments. The basic idea is to have a robot in a real context (a cultural space) that can represent an user connected to the system through Internet (visitor avatar in the real space) and that the robot also have its representation in a Mixed Reality space (robot avatar in the virtual space). In this way, robot and avatar are not simply real and virtual objects. They play a more important role in the scenery, interfering in the process and taking decisions. In order to have this service running, we developed a module composed by a robot, communication tools and ways to provide integration of these with the virtual environment. As welI we implemented a set of behaviors with the purpose of controlling the robot in the real space. We studied available software and hardware tools for the robotics platform used in the experiments, as welI we developed test routines to determine their potentialities. Finally, we studied the behavior-based control model, we planned and implemented alI the necessary behaviors for the robot integration to the real and virtual cultural spaces. Several experiments were conducted, in order to validate the developed methodologies and tools; Neste trabalho...

Realidade virtual na atividade cerebral: um estudo comparativo entre estados emocionais de adultos jovens e idosos

Silva, Wagner Henrique de Souza
Fonte: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte; BR; UFRN; Programa de Pós-Graduação em Fisioterapia; Movimento e Saúde Publicador: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte; BR; UFRN; Programa de Pós-Graduação em Fisioterapia; Movimento e Saúde
Tipo: Dissertação Formato: application/pdf
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
17.726104%
The association of Virtual Reality (VR) to clinical practice has become common in the recent years, showing to be an additional tool on health care, especially for elderly. Its use has been related to higher therapeutic adhesion levels and well being sensation. Such emotional based aspects are often observed by subjective tools of relative validity. This study analyzed the immediate effects of varied VR contexts balance training over emotional behavior, which was observed under peaks of maximum expression of EEG waves. Methodology: 40 individuals, divided in two groups, both gender, 20 young and 20 elderly, were submitted to a 60 minutes intervention, including balance training under VR. The first 25 minutes referred to initial evaluation, general orientation and cognitive assessment by the use of Mini Mental. The next ten minutes were designated to the avatar creation and tutorial video presentation. Through the following 20 minutes, the individuals from both groups were exposed to the exact same sequence of games under virtual contexts, while submitted to electroencephalography by Emotiv EPOC® focusing Adhesion, Frustration and Meditation states. The virtual interface was provided by the Nintendo® game, Wii Fit Plus, with the scenarios Balance Bubble (1)...

Players and Avatars: The Connections between Player Personality, Avatar Personality, and Behavior in Video Games

Worth, Narnia
Fonte: Brock University Publicador: Brock University
Tipo: Electronic Thesis or Dissertation
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
28.634805%
The increasing variety and complexity of video games allows players to choose how to behave and represent themselves within these virtual environments. The focus of this dissertation was to examine the connections between the personality traits (specifically, HEXACO traits and psychopathic traits) of video game players and player-created and controlled game-characters (i.e., avatars), and the link between traits and behavior in video games. In Study 1 (n = 198), the connections between player personality traits and behavior in a Massively Multiplayer Online Roleplaying Game (World of Warcraft) were examined. Six behavior components were found (i.e., Player-versus-Player, Social Player-versus-Environment, Working, Helping, Immersion, and Core Content), and each was related to relevant personality traits. For example, Player-versus-Player behaviors were negatively related to Honesty-Humility and positively related to psychopathic traits, and Immersion behaviors (i.e., exploring, role-playing) were positively related to Openness to Experience. In Study 2 (n = 219), the connections between player personality traits and in-game behavior in video games were examined in university students. Four behavior components were found (i.e....

Second life: cibermercado, factores humanos y nuevas formas de vivir en las redes sociales

Bautista Luzardo, Dulce María de Lourdes
Fonte: Pontifícia Universidade Javeriana Publicador: Pontifícia Universidade Javeriana
Tipo: masterThesis; Trabajo de Grado Maestría Formato: application/pdf
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.977185%
La presente tesis doctoral trata de Second Life que es un mundo en internet. Aquí se analiza el cibermercado, para ver si hay oferta y demanda, se reconocen los elementos que constituyen el Market Place, se analiza la construcción de otro yo llamado avatar y la estética de los mundos para ver si existen influencias de la publicidad y la sociedad de consumo, en el comportamiento de las personas. También se analizan las redes sociales en Second Life para ver si las personas pueden expresar sus sentimientos y emociones y si existe alguna forma de manipulación de los mundos en donde se encuentran estas redes sociales que puedan hacer que los seres humanos se despersonalicen. En la investigación se aplican conceptos de psicología y economía para reflexionar, a la luz de las Ciencias Sociales y Humanas, sobre el papel que Second Life ha tenido en las personas que viven en ella y si ésta es una forma de simulación o de evasión de la vida real.; The following doctoral thesis is about Second Life, a world in internet, where cibermarket is analyzed to know if there is supply and demand, Market Place elements are recognized, the construction of another ¨me¨ called avatar and the aesthetic of the worlds are observed to see the influence of publicity and the consumerism in people´s behavior. Social networking is also studied in Second Life in order to see if the people can express their feelings and emotions...

