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Islamic vs. Conventional Banking : Business Model, Efficiency and Stability

Beck, Thorsten; Demirgüç-Kunt, Asli; Merrouche, Ouarda
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Português
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38.559075%
This paper discusses Islamic banking products and interprets them in the context of financial intermediation theory. Anecdotal evidence shows that many of the conventional products can be redrafted as Sharia-compliant products, so that the differences are smaller than expected. Comparing conventional and Islamic banks and controlling for other bank and country characteristics, the authors find few significant differences in business orientation, efficiency, asset quality, or stability. While Islamic banks seem more cost-effective than conventional banks in a broad cross-country sample, this finding reverses in a sample of countries with both Islamic and conventional banks. However, conventional banks that operate in countries with a higher market share of Islamic banks are more cost-effective but less stable. There is also consistent evidence of higher capitalization of Islamic banks and this capital cushion plus higher liquidity reserves explains the relatively better performance of Islamic banks during the recent crisis.

Banking in Brazil : Structure, Performance, Drivers, and Policy Implications

Urdapilleta, Eduardo; Stephanou, Constantinos
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
38.6873%
The objective of this paper is to analyze the industry structure of banking services in Brazil in order to shed light on financial performance and its drivers at a disaggregated level. The study illustrates how differences across market segments - which tend to be averaged out in aggregate analysis - need to be taken into account when analyzing performance and designing public policy for the banking sector. In particular, retail banking is found to be less sensitive to price competition and to exhibit considerably higher returns than corporate banking. The authors identify and discuss the factors underlying revenues, costs, and risks in each market segment, and conclude with policy implications.

Remittances and Banking Sector Breadth and Depth : Evidence from Mexico

Demirgüç-Kunt, Asli; López Córdova, Ernesto; Martínez Pería, María Soledad; Woodruff, Christopher
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Português
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38.52188%
Despite the rising volume of remittances flowing to developing countries, their impact on banking sector breadth and depth in recipient countries has been largely unexplored. The authors examine this topic using municipio-level data on the fraction of households that receive remittances and on measures of banking breadth and depth for Mexico. They find that remittances are strongly associated with greater banking breadth and depth, increasing the number of branches and accounts per capita and the ratio of deposits to gross domestic product. These effects are significant both statistically and economically, even after conducting robustness tests and addressing the potential endogeneity of remittances.

Slovenia : Pilot Diagnostic Review of Governance of the Banking Sector

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Português
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38.559075%
The financial crises of the late 1990s in East Asia and Eastern Europe, as well as the recent corporate governance scandals in Europe and America, have highlighted the need for strong corporate governance in ensuring a sound and stable financial sector. The governance practices of banks are important because banks accept deposits from the public, whose funds the government has an implicit (and often an explicit) obligation to protect. Banks are also subject to information asymmetries and high leverage, both of which make banks vulnerable to a sudden run on deposits where public confidence fails. The Slovenian bank governance review has three objectives to: 1) conduct a review of the Slovenian bank governance framework, 2) make recommendations on provisions that would help to strengthen the governance structure of banks in Slovenia, and 3) refine the good practices developed for the pilot banking governance review program. In addition, the international community has encouraged the strengthening of governance in the banking sector. The Slovenian banking sector has successfully weathered the financial crisis seen in other countries in 1997-1998...

Financial Sector Assessment Program : Malaysia - Basel Core Principles for Effective Banking Supervision

World Bank; International Monetary Fund
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
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38.453135%
Bank Negara Malaysia (BNM) employs a very well developed risk-focused regulatory and supervisory regime, consisting of a hands-on and comprehensive program of onsite supervision and extensive off-site macro, and micro, surveillance that is well integrated with its on-site supervision. This assessment of the current state of compliance with the Basel Core Principles (BCPs) in Malaysia has been undertaken as part of a joint International Monetary Fund (IMF)-World Bank Report on the Observance of Standards and Codes (ROSC) mission. The assessment was conducted from 4 April till 20 April 2012. It reflects the banking supervision practices of the BNM as of the end of March 2012 for the supervision of commercial banks. The assessment is based on several sources: (i) a detailed and comprehensive self-assessment prepared by the BNM ; (ii) detailed interviews with the BNM staff; (iii) review of laws, regulations, and other documentation on the supervisory framework and on the structure and development of the Malaysia financial sector; and (iv) meetings with individual banks...

