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Barbados - Financial Sector Assessment : Based on the Joint International Monetary Fund (IMF) - World Bank Financial Sector Assessment Program (FSAP) Update

World Bank
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.99%
The principal objective of the mission was to update the FSAP conducted in 2002 focusing on financial system stability and specific institutional development issues. The mission also provided an assessment of the observance of international standards and codes in financial regulation and supervision for the banking and securities sectors as well as of the development needs of the financial system and its potential contribution to economic development. Preliminary results of the mission were discussed with the authorities during the subsequent IMF Article IV mission. The 2008 FSAP update for Barbados took place in the context of considerable turmoil in global financial markets. Encouragingly, the financial system in Barbados has been little affected by this turmoil and the macroeconomic situation remains robust with economic growth continuing to benefit from healthy tourism numbers and ongoing construction activity. As a result, the unemployment rate continues near historic lows. Nonetheless, economic prospects are tied to continuing tourism and...

Bank Activity and Funding Strategies : The Impact on Risk and Returns

Demirgüç-Kunt, Asli; Huizinga, Harry
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.17%
This paper examines the implications of bank activity and short-term funding strategies for bank risk and returns using an international sample of 1,334 banks in 101 countries leading up to the 2007 financial crisis. Expansion into non-interest income generating activities such as trading increases the rate of return on assets, and it may offer some risk diversification benefits at very low levels. Non-deposit, wholesale funding, by contrast, lowers the rate of return on assets, although it can offer some risk reduction at commonly observed low levels of non-deposit funding. A sizeable proportion of banks, however, attract most of their short-term funding in the form of non-deposits at a cost of enhanced bank fragility. Overall, banking strategies that rely prominently on generating non-interest income or attracting non-deposit funding are very risky, which is consistent with the demise of the U.S. investment banking sector.

Bank Regulations Are Changing : For Better or Worse?

Barth, James R.; Caprio, Gerard, Jr.; Levine, Ross
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.04%
This paper presents new and official survey information on bank regulations in 142 countries and makes comparisons with two earlier surveys. The data do not suggest that countries have primarily reformed their bank regulations for the better over the last decade. Following Basel guidelines many countries strengthened capital regulations and official supervisory agencies, but existing evidence suggests that these reforms will not improve bank stability or efficiency. While some countries have empowered private monitoring of banks, consistent with the third pillar of Basel II, there are many exceptions and reversals along this dimension.

Bank Involvement with SMEs : Beyond Relationship Lending

de la Torre, Augusto; Martínez Pería, María Soledad; Schmukler, Sergio L.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.15%
The "conventional wisdom" in academic and policy circles argues that, while large and foreign banks are generally not interested in serving SMEs, small and niche banks have an advantage in doing so because they can overcome SME opaqueness through relationship lending. This paper shows that there is a gap between this view and what banks actually do. Banks perceive SMEs as a core and strategic business and seem well positioned to expand their links with SMEs. The recent intensification of bank involvement with SMEs in various emerging markets documented in this paper is neither led by small or niche banks nor highly dependent on relationship lending. Rather, all types of banks are catering to SMEs and larger, multiple-service banks have in fact a comparative advantage in offering a wide range of products and services on a large scale, through the use of new technologies, business models, and risk management systems.

What Does "Entrepreneurship" Data Really Show? A Comparison of the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor and World Bank Group Datasets

Acs, Zoltan J.; Desai, Sameeksha; Klapper, Leora F.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.07%
This paper compares two datasets designed to measure entrepreneurship. The Global Entrepreneurship Monitor dataset captures early-stage entrepreneurial activity; the World Bank Group Entrepreneurship Survey dataset captures formal business registration. There are a number of important differences when the data are compared. First, GEM data tend to report significantly greater levels of early-stage entrepreneurship in developing economies than do the World Bank data. The World Bank data tend to be greater than GEM data for developed countries. Second, the magnitude of the difference between the datasets across countries is related to the local institutional and environmental conditions for entrepreneurs, after controlling for levels of economic development. A possible explanation for this is that the World Bank data measure rates of entry in the formal economy, whereas GEM data are reflective of entrepreneurial intent and capture informality of entrepreneurship. This is particularly true for developing countries. Therefore...

