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Bank Activity and Funding Strategies : The Impact on Risk and Returns

Demirgüç-Kunt, Asli; Huizinga, Harry
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Português
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46.72%
This paper examines the implications of bank activity and short-term funding strategies for bank risk and returns using an international sample of 1,334 banks in 101 countries leading up to the 2007 financial crisis. Expansion into non-interest income generating activities such as trading increases the rate of return on assets, and it may offer some risk diversification benefits at very low levels. Non-deposit, wholesale funding, by contrast, lowers the rate of return on assets, although it can offer some risk reduction at commonly observed low levels of non-deposit funding. A sizeable proportion of banks, however, attract most of their short-term funding in the form of non-deposits at a cost of enhanced bank fragility. Overall, banking strategies that rely prominently on generating non-interest income or attracting non-deposit funding are very risky, which is consistent with the demise of the U.S. investment banking sector.

Excessive Financial Intermediation in a Model with Endogenous Liquidity

Eden, Maya
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.79%
Does an unregulated financial system absorb too many productive inputs? This paper studies this question in the context of a dynamic model with heterogeneous producers. In the absence of a financial system, the only way to purchase inputs is using internal funds. Producers are subject to idiosyncratic productivity shocks, and will decide to produce only if their productivity is high enough. Otherwise, they will hold money. A financial intermediation technology allows producers to purchase inputs in excess of their internal funds, by borrowing from unproductive agents. However, intermediation requires the use of costly monitoring services. In equilibrium, intermediation increases the money in circulation and raises nominal prices, thereby reducing the value of internal funds and making producers increasingly reliant on costly monitoring services. For this reason, society is better off when intermediation is restricted.

How Does Deposit Insurance Affect Bank Risk? Evidence from the Recent Crisis

Anginer, Deniz; Demirguc-Kunt, Asli; Zhu, Min
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
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56.72%
Deposit insurance is widely offered in a number of countries as part of a financial system safety net to promote stability. An unintended consequence of deposit insurance is the reduction in the incentive of depositors to monitor banks, which leads to excessive risk-taking. This paper examines the relation between deposit insurance and bank risk and systemic fragility in the years leading to and during the recent financial crisis. It finds that generous financial safety nets increase bank risk and systemic fragility in the years leading up to the global financial crisis. However, during the crisis, bank risk is lower and systemic stability is greater in countries with deposit insurance coverage. The findings suggest that the "moral hazard effect" of deposit insurance dominates in good times while the "stabilization effect" of deposit insurance dominates in turbulent times. Nevertheless, the overall effect of deposit insurance over the full sample remains negative since the destabilizing effect during normal times is greater in magnitude compared with the stabilizing effect during global turbulence. In addition...

Determinants of Commercial Bank Performance in Transition : An Application of Data Envelopment Analysis

Grigorian, David A.; Manole, Vlad
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, D.C. Publicador: World Bank, Washington, D.C.
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.79%
Banking sectors in transition economies have experienced major transformations throughout the 1990s. While some countries have been successful in eliminating underlying distortions and restructuring their financial sectors, in some cases financial sectors remain underdeveloped and the rates of financial intermediation continue to be quite low. The authors estimate indicators of commercial bank efficiency by applying a version of Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) to bank-level data from a wide range of transition countries. They further extend the analysis by explaining the differences in efficiency between financial institutions and countries by a variety of macroeconomic, prudential, and institutional variables. In addition to stressing the importance of some bank-specific variables, the censored Tobit analysis suggests that: 1) Foreign ownership with controlling power and enterprise restructuring enhance commercial bank efficiency. 2) The effects of prudential tightening on the efficiency of banks vary across different prudential norms. 3) Consolidation is likely to improve efficiency of banking operations. Overall...

Financial Sector Assessment : Bulgaria

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Português
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46.82%
This Financial Sector Assessment (FSA) summarizes the Financial Sector Assessment Program (FSAP) findings for Bulgaria, and reports on the actions of the government and the Bulgarian National Bank (BNB) to date in response to the FSAP recommendations. The FSAP mission visited Sofia during the period October 29 to November 14, 2001. The Bulgaria FSAP took place after five years of aggressive financial reforms in response to the deep economic and financial crisis of 1996-97. After the collapse of the banking system and establishment of the Currency Board Arrangement (CBA) in July 1997, the government and the BNB pursued structural and institutional reforms in both the enterprise and banking sectors, including the privatization of about 85 percent of the banking system assets, mainly to foreign financial institutions, and the upgrading of banking supervision capabilities at the BNB. The FSAP mission occurred at a time when the banking system had stabilized, but financial intermediation remained low compared to the more advanced transition economies. In addition to the assessments of compliance with standards and codes...