Financial Sector Assessment Program : Brazil - Basel Core Principles for Effective Banking Supervision

International Monetary Fund; World Bank
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
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38.607512%
Brazil has a well-defined banking supervision process supported by a legal framework that grants the Banco Central do Brasil (BCB) broad enforcement powers for corrective action and weak bank resolution. This assessment of the Basel Core Principles (BCP) for effective supervision was conducted from February 27 through March 20, 2012. As agreed with the authorities, the supervisory framework was assessed against the BCP methodology issued by the Basel Committee on Banking Supervision (BCBS) in October 2006. In self-assessment the authorities addressed both essential and additional criteria and the assessors based their conclusions on compliance with both criteria. The last BCP assessment was conducted in 2002, however, the grading is not comparable to this assessment as the principles and methodology were revised in 2006. Although the BCB operates on an independent mode, there are amendments to Law 4595-1964 (banking law) that will aid in protecting the continuation of the operational independence.

Financial Inclusion for Financial Stability : Access to Bank Deposits and the Growth of Deposits in the Global Financial Crisis

Han, Rui; Melecky, Martin
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
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In crisis times, depositors get anxious, can run on banks, and withdraw their deposits. Correlated withdrawals of bank deposits could be mitigated if bank deposits are more diversified, that is, held by more individuals. This paper examines the link between the broader access to bank deposits prior to the 2008 crisis and the dynamics of bank deposit growth during the crisis, while controlling for relevant covariates. Employing proxies for access to deposits and the use of bank deposits, the authors find that greater access to bank deposits can make the deposit funding base of banks more resilient in times of financial stress. Policy efforts to enhance financial stability should thus not only focus on macroprudential regulation, but also recognize the positive effect of broader access to bank deposits on financial stability.

Chasing the Shadows : How Significant is Shadow Banking in Emerging Markets?

Ghosh, Swati; Gonzalez del Mazo, Ines; Ötker-Robe, İnci
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
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38.6873%
Broadly defined as credit intermediation involving entities and activities outside the regular banking system, shadow banking raises important policy concerns. Given significant challenges with data availability, the size, nature and significance of shadow banking in emerging market and developing economies (EMDEs) are even less discussed and understood. Shadow banking in EMDEs generally does not involve long, complex, opaque chains of intermediation, as is often the case in advanced economies. Nonetheless, it can pose systemic risks, both directly, as its importance in the total financial system grows (with the concomitant credit, market, and liquidity risks that its participants undertake), and indirectly through its interconnectedness with the regulated banking system. At the same time, shadow banks also play an important role in channeling alternative funding sources to EMDEs, especially as deleveraging pressures from European banks continue. This suggests that policy makers need to manage trade-offs carefully to ensure that shadow banks provide alternative but safe sources of funding to the private sector without generating additional systemic risks. Based on a snapshot of selected EMDEs in East Asia and in Central and Eastern Europe...

The Price of Inconvertible Deposits : The Stock Market Boom during the Argentine Crisis

Levy Yeyati, Eduardo; Schmukler, Sergio L.; Van Horen, Neeltje
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
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38.62256%
The Argentine crisis witnessed, among other things, a deposit run, the suspension of deposit convertibility, and a "boom" in the stock market. The authors argue that this boom reflects the cost that depositors were willing to incur to get their money out of the banking system, in light of the impending risks. This boom was generalized to all stocks, and more pronounced in liquid stocks. Furthermore, the boom was a symptom that deposits were effectively restricted, and that investors were not able to circumvent capital controls.

Dollarization of the Banking System : Good or Bad?

De Nicolo, Gianni; Honohan, Patrick; Ize, Alain
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
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De Nicol� Honohan, and Ize assess the benefits and risks associated with dollarization of the banking system. The authors provide novel empirical evidence on the determinants of dollarization, its role in promoting financial development, and on whether dollarization is associated with financial instability. They find that: The credibility of macroeconomic policy and the quality of institutions are both key determinants of cross-country variations in dollarization. Dollarization is likely to promote financial deepening only in a high inflation environment. Financial instability is likely higher in dollarized economies. The authors discuss the implications of these findings for financial sector and monetary policies.

Inside the Crisis : An Empirical Analysis of Banking Systems in Distress

Demirguc-Kunt, Asli; Detragiache, Enrica; Gupta, Poonam
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
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48.99473%
Much of the substantial literature on banking crises, focuses on early warning indicators. The authors look at what happens to the economy, and the banking sector after a banking crisis breaks out. Much of the theory of banking crises assigns a central role to depositor runs, with vulnerability to runs viewed as a basic characteristic of banks as financial intermediaries. But banking systems can be financially distressed, even when depositors do not withdraw their deposits, if other bank creditors rush for the exit, or if banks become insolvent. Are contemporary banking crises characterized by large declines in deposits? The authors find that contemporary banking crises are not accompanied by declines in aggregate bank deposits, and credit does not fall relative to output, but the growth of both deposits, and credit does slow down substantially. Output recovery begins the second year after the crisis, and is not led by a resumption of credit growth. Instead, banks (including the stronger banks) reallocate their asset portfolio away from loans. This suggests that protecting deposits during a banking crisis...