Private Activity in Infrastructure in the Middle East and North Africa Remained at low Levels in 2010

World Bank
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.95%
In 2010, three infrastructure projects with private participation reached financial or contractual closure in three low- and middle-income countries, involving investment commitments of US$1.1 billion. Infrastructure projects implemented in the 1990-2009 period attracted new investment of US$5.8 billion, bringing total investment commitments (hereafter, investment) to infrastructure in the region to US$6.9 billion in 2010. This level of investment is similar to the one reported in the region in 2009 (US$6.8 billion). However, private activity by number of projects is one third of the one reported in 2009 during the previous year (nine new projects in 2009).

Assessment of the Impact of the Crisis on New PPI Projects - Update 4 : New Private Infrastructure Activity in Developing Countries Recovered in the First Half of 2009 Thanks to the Electricity Sector, But the Crisis Continues to Impact Projects

World Bank
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.05%
This review of new private participation in infrastructure (PPI) projects, covering the period up to June 2009, sheds some light on the recent activity and the short-term impact of the financial crisis, compared with the previous updates on the impact of the crisis, this note incorporates several improvements: a larger sample size (714 projects versus 522 in the previous update) over a longer period of time (from January 2008 to June 2009 compared to the previous update, which covered January 2008 to March 2009). The survey finds that the financial crisis significantly affected the rate of project closure rate of new PPI projects in the second half of 2008. The impact of the crisis varies across developing regions with Europe and Central Asia (ECA) being the most affected region so far. This analysis will be refined in the coming quarters to assess the extent to which these trends continue.

Global Economic Prospects, Volume 4, January 2012 : Uncertainties and Vulnerabilities

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.07%
The world economy has entered a dangerous period. Some of the financial turmoil in Europe has spread to developing and other high-income countries, which until earlier had been unaffected. This contagion has pushed up borrowing costs in many parts of the world, and pushed down stock markets, while capital flows to developing countries have fallen sharply. Europe appears to have entered recession. At the same time, growth in several major developing countries (Brazil, India and, to a lesser extent, Russia, South Africa and Turkey) is significantly slower than it was earlier in the recovery, mainly reflecting policy tightening initiated in late 2010 and early 2011 in order to combat rising inflationary pressures. As a result, and despite a strengthening of activity in the United States and Japan, global growth and world trade have slowed sharply.

The Evolution and Impact of Bank Regulations

Barth, James R.; Caprio, Gerard, Jr.; Levine, Ross
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.03%
This paper reassesses what works in banking regulation based on the new World Bank survey (Survey IV) of bank regulation and supervision around world. The paper briefly presents new and official survey information on bank regulations in more than 125 countries, makes comparisons with earlier surveys since 1999, and assesses the relationship between changes in bank regulations and banking system performance. The data suggest that many countries made capital regulations more stringent and granted greater discretionary power to official supervisory agencies over the past 12 years, but most countries have not enhanced the ability and incentives of private investors to monitor banks rigorously -- and several have weakened such private monitoring incentives. Although it is difficult to draw causal inferences from these data, and while there are material cross-country differences in the evolution of regulatory reforms, existing evidence suggests that many countries are making counterproductive changes to their bank regulations by not enhancing the ability and incentives of private investors to scrutinize banks.

Population Issues in the 21st Century : The Role of the World Bank

World Bank
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.91%
The objective of this paper is to discuss some obstacles and opportunities presented by population processes in order to prioritize areas for investment and analytical work as background information for the 2007 HNP Sector Strategy. Within HNP, two areas fall within population: (1) reproductive, maternal, and sexual health issues, and the health services that address them; and (2) levels and trends in births, deaths, and migration that determine population growth and age structure. Many of the aspects of delivery of sexual and reproductive health services are addressed in the overall sector strategy. This paper, therefore, focuses on the determinants and consequences of demographic change, and on policies and interventions that pertain to fertility and family planning. The paper consists of five sections. First, this section defines the scope of population as used in the HNP sector, and the areas that will be considered in this note are specified. This is followed by a description of recent trends in demographic indicators that have created the demographic backdrops for addressing development issues. The third section discusses the role the World Bank can play in population issues and places population within the context of economic growth...

Learning from Financial Crises

Lim, Jamus Jerome; Minne, Geoffrey
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.15%
This paper considers the question of whether international banks learn from their previous crisis experiences and reduce their lending to developing countries in the event of a financial crisis. The analysis combines a bank-level dataset of bank activity and ownership with country-level data on the stock of historical crisis events between 1800 and 2005. To circumvent selection and endogeneity concerns, the paper exploits temporal variations in the relative recency of crises as instruments for crisis experience. The results indicate that foreign banks with greater crisis experience reduced their lending significantly more relative to other foreign banks, which can be interpreted as evidence in favor of a learning effect. The findings survive robustness checks that include alternative measures of crisis experience, additional controls, and decompositions into different types of crises. The question of learning is also examined from the perspective of other measures of bank performance.