Motor facilitation during real-time movement imitation in Parkinson’s disease: a virtual reality study

Robles García, Verónica; Arias, Pablo; Sanmartín, Gabriel; Espinosa, Nelson; Flores, Julián; Grieve, Kenneth; Cudeiro Mazaira, Francisco Javier
Fonte: Elsevier Publicador: Elsevier
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.98262%
[Abstract] Background: Impaired temporal stability and poor motor unit recruitment are key impairments in Parkinsonian motor control during a whole spectrum of rhythmic movements, from simple finger tapping to gait. Therapies based on imitation can be designed for patients with motor impairments and virtual-reality (VR) offers a new perspective. Motor actions are known to depend upon the dopaminergic system, whose involvement in imitation is unknown. We sought to understand this role and the underlying possibilities for motor rehabilitation, by observing the execution of different motor-patterns during imitation in a VR environment in subjects with and without dopaminergic deficits. Methods: 10 OFF-dose idiopathic Parkinson’s Disease patients (PD), 9 age-matched and 9 young-subjects participated. Subjects performed finger-tapping at their “comfort” and “slow-comfort” rates, while immersed in VR presenting their “avatar” in 1st person perspective. Imitation was evaluated by asking subjects to replicate finger-tapping patterns different to their natural one. The finger-pattern presented matched their comfort and comfort-slow rates, but without a pause on the table (continuously moving). Results: Patients were able to adapt their finger-tapping correctly...

Avatar augmented online conversation

Vilhjálmsson, Hannes Högni
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 205 p.; 11530553 bytes; 11530361 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.977185%
One of the most important roles played by technology is connecting people and mediating their communication with one another. Building technology that mediates conversation presents a number of challenging research and design questions. Apart from the fundamental issue of what exactly gets mediated, two of the more crucial questions are how the person being mediated interacts with the mediating layer and how the receiving person experiences the mediation. This thesis is concerned with both of these questions and proposes a theoretical framework of mediated conversation by means of automated avatars. This new approach relies on a model of face-to-face conversation, and derives an architecture for implementing these features through automation. First the thesis describes the process of face-to-face conversation and what nonverbal behaviors contribute to its success. It then presents a theoretical framework that explains how a text message can be automatically analyzed in terms of its communicative function based on discourse context, and how behaviors, shown to support those same functions in face-to-face conversation, can then be automatically performed by a graphical avatar in synchrony with the message delivery. An architecture, Spark...

Harnessing Different Motivational Frames via Mobile Phones to Promote Daily Physical Activity and Reduce Sedentary Behavior in Aging Adults

King, Abby C.; Hekler, Eric B.; Grieco, Lauren A.; Winter, Sandra J.; Sheats, Jylana L.; Buman, Matthew P.; Banerjee, Banny; Robinson, Thomas N.; Cirimele, Jesse
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 25/04/2013 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.294636%
Mobile devices are a promising channel for delivering just-in-time guidance and support for improving key daily health behaviors. Despite an explosion of mobile phone applications aimed at physical activity and other health behaviors, few have been based on theoretically derived constructs and empirical evidence. Eighty adults ages 45 years and older who were insufficiently physically active, engaged in prolonged daily sitting, and were new to smartphone technology, participated in iterative design development and feasibility testing of three daily activity smartphone applications based on motivational frames drawn from behavioral science theory and evidence. An “analytically” framed custom application focused on personalized goal setting, self-monitoring, and active problem solving around barriers to behavior change. A “socially” framed custom application focused on social comparisons, norms, and support. An “affectively” framed custom application focused on operant conditioning principles of reinforcement scheduling and emotional transference to an avatar, whose movements and behaviors reflected the physical activity and sedentary levels of the user. To explore the applications' initial efficacy in changing regular physical activity and leisure-time sitting...