The Banking and Financial Sector of Lao PDR : Financial Sector Note

Asian Development Bank; World Bank
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
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38.635442%
During the second half of the 1980s, Lao PDR embarked on an ambitious program of economic reforms, called the New Economic Mechanism, whose main purpose was to gradually transform its centrally-planned economy into a market-oriented economy. The initial reform momentum lasted about one decade. The far-reaching reform program encompassed many critical components including: (a) promotion of private production through improved incentives; (b) institutional infrastructure to improve market economy operations; (c) the strengthening of Lao comparative advantages through trade liberalization and further specialization; and (d) the establishment of price stability through macroeconomic policy measures. The systemic changes introduced in Lao PDR have contributed to a significant transformation of the country s economic system, away from a rigorously centrally-planned economy and towards a form of market economy based on private ownership. The percentage of poor declined based on the national poverty line from 45 to 39 percent between 1992-93 and 1997-982. But the percentage of very poor did not decline and remained at slightly above 30 percent evidencing the need for even broader and faster growth. Moreover...

Nigeria : Financial Sector Review, Volume 2. Banking Institutions and Their Supervision

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Português
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38.819788%
This report is a comprehensive review of the Nigerian financial system, covering the following areas: i) macro-financial environment; ii) safety and soundness of the banking system; iii) banking supervision; iv) development finance institutions; v) community banks and commercial banks' rural operations; vi) insurance and pensions; vii) housing finance; viii) money and capital markets; and ix) term finance and leasing. The report is in three volumes: Volume 1 (Overview and Macro-financial Environment) covers the Executive Summary, Overview of the Financial System and Macro-Financial Issues. Volume 2 (Banking Institutions) contains chapters on: i) The Banking System; ii) Assessment of Banking Supervision; iii) Development Finance Institutions; and iv) Community Banks and Commercial banks' rural operations. Volume 3 (Non-Bank Financial Institutions and Markets) includes: i) Insurance and Pensions; ii) Housing Finance; iii) Money and Capital Markets; and iv) Term Finance and Leasing. The Statistical Annex contains relevant data for all the chapters.

An Analysis of the 2002 Uruguayan Banking Crisis

de la Plaza, Luis; Sirtaine, Sophie
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
38.819788%
The authors review the series of events that led to the 2002 Uruguayan banking crisis, assess the current status of the Uruguayan banking sector, and analyze the policy responses undertaken by the Uruguayan authorities to counteract the crisis. The main conclusion from their analysis is that although the immediate trigger for the crisis was caused by contagion resulting from Argentina's financial crisis, the spread and magnification of the crisis that engulfed the Uruguayan economy was amplified by certain weaknesses of the Uruguayan economy in general, and the domestic banking sector in particular. The authors also believe that the policy responses adopted by the Uruguayan authorities were mostly adequate, allowing Uruguay to successfully counteract simultaneous banking and public debt crises. Most important, the Uruguayan authorities were able to overcome a severe crisis while preserving the necessary trust in banking contracts, achieving a high level of social stability and political cohesion, and maintaining a fluid dialogue with multilateral financial institutions and all affected parties. The cooperative and consensual approach taken by the authorities created the necessary conditions to overcome some of the important obstacles to the recovery of the domestic banking sector.

Banking Policy and Macroeconomic Stability: An Exploration

Caprio, Gerard, Jr.; Honohan, Patrick
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, D.C. Publicador: World Bank, Washington, D.C.
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
38.422976%
Whether and when does banking serve to stabilize the economy? The authors view the banking system as a filter through which foreign and domestic shocks feed through to the domestic economy. The filter can dampen or amplify the shocks through various credit market channels, including credit growth, import of foreign capital, and possibly interest rates. The question is whether the prudential quality of banking, as proxied by measures of regulatory quality and openness to foreign banking, amplify or dampen these shocks. The authors find that many of the regulatory characteristics that have been found to deepen a financial system and make it more robust to crises-notably those which empower the private sector-also appear to reduce the sector's ability to provide short-term insulation to the macro-economy. It is as if prudent bankers are reluctant to absorb short-term risks that, if neglected, might cause solvency and growth problems in the longer run. Forbearance might dampen short-term volatility, but at the expense of the longer run health of the banking sector and the economy. One way to avoid this apparent tradeoff is evident: banking systems which have a higher share of foreign-owned banks...

Banking in Developing Countries in the 1990s

Hanson, James A.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
Português
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38.739773%
During the 1990s commercial bank deposits and capital rose relative to GDP in the major developing countries. This rise largely reflected the dramatic fall in inflation of the 1990s and financial liberalization. But much of this growth in banks' loanable funds was absorbed by increased net holdings of central bank debt and of government debt. Much of the rise in government debt reflected post-crisis restructurings, notably in Brazil, Indonesia, and Mexico, but rising deficits also played a role. Bank intermediation between depositors and private sector borrowers remained limited in many countries despite financial liberalization. The post-crisis restructurings raise two important issues: the poor performance of loans that was revealed by the crises and the future crowding-out that will result from the spreading-out of the cost of the crisis over time and the inability to retire the restructuring-related debt. The absorption of deposits in nonprivate sector credit, the growth of offshore finance of the private sector...

Banking Sector Stability, Efficiency, and Outreach in Kenya

Beck, Thorsten; Cull, Robert; Fuchs, Michael; Getenga, Jared; Gatere, Peter; Randa, John; Trandafir, Mircea
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
38.62416%
Although Kenya's financial system is by far the largest and most developed in East Africa and its stability has improved significantly over the past years, many challenges remain. This paper assesses the stability, efficiency, and outreach of Kenya's banking system, using aggregate, bank-level, and survey data. Banks' asset quality and liquidity positions have improved, making the system more resistant to shocks, and interest rate spreads have declined, in part due to reduction in the overhead costs of foreign banks. Outreach remains limited, but has improved in recent years, driven by mobile payments services in the domestic remittance market. Fostering a level regulatory playing field for all deposit-taking institutions is a key remaining challenge. Specifically, an effective but not overly burdensome framework for regulation and supervision of microfinance institutions and cooperatives is a priority. Maintaining an openness to new, and non-bank, providers of financial services, which has enabled the success of mobile payments...

Deposit Insurance and Banking Reform in Russia

Camara, Modibo K.; Montes-Negret, Fernando
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
38.672634%
The objective of this paper is not to review the pros and cons of deposit insurance systems, but to focus, rather narrowly, on the recent adoption of a deposit insurance system (DIS) in Russia, the rationale offered, and the potential impact it might have on the stability and development of the Russian banking system. An attempt is made to draw some lessons from the implementation experience in Russia. The paper starts with a brief description of the Russian DIS, followed by an overview of the banking system's structure and some observations on the sequencing followed for adopting the DIS and the political economy of its adoption. It concludes with a discussion of areas requiring attention.

What Does the Future Hold for the International Banking System?

Dailami, Mansoor; Adams-Kane, Jonathon
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Brief; Publications & Research
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
38.439626%
The international banking industry faces a challenging future, having to consolidate at a time of heightened global financial volatility, anemic growth in advanced countries, and shifting global growth balances. After a long period of sustained expansion and accommodating regulatory treatment, the structure of international banking is changing as global banks' business strategies shift toward fast-growing emerging-market economies. The center of gravity for international lending is shifting, with the role of European banks shrinking and American, Japanese, and emerging-market banks filling in the space. Against this backdrop, the current debate on adding economic stimulus to support the sputtering global economic recovery should consider the possible contractionary impacts of bank deleveraging, even with global interest rates remaining at historically low levels.

Banking the Poor : Measuring Banking Access in 54 Economies

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research
Português
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38.453135%
Banking the Poor presents new data collected from two sources: central banks, and leading commercial banks in each surveyed country. It explores associations between countries' banking policies and practices, and their levels of financial access measured in terms of the numbers of bank accounts per thousand adults. It builds on the previous work of measuring financial access through information obtained from regulators, banks, and household surveys. It explores associations between countries' banking policies and practices, and their levels of financial access, measured in terms of the numbers of bank accounts per thousand adults. The extent to which people are banked depends primarily on how wealthy they are. Even in the poorest countries, rich urban customers get access to good banking. Although there are a range of financial services used by the poorest, these are usually provided outside the formal banking system. Banks are used by those above this threshold, usually by salaried employees who have the steady income. Naturally banks are more likely to seek out users with a steady, predicatable income. Expanding credit for enterprises leads to the creation of a salaried class that wants to bank: this is the primary way to increase bank access. While bank clients make up the largest part of those using financial services in most countries...