Maximizing the World Bank Group’s Impact in the Middle East and North Africa

World Bank Group
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.99%
This report provides an overview of the World Bank Group’s engagement in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region, highlighting the new operating model of the World Bank Group. In particular, the report provides insight on the key challenges and strategic engagement of each sector (Global Practice) in MENA and details some of the key cross-cutting challenges that countries face. This report serves as a basis to convene international thought leaders, as well as internal and external stakeholders, in the context of developing a new strategy for the Middle East and North Africa region later this year. The region faces three challenges in particular: (a) long-standing distortions that have generated jobless growth and poor service delivery as well as low financial access and inclusion; (b) severe imbalances that threaten macroeconomic stability; and (c) deep political and social tensions, at times escalating into violent conflict. The World Bank Group’s current engagement supports four key pillars: (a) strengthening governance; (b) ensuring economic and social inclusion; (c) creating jobs; and (d) accelerating sustainable growth. Progress on these pillars can be made through a two-pronged approach focused on addressing the immediate needs arising from humanitarian crises throughout the region while also giving sustained attention to the investments and reforms needed for medium- and long-term development. This two-pronged approach is necessary to help governments cope with immediate pressures on already fragile institutions and at the same time develop long-term strategies to address deep-seated issues that have hindered inclusive growth and prosperity for decades. This report details nine specific cross-cutting challenges: climate change; decentralization; disaster risk management; fragility...

Mongolia Economic Retrospective 2008-2010

World Bank
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.09%
Mongolia was one of the East Asian economies hardest hit by the global downturn, as copper prices collapsed and external demand fell. With the recovery in economic activity currently well underway, but the policy challenges highlighted by the crisis yet to be fully addressed, this economic retrospective examines the key economic, financial, and policy developments from mid 2008 to April 2010. Collapsing mineral prices and a steep drop in external demand due to the global downturn of 2008 and 2009 were the external shocks which were transmitted to Mongolia's economy. This shock exposed underlying weaknesses in the economic structure and policy environment. More generally, now is the time to put in place a strong policy framework to manage the upcoming mining boom and avoid the mistakes of the past. The looming mining boom brings the risks of "Dutch disease" effects and a return to the profligate populism of the past. Measures to address these risks include the recently adopted fiscal stability law that will help the country move away from the fiscal boom and bust cycles of the past; improvements to the budget process and the planning and management of public investments in order to more efficiently absorb the large projected increases in revenues; and appropriate policy frameworks to support future infrastructure investment. Implementing a targeted poverty benefit should also ensure the poor are protected from mining boom and busts in a fiscally sustainable manner. Finally...

India : Basel Core Principles for Effective Banking Supervision

International Monetary Fund; World Bank
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Financial Sector Assessment Program (FSAP); Economic & Sector Work
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.02%
The Reserve Bank of India (RBI) is to be commended for its tightly controlled regulatory and supervisory regime, consisting of higher than minimum capital requirements, frequent, hands-on and comprehensive onsite inspections, a conservative liquidity risk policy and restrictions on banks' capacity to take on more volatile exposures. The Indian banking system remained largely stable during the global financial crisis. Since then, the government of India and RBI has taken additional measures to enhance the soundness and resilience of the banking system, such as the establishment of a Financial Stability and Development Council (FSDC), the implementation of a countercyclical provisioning regime, and the development of a roadmap for the introduction of a holding company structure.

Financial Sector Assessment Program Update : India - Basel Core Principles for Effective Banking Supervision

International Monetary Fund; World Bank
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Financial Sector Assessment Program (FSAP); Economic & Sector Work
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.02%
The Reserve Bank of India (RBI) is to be commended for its tightly controlled regulatory and supervisory regime, consisting of higher than minimum capital requirements, frequent, hands-on and comprehensive onsite inspections, a conservative liquidity risk policy and restrictions on banks' capacity to take on more volatile exposures. The Indian banking system remained largely stable during the global financial crisis. Since then, the government of India and RBI has taken additional measures to enhance the soundness and resilience of the banking system, such as the establishment of a Financial Stability and Development Council (FSDC), the implementation of a countercyclical provisioning regime, and the development of a roadmap for the introduction of a holding company structure.

Bulgaria - Ex-post impact assessment of the act on limiting administrative regulation and administration control on economic activity

World Bank
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Pre-2003 Economic or Sector Report
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.9%
The ex-post impact assessment of the Limiting Administrative Regulation and Administrative Control on Economic Activity Act (LARACEAA) is part of the World Bank's support to the Government of Bulgaria through on-going analytical and advisory work in the area of regulatory reform. The purpose of the present ex-post impact assessment of the LARACEAA is to: (i) assess how the Act has been enforced, (ii) identify and estimate the impacts of the Act, and (iii) provide recommendations for amendments to the Act. Chapter one emphasizes the importance of the Act as part of the Bulgarian Government's role in advancing regulatory reform and improving the business environment; gives the scope of the assessment and presents the sources of information utilized; and delineates general limitations of the analysis. Chapter two outlines a policy framework by discussing coherence with the Governmental and European Union (EU) policies, as well as touching upon relevant documents on regulatory reform, followed by analysis of the goal and objectives of the Act...

Channels of Transmission of the 2007/09 Global Crisis to International Bank Lending in Developing Countries

Adams-Kane, Jonathon; Jia, Yueqing; Lim, Jamus Jerome
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.04%
During a financial crisis, credit provision by international banks may be stymied by three distinct, but related, channels: changes in lending standards as a result of increased economic uncertainty, changes in funding availability from interbank liquidity markets, and changes in solvency due to effects on bank balance sheets. This paper illuminates the manner by which each of these channels independently operated to affect developed-country bank lending in developing countries during the global financial crisis of 2007/09. It quantifies how changes in banks' uncertainty about the value of their asset holdings, access to interbank liquidity, and internal balance sheet considerations altered their supply of credit in the run-up, during, and in the immediate aftermath of the financial crisis, both in terms of their relative magnitudes, as well as the sensitivity of these magnitudes to the crisis.

Doing Business 2014 Economy Profile : West Bank and Gaza

World Bank; International Finance Corporation
Fonte: World Bank Group, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank Group, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Working Paper; Publications & Research
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.91%
This economy profile presents the Doing Business indicators for West Bank & Gaza. In a series of annual reports, Doing Business assesses regulations affecting domestic firms in 189 economies and ranks the economies in 10 areas of business regulation, such as starting a business, resolving insolvency and trading across borders. This year's report data cover regulations measured from June 2012 through May 2013. The report is the 11th edition of the Doing Business series.

World Bank East Asia and Pacific Economic Update 2010, Volume 1 : Emerging Stronger from the Crisis

World Bank
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.97%
East Asia has recovered from the economic and financial crisis. Largely thanks to China, the region's output, exports and employment have mostly returned to the levels before the crisis. Leading the global economy, real gross domestic product (GDP) growth in developing East Asia is poised to rise to 8.7 percent in 2010 after slowing from 8.5 percent in 2008 to 7.0 percent in 2009. This report also identifies two common regional agenda items for the medium term. First, the process of regional integration, driven by Association of South East Asian Nations (ASEAN) commitments to creating a single economic area, will need to continue. Deeper regional economic integration is now even more important, given prospects for slower growth in advanced economies. Behind-the-border trade barriers must be lowered, even in the face of incipient protectionist pressures around the world, including in the region. Deeper integration will encourage agglomeration economies and intra-industry trade, support sustainable urbanization...

Doing Business Economy Profile 2016; West Bank and Gaza

World Bank Group
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Report; Publications & Research :: Working Paper; Publications & Research
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.01%
This economy profile for Doing Business 2016 presents the 11 Doing Business indicators for West Bank and Gaza. To allow for useful comparison, the profile also provides data for other selected economies (comparator economies) for each indicator. Doing Business 2016 is the 13th edition in a series of annual reports measuring the regulations that enhance business activity and those that constrain it. Economies are ranked on their ease of doing business; for 2015 West Bank and Gaza ranks 129. A high ease of doing business ranking means the regulatory environment is more conducive to the starting and operation of a local firm. Doing Business presents quantitative indicators on business regulations and the protection of property rights that can be compared across 189 economies from Afghanistan to Zimbabwe and over time. Doing Business sheds light on how easy or difficult it is for a local entrepreneur to open and run a small to medium-size business when complying with relevant regulations. It measures and tracks changes in regulations affecting 11 areas in the life cycle of a business: starting a business...