Avatar Mobility in Networked Virtual Environments: Measurements, Analysis, and Implications

Liang, Huiguang; Tay, Ian; Neo, Ming Feng; Ooi, Wei Tsang; Motani, Mehul
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 15/07/2008 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.98262%
We collected mobility traces of 84,208 avatars spanning 22 regions over two months in Second Life, a popular networked virtual environment. We analyzed the traces to characterize the dynamics of the avatars mobility and behavior, both temporally and spatially. We discuss the implications of the our findings to the design of peer-to-peer networked virtual environments, interest management, mobility modeling of avatars, server load balancing and zone partitioning, client-side caching, and prefetching.

Statistical properties of online avatar numbers in a massive multiplayer online role-playing game

Jiang, Zhi-Qiang; Ren, Fei; Gu, Gao-Feng; Tan, Qun-Zhao; Zhou, Wei-Xing
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 30/04/2009 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.977185%
Massive multiplayer online role-playing games (MMORPGs) are very popular in past few years. The profit of an MMORPG company is proportional to how many users registered, and the instant number of online avatars is a key factor to assess how popular an MMORPG is. We use the on-off-line logs on an MMORPG server to reconstruct the instant number of online avatars per second and investigate its statistical properties. We find that the online avatar number exhibits one-day periodic behavior and clear intraday pattern, the fluctuation distribution of the online avatar numbers has a leptokurtic non-Gaussian shape with power-law tails, and the increments of online avatar numbers after removing the intraday pattern are uncorrelated and the associated absolute values have long-term correlation. In addition, both time series exhibit multifractal nature.; Comment: 9 Elsart pages including 7 figures

Expressive Visual Text-To-Speech as an Assistive Technology for Individuals with Autism Spectrum Conditions

Cassidy, S. A.; Stenger, B.; Van Dongen, L.; Yanagisawa, K.; Anderson, R.; Wan, V.; Baron-Cohen, S.; Cipolla, R.
Fonte: Elsevier Publicador: Elsevier
Tipo: Article; accepted version
Português
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16.98262%
This is the accepted manuscript. It is currently embargoed pending publication.; Adults with Autism Spectrum Conditions (ASC) experience marked difficulties in recognizing the emotions of others and responding appropriately. The clinical characteristics of ASC mean that face to face or group interventions may not be appropriate for this clinical group. This article explores the potential of a new interactive technology, converting text to emotionally expressive speech, to improve emotion processing ability and attention to faces in adults with ASC. We demonstrate a method for generating a near-videorealistic avatar (XpressiveTalk), which can produce a video of a face uttering inputted text, in a large variety of emotional tones. We then demonstrate that general population adults can correctly recognize the emotions portrayed by XpressiveTalk. Adults with ASC are significantly less accurate than controls, but still above chance levels for inferring emotions from XpressiveTalk. Both groups are significantly more accurate when inferring sad emotions from XpressiveTalk compared to the original actress, and rate these expressions as significantly more preferred and realistic. The potential applications for XpressiveTalk as an assistive technology for adults with ASC is discussed.; This research was conducted during an international research internship towards an MSc (Res) degree at Maastricht University...

Distributed virtual environment scalability and security

Miller, John
Fonte: University of Cambridge; Faculty of Computer Science and Technology; Computer Laboratory; Microsoft Research Cambridge Publicador: University of Cambridge; Faculty of Computer Science and Technology; Computer Laboratory; Microsoft Research Cambridge
Tipo: Thesis; doctoral; PhD
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.521343%
Distributed virtual environments (DVEs) have been an active area of research and engineering for more than 20 years. The most widely deployed DVEs are network games such as Quake, Halo, and World of Warcraft (WoW), with millions of users and billions of dollars in annual revenue. Deployed DVEs remain expensive centralized implementations despite significant research outlining ways to distribute DVE workloads. This dissertation shows previous DVE research evaluations are inconsistent with deployed DVE needs. Assumptions about avatar movement and proximity - fundamental scale factors - do not match WoW?s workload, and likely the workload of other deployed DVEs. Alternate workload models are explored and preliminary conclusions presented. Using realistic workloads it is shown that a fully decentralized DVE cannot be deployed to today?s consumers, regardless of its overhead. Residential broadband speeds are improving, and this limitation will eventually disappear. When it does, appropriate security mechanisms will be a fundamental requirement for technology adoption. A trusted auditing system (?Carbon?) is presented which has good security, scalability, and resource characteristics for decentralized DVEs. When performing exhaustive auditing...