Página 1 dos resultados de 1167 itens digitais encontrados em 0.016 segundos

Unpacking the Causal Chain of Financial Literacy

Carpena, Fenella; Cole, Shawn; Shapiro, Jeremy; Zia, Bilal
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.45%
A growing body of literature examines the causal impact of financial literacy on individual, household, and firm level outcomes. This paper unpacks the mechanism of impact by focusing on the first link in the causal chain. Specifically, it studies the experimental impact of financial literacy on three distinct dimensions of financial knowledge. The analysis finds that financial literacy does not immediately enable individuals to discern costs and rewards that require high numeracy skills, but it does significantly improve basic awareness of financial choices and attitudes toward financial decisions. Monetary incentives do not induce better performance, suggesting cognitive constraints rather than lack of attention are a key barrier to improving financial knowledge. These results illuminate the strengths and limitations of financial literacy training, which can inform the design and anticipated effects of such programs.

Education for all in Bangladesh : Where does Bangladesh Stand in Terms of Achieving the EFA Goals by 2015?

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.5%
The objectives of this policy note are twofold: first, take stock of where Bangladesh stands in terms of achieving the Education For All (EFA) goals; and second, suggest policy recommendations that could help Bangladesh to meet the EFA goals by 2015. The policy note will focus mainly on: 1) universal primary enrollment for all children; 2) universal primary completion; 3) gender parity in education; 4) adult literacy; and 5) quality of education. This is because these areas can be more meaningfully analyzed with reasonably reliable information from various sources. Bangladesh is unlikely to achieve universal primary enrollment and completion by 2015 if the current trends in access and completion do not improve. Progress in school quality is more difficult to assess because of the lack of systematic assessment and monitoring of learning achievement results. The government continues to be the main provider and financer of primary education. Improving the overall quality of schooling is a pressing task in order to substantially raise enrollment and help more children complete primary school with the appropriate skills in literacy and numeracy. Bangladesh has made progress towards increasing both primary and secondary enrollment and has already reached gender parity in both education levels.

Improving Learning in Uganda, Volume II : Problematic Curriculum Areas and Teacher Effectiveness, Insights from National Assessments

Najjumba, Innocent Mulindwa; Marshall, Jeffrey H.
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.53%
Uganda is one of the few African countries with a functional national assessment system. Established in 2003, the National Assessment of Progress in Education (NAPE) Program is executed by the Uganda National Examination Board (UNEB). The program uses a learning outcomes measurement framework to annually measure achievement in literacy and numeracy proficiency on the basis of a cross-sectional, nationally representative sample of learners from the primary three (P3) and primary six (P6) grades. In 2008, the framework was extended to the senior two (S2) grade of lower secondary education for English, math, and biology. However, use of national assessment results to inform improvements in student learning remains weak. These data can nevertheless be used to search for solutions to the challenge of low-quality education in Uganda. The objective of this study is to generate a comprehensive, consolidated evidence base about student learning outcomes and teacher effectiveness in primary and secondary schools Uganda...

Improving Adult Literacy Outcomes : Lessons from Cognitive Research for Developing Countries

Abadzi, Helen
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.53%
Despite the existence of about one billion illiterates in the world, adult literacy programs make up 1-5 percent of government or donor budgets, and they remain severely underfunded in comparison to primary education. Though dropout and course completion rates improved in the 1990s, the outcomes of literacy instruction are still modest and may have improved little since the 1970s. The results may disappoint governments and donors who expect that once taught, people will have usable skills and remain literate. The modest results make it hard to increase coverage and to argue for increased expenditures for this sector. The results may be due to inefficient instruction but also to the structure of human memory, which has important implications for adult literacy acquisition. The need to learn the rapid recognition of complex patterns poses problems that are not apparent to people who became expert readers in their childhood.

Literacy for All in 100 Days? A Research-based Strategy for Fast Progress in Low-income Countries

Abadzi, Helen
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.45%
In low-income countries many students are marginalized very early and remain illiterate. In grades 1-3 they attend rarely, though they may officially drop out in grade 4. Many others graduate from primary school without having learned letter values. The worrisome outcomes, despite much donor investment in low-income countries, have prompted scrutiny of the methods, and textbooks used to make students literate. This document offers insights from cognitive neuroscience and evidence suggesting that students can be taught basic literacy within the first semester of grade 1, if taught in consistently spelled languages. Teaching students at risk of dropout to read as early as possible enhances equity. However, the reading methods used in many countries are complex and hard for teachers to execute. They pertain to high-income countries and to certain western European languages. English but also French, Portuguese, and Dutch have complex spelling systems. English in particular requires three years of learning time. (French requires about two). Reading instruction for English is expensive and complex. Lists of whole words must be learned...

Employer Voices, Employer Demands, and Implications for Public Skills Development Policy

Cunningham, Wendy; Villasenor, Paula
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.45%
Educators believe that they are adequately preparing youth for the labor market while employers lament the lack of skills. A possible source of the mismatch in perceptions is that employers and educators have different understandings of the types of skills valued in the labor market. This paper uses economics and psychology literature to define four skills sets: socio-emotional, higher-order cognitive, basic cognitive, and technical skills. The paper reviews the literature that quantitatively measures employer skill demand, as reported in preference surveys. A sample of 28 studies reveals remarkable consistency across the world in the skills demanded by employers. Although employers value all skill sets, there is a greater demand for socio-emotional and higher-order cognitive skills than for basic cognitive or technical skills. These results are robust across economy size and level of development, sector, export-orientation, and occupations. Employers perceive that the greatest skills gaps are in socio-emotional and technical skills. These findings suggest the need to re-conceptualize education and training systems. Taking into consideration the developmental process to acquire the skills identified by employers...

Demand and Supply of Skills in Ghana : How Can Training Programs Improve Employment?

Darvas, Peter; Palmer, Robert
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.53%
Ghana has a youthful population of 24 million and has shown impressive gains in economic growth and in poverty reduction over the last two decades. The necessary sustained growth requires three critical steps: (1) increase productivity in the strategic economic sectors, (2) diversify the economy, and (3) expand employment. Raising the level and range of skills in the country provides a key contribution to these core drivers of sustained growth. Skills development in Ghana encompasses foundational skills (literacy, numeracy), transferable and soft skills, and technical and vocational skills. These skills are acquired throughout life through formal education, training, and higher education; on the job through work experience and professional training; through family and community; and via the media. This report focuses on one segment of Ghana s skills development system: formal and informal technical and vocational education and training (TVET) at the pre-tertiary level. Although TVET alone does not guarantee productivity gains or job creation...

STEP Skills Measurement Surveys : Innovative Tools for Assessing Skills

Pierre, Gaelle; Sanchez Puerta, Maria Laura; Valerio, Alexandria; Rajadel, Tania
Fonte: World Bank Group, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank Group, Washington, DC
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.51%
The Skills Towards Employability and Productivity (STEP) program was designed to better understand the interplay between skills on the one hand and employability and productivity on the other. The STEP program developed survey instruments tailored to collect data on skills in low- and middle-income country contexts. The present note is a reference document for readers seeking background information on the STEP surveys and for users of the data, which is publicly available through the World Bank s Microdata Catalog. The note describes the design of the survey instruments and the constructs measured as well as the technical standards and implementation protocols adopted to ensure data quality and comparability across countries. It also provides guidance to users for the construction of aggregated skills indicators and for the use of the reading literacy assessment data.

Analysis of the Financial Literacy Survey in Romania and Recommendations

Stănculescu, Manuela Sofia
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Investment Climate Assessment (ICA); Economic & Sector Work
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.44%
This final report includes the analysis of the baseline survey on Financial Literacy in Romania.The survey is the follow-up of the Diagnostic Review on Consumer Protection and Financial Literacy conducted by the World Bank in 2008-2009. The Diagnostic Review in Romania was the fourth in a World Bank-sponsored pilot program to assess consumer protection and financial literacy in developing and middle-income countries. The objectives of this Review were three-fold to: (1) refine a set of good practices for assessing consumer protection and financial literacy, including financial literacy; (2) conduct a review of the existing rules and practices in Romania compared to the good practices; and (3) provide recommendations on ways to improve consumer protection and financial literacy in Romania. The Diagnostic Review was prepared at the request of the National Authority for Consumers' Protection (ANPC), whose request was endorsed by the Ministry of Economy and Finance. Support was provided by the National Bank of Romania (BNR)...

Tracking Basic Education Expenditure in Yemen : Analyses of Public Resource Management and Teacher Absenteeism

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Other Education Study; Economic & Sector Work
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.51%
Yemen faces significant challenges in expanding access and promoting quality for improved educational outcomes. The study employs both qualitative and quantitative methods to provide recommendations for tracking public expenditure and improving service delivery in the basic education sector in Yemen. To this end, it documents the management of public resources in Yemen's education sector and potential inefficiencies in the use of these resources. This report, through its various components, revealed significant impediments-teacher deployment and salary payment, materials provision, student and teacher attendance, among others-on the path to improving education service delivery in Yemen. This study examines four main research issues related to Yemen's education sector: 1) leakage in the flow of funds, 2) compliance with financial management standards, 3) incentives to provide better quality services, and 4) teacher management issues. The study investigates the disparities and inconsistencies between formal regulations and informal practices in teacher deployment, wage payments, and resource allocations to schools. The study explores how absenteeism correlates with a wide range of potential determinants of the quality of education at the individual...

Enterprises, Workers, and Skills in Urban Timor-Leste

Das, Maitreyi Bordia; O'Keefe, Philip
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.12%
Like many low-income countries, Timor-Leste faces challenges in providing employment for and increasing the skills of its labor force-challenges made more acute by high fertility rates, a very young population, and the capacity constraints of a new nation. However, there is limited information for policymakers to formulate appropriate policies. The paper presents findings of the first urban enterprise survey in independent Timor-Leste. It explores several aspects of the Timorese urban labor market, including the profile of formal and informal enterprises, their behavior in terms of employment and wage-setting practices, and constraints on firm growth. It also presents findings on the skills and training needs of urban employers, and constraints faced in overcoming skills shortages. It finds a highly informal urban enterprise scene, where even "formal" enterprises are largely micro-enterprises. While there has been considerable action in terms of new firm creation since independence, there is already surprisingly low job creation or destruction. This is driven by a number of constraints inside and outside the labor market. With respect to wages...