Financial Inclusion for Financial Stability : Access to Bank Deposits and the Growth of Deposits in the Global Financial Crisis

Han, Rui; Melecky, Martin
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.71%
In crisis times, depositors get anxious, can run on banks, and withdraw their deposits. Correlated withdrawals of bank deposits could be mitigated if bank deposits are more diversified, that is, held by more individuals. This paper examines the link between the broader access to bank deposits prior to the 2008 crisis and the dynamics of bank deposit growth during the crisis, while controlling for relevant covariates. Employing proxies for access to deposits and the use of bank deposits, the authors find that greater access to bank deposits can make the deposit funding base of banks more resilient in times of financial stress. Policy efforts to enhance financial stability should thus not only focus on macroprudential regulation, but also recognize the positive effect of broader access to bank deposits on financial stability.

Lending Concentration, Bank Performance and Systemic Risk : Exploring Cross-Country Variation

Beck, Thorsten; De Jonghe, Olivier
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.7%
Using both market-based and annual report-based approaches to measure lending specialization for a broad cross-section of banks and countries over the period 2002 to 2011, this paper is the first to empirically gauge the relationship between bank lending specialization and bank performance and stability in an international sample. Theory suggests that banks might benefit from specialization in the form of higher screening and monitoring efficiency, while a diversified loan portfolio might also enhance stability. This paper finds that sectoral specialization increases volatility and systemic risk exposures, while not leading to higher returns. The paper also documents important time, cross-bank, and cross-county variation in this relationship, which is stronger post 2007, for richer countries, countries without regulatory requirements on diversification, banks with lower market power, and banks with more traditional intermediation models.

Chasing the Shadows : How Significant is Shadow Banking in Emerging Markets?

Ghosh, Swati; Gonzalez del Mazo, Ines; Ötker-Robe, İnci
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.94%
Broadly defined as credit intermediation involving entities and activities outside the regular banking system, shadow banking raises important policy concerns. Given significant challenges with data availability, the size, nature and significance of shadow banking in emerging market and developing economies (EMDEs) are even less discussed and understood. Shadow banking in EMDEs generally does not involve long, complex, opaque chains of intermediation, as is often the case in advanced economies. Nonetheless, it can pose systemic risks, both directly, as its importance in the total financial system grows (with the concomitant credit, market, and liquidity risks that its participants undertake), and indirectly through its interconnectedness with the regulated banking system. At the same time, shadow banks also play an important role in channeling alternative funding sources to EMDEs, especially as deleveraging pressures from European banks continue. This suggests that policy makers need to manage trade-offs carefully to ensure that shadow banks provide alternative but safe sources of funding to the private sector without generating additional systemic risks. Based on a snapshot of selected EMDEs in East Asia and in Central and Eastern Europe...

Financial Intermediation and Growth : Chinese Style

Boyreau-Debray, Genevieve
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.85%
The author analyzes the relationship between growth and financial intermediation at the sub-national level within China. Does the quality of the banking sector in a province affect its rate of growth? Do state and non-state banking sectors perform differently? Does the structure of the local banking sector affect the rate of provincial economic growth? To answer these questions, the author first uses evidence on the fragmentation of regional capital markets to justify the existence of local credit channels. Second, using a dataset of 26 provinces between 1990 and 1999, she defines and introduces indicators of local banking development into the traditional growth regression framework using the GMM-system estimator. The results suggest that credit extended by the banking sector at the state level has a negative impact on provincial economic growth. This negative effect appears to be attributable to the burden of supporting the state-owned corporate sector rather than to the poor performance of state-owned banks. Moreover...

Bank Ownership and Credit over the Business Cycle : Is Lending by State Banks Less Procyclical?

Bertay, Ata Can; Demirguc-Kunt, Asli; Huizinga, Harry
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
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46.82%
This paper finds that lending by state banks is less procyclical than lending by private banks, especially in countries with good governance. Lending by state banks in high-income countries is even countercyclical. On the liability side, state banks expand potentially unstable non-deposit liabilities relatively little during booms, especially in countries with good governance. Public banks also report loan non-performance more evenly over the business cycle. Overall the results of the analysis suggest that state banks can play a useful role in stabilizing credit over the business cycle as well as during periods of financial instability. However, the track record of state banks in credit allocation remains quite poor, questioning the wisdom of using state banks as a short-term countercyclical tool.

Improving the Quality of Financial Intermediation in the Gulf Cooperation Council Countries

World Bank Group
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Relatório
Português
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56.74%
This engagement note provides a snapshot of financial development in the countries of the GulfCooperation Council (GCC), Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates (UAE), and identifies key areas of the financial sector reform agenda where the World Bank Group (WBG) through the Finance Markets Global Practice (FMGP) can provide its support, in particular through the provision of analytical services and advisory (ASA). A key challenge for GCC countries is to diversify their economic structures, increase the role of the private sector, improve the efficiency of the government and reform the educational system and the labor market. This is essential to create employment opportunities for a young and growing domestic population. In this context, the development of an efficient, stable and inclusive financial sector is a policy objective in itself and a necessary conduit to a more diversified and productive economic system. Against this backdrop, this engagement note suggests that improving the quality of financial intermediation in GCC economies is a balancing act between enhancing access and preserving stability. Accordingly...

Brazil's Bank Spread in International Context : From Macro to Micro Drivers

Jorgensen, Ole Hagen; Apostolou, Apostolos
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.71%
In an international context, this paper analyzes the main drivers of Brazil's bank spreads measured by the net interest margin, by estimating internationally comparable measures for (i) institutional and regulatory (micro-) factors; (ii) macro-economic factors; and (iii) banking competition factors. The paper produces and applies a novel data set covering 197 areas and countries; ranging from 1995 to 2009, including 106 banks for Brazil and 16,434 banks worldwide. The analysis finds that micro-factors are the main drivers of spreads across the world. In the case of Brazil, the spread is found to be strongly accounted for by micro-factors -- also in international comparison. For example, micro-factors contributed 7.2 percentage points (79 percent) of the 11.5 percent total spread in Brazil in 2009, while macro-factors and banking competition factors jointly accounted for only 1.9 percentage points (21 percent). Conversely, Brazil does not rank high in international comparison in terms of macro-economic risk: Brazil and other countries from Latin America and the Caribbean are found to feature the highest micro-factors in the world while having the second-highest spreads and the second-lowest contribution of macro-factors. These unique findings suggest that countries striving toward reducing bank spreads should consider policies aimed at reducing microeconomic frictions in their banking sectors...

Assessing Firms' Financing Constraints in Brazil

Claessens, Stijn; Sakho, Yaye Seynabou
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.91%
Firm surveys often indicate that firms complain a lot about lack of access to financial services, but financing constraints are difficult to identify, given demand and supply considerations and with only surveys based on firms' perceptions. Specifically, it is difficult to separate demand for access to finance of viable firms with good growth opportunities from that of firms that are not creditworthy and should not deserve financing. In Brazil, one of the main constraints to finance is related to the high level of interest rates, which affects both bank funding costs as well as bank intermediation spreads and, as such, the cost of finance and hence the demand and supply of bank financing. This paper analyzes a unique loan level data set that covers almost a decade of monthly firm bank information from credit registry information that is not publicly available as well as two cross-sections of Brazil's Investment Climate Assessment surveys in 2004 and 2008 that provide detailed information on firms' micro characteristics as well as perceptions of credit. The data allow identification of how firms' characteristics...

Bank Ownership and Lending Patterns during the 2008-2009 Financial Crisis : Evidence from Latin America and Eastern Europe

Cull, Robert; Martínez Pería, María Soledad
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.85%
This paper examines the impact of bank ownership on credit growth in developing countries before and during the 2008-2009 crisis. Using bank-level data for countries in Eastern Europe and Latin America, it analyzes the growth of banks' total gross loans as well as the growth of corporate, consumer, and residential mortgage loans. Although domestic private banks in Eastern Europe and Latin America contracted their loan growth rates during the crisis, there are differences in foreign and government-owned bank credit growth across regions. In Eastern Europe, foreign bank total lending fell by more than domestic private bank credit. These results are primarily driven by reductions in corporate loans. Furthermore, government-owned banks in Eastern Europe did not act counter-cyclically. The opposite was true in Latin America, where the growth of government-owned banks' corporate and consumer loans during the crisis exceeded that of domestic and foreign banks. Contrary to the case of foreign banks in Eastern Europe...

Bank Privatization and Performance : Empirical Evidence from Nigeria

Beck, Thorsten; Cull, Robert; Jerome, Afeikhena
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.77%
The authors assess the effect of privatization on performance in a panel of Nigerian banks for the period 1990-2001. They find evidence of performance improvement in nine banks that were privatized, which is remarkable given the inhospitable environment for true financial intermediation. Their results also suggest negative effects of the continuing minority government ownership on the performance of many Nigerian banks. The authors' results complement aggregate indications of decreasing financial intermediation over the 1990s. Banks that focused on investment in government bonds and non-lending activities enjoyed a relatively higher performance.

Financial Sector Assessment Program Update : Republic of Kazakhstan - Bank Profitability and Competition

International Monetary Fund; World Bank
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Financial Sector Assessment Program (FSAP); Economic & Sector Work
Português
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56.68%
The purpose of this note is to explore the reasons for a comparatively high interest rate spread in Kazakhstan in the context of competition in the banking sector. In spite of significant gains in efficiency made in recent years, operational costs and provisioning for loan losses remain high compared to some other economies. Profitability of the aggregate banking system has increased in the face of lower interest spreads. A highly concentrated banking system could be an indicator of lack of competition, but it needs to be assessed with contestability conditions (openness to entry of banks). The lack of license applications since 2001 raises questions about the attractiveness of entry by new banks. Competitive and market contestability conditions will be further enhanced with the authorities' continuation of strong macroeconomic and financial policies, improvements in financial sector regulation and enforcement thus continuing the achievements during the last five years. Administrative measures to control interest rates (for instance...

Financial Intermediation in the Pre-Consolidated Banking Sector in Nigeria

Hesse, Heiko
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.8%
This paper uses unique bank-by-bank balance sheet and income statement information to investigate the intermediation efficiency in the Nigerian pre-consolidated banking sector during 2000-05. The author analyzes whether the Central Bank of Nigeria's policy of recent banking consolidation can be justified and rationalized by looking at the determinants of spreads. A spread decomposition and panel estimations show that the reform of the banking sector could be the first step to raise the intermediation efficiency of the Nigerian banking sector. The author finds that larger banks have enjoyed lower overhead costs, increased concentration in the banking sector has not been detrimental to the spreads, both increased holdings of liquidity and capital might have led to lower spreads in 2005, and a stable macroeconomic environment is conducive to a more efficient channeling of savings to productive investments.

How Foreign Participation and Market Concentration Impact Bank Spreads: Evidence from Latin America

Martinez Peria, Maria Soledad; Mody, Ashoka
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, D.C. Publicador: World Bank, Washington, D.C.
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.8%
Increasing foreign participation and high concentration levels characterize the recent evolution of banking sectors' market structures in developing countries. The authors analyze the impact of these factors on Latin American bank spreads during the late 1990s. Their results suggest that foreign banks were able to charge lower spreads relative to domestic banks. This was more so for de novo foreign banks than for those that entered through acquisitions. The overall level of foreign bank participation seemed to influence spreads indirectly, primarily through its effect on administrative costs. Bank concentration was positively and directly related to both higher spreads and costs.

Brazil : Interest Rates and Intermediation Spreads

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work; Economic & Sector Work :: General Economy, Macroeconomics and Growth Study
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.8%
This study sheds light on the analytical and policy issues regarding the high intermediation spread in Brazil, focusing on its determinants, the reasons for its persistence, and its impact on the real economy, especially on access to finance for Brazilian firms. The key contention of the analysis is that high intermediation spreads are a symptom of underlying problems; as such, spreads constitute a window that, when open appropriately and under the right analytical light, can unveil deeper issues concerning the Brazilian financial system, its functioning, and its linkages to economic performance. The study's major contribution is to investigate the level of intermediation spreads in Brazil from macro, micro, and international perspectives. In particular, the international perspective compares the Brazilian financial system with industrialized countries and Latin American peers to provide a background for the analysis, and highlight the areas where Brazil appears to be special.

A Guide to the World Bank : Third Edition

World Bank
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
Português
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56.44%
This guide introduces the reader to the conceptual work of the World Bank Group. Its goal is to serve as a starting point for more in-depth inquiries into subjects of particular interest. It provides a glimpse into the wide array of activities in which the Bank Group institutions are involved, and it directs the reader toward other resources and websites that have more detailed information. This new, updated third edition of a guide to the World Bank provides readers with an accessible and straightforward overview of the Bank Group's history, organization, mission, and work. It highlights the numerous activities and an organizational challenge faced by the institution, and explains how the Bank Group is reforming itself to meet the needs of a multipolar world. The book then chronicles the Bank Group's work in such areas as climate change, financial and food crises, conflict prevention and fragile states, combating corruption, and education. For those wishing to delve further into areas of particular interest...