Developing the Workforce, Shaping the Future : Transformation of Madagascar's Post-basic Education

Bashir, Sajitha
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.5%
Sub-Saharan African countries are increasingly recognizing the contribution of post basic education to economic growth and social development. However, policy makers in many poor countries struggle to balance expansion and upgrading of post-basic education reform against competing development priorities. They must consider how and sometimes whether, to fund post-basic education in the face of demographic growth, limited public resources, and political and social imperatives. In its new poverty reduction and growth strategy, the Madagascar Action Plan (MAP), the Government of Madagascar made the transformation of its education system one of the key pillars of its development agenda. An important decision was the reform of basic education, covering primary and junior secondary education, including extension of the basic education cycle to 10 years. The Government's new Education for All (EFA) plan provides the policy framework and operational strategies for basic education, covering changes to curricula and learning materials...

Is Functional Literacy a Prerequisite for Entering the Labor Market? An Analysis of Determinants of Adults Literacy and Earnings in Ghana

Blunch, Niels-Hugo; Verner, Dorte
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research; Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.62%
The authors analyze the determinants of literacy and earnings in Ghana. They link literacy and earnings with various other factors, including age, gender, family educational background, distance to school, and income. Literacy and age are negatively correlated, suggesting that efforts to strengthen the supply and quality of basic education programs in recent years have succeeded in raising literacy rates. Parents' education is positively associated with literacy. Distance to the nearest primary school, residence in a rural area, and poverty are negatively associated with literacy. Functional literacy appears to be a prerequisite for entering the labor market, which may partly explain the lack of returns to education other than middle school and technical and professional training. The policy implications of this study: Basic education and literacy programs should target girls and poorer households, especially in rural areas.

Madagascar - Post Primary Education : Developing the Workforce, Shaping the Future - Transformation of Madagascar's Post-Basic Education

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Education Sector Review; Economic & Sector Work
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.49%
The main purpose of this report is to provide analytical inputs for the development of post-basic education reforms. Specifically, the report identifies and prioritizes: (i) the need for change in the structure, content and delivery of Madagascar's post-basic education and training system, and (ii) the key reforms in financing, governance and sub-sector management required to support changes to the structure, content and delivery of the post-basic system. The Madagascar Action Plan (MAP) outlines an ambitious development strategy, focusing on promoting investment in high growth sectors and regional development. If successful, it will change the demand for skills in fundamental ways. Since 2005, foreign direct investment has increased rapidly. Madagascar's core challenges and the window of opportunity provided by the implementation of basic education reform imply that reform must improve the quality and relevance of post-basic education, while putting cost-effective mechanisms for expanding access in place. Post-basic reform should not focus exclusively on a massive expansion of the existing post-basic system. Instead...

Raising Literacy from 20 Percent to 80 Percent? A Science-Based Strategy for GPE Partner Countries; Faire passer le taux d'alphabetisation de 20 a 80 pourcentage : une strategie d'innovation basee sur la science pour les pays du partenariat mondial pour l'education

Abadzi, Helen
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Working Paper; Publications & Research
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.5%
Governments and donors have been working hard to develop efficient learning programs and resolve the learning crisis. Scientific lessons have already been implemented in a few countries. Global Partnership for Education (GPE) gave technical advice to Cambodia and the Gambia on reading (also on math); the reading pilots resulted in very satisfactory outcomes and expressions of appreciation by governments. Not surprisingly, other GPE partner countries have directly requested technical advice. With sharp messages and close coordination, the current mountain of problems can be reduced to a molehill in five years. Basic reading can be taught efficiently and quickly, by the middle of grade one. If such an outcome seems unbelievable, it is only because reading is taught through models tailor-made for certain western European languages. Students are to learn basic reading in local languages within the first 100 days of grade one. At the same time, they will learn the official language orally. In grade two they will receive a bridging course to transition eventually to the formal language. The many older illiterate students are to be remediated through the same 100-day program ('literate school in 100 days') and similarly receive a bridging course to the official language. One issue that is often voiced by government officials is that language of instruction for early grade reading is desirable...

Adult Literacy Programs in Uganda

Okech, Anthony; Carr-Hill, Roy A.; Katahoire, Anne R.; Kakooza, Teresa; Ndidde, Alice N.; Oxenham, John
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.51%
The purpose of this study is to compare, and contrast the resource requirements, and effectiveness of adult literacy programs in Uganda, assess its implementation, and recommend future policy for the development of adult literacy education. The report presents the research, and evaluation background, providing analyses of effectiveness in terms of both the attainment, and retention of reading, writing, and arithmetic skills, including practical knowledge, and attitude changes - particularly, knowledge about HIV/AIDS prevention, and care. It explores the factors affecting the performance of adult education, the costs of activities, and the extent of local commitment under the current socioeconomic conditions. The context of literacy programs in Uganda, and the current state of both government, and nongovernmental organizations' programs, are described, emphasizing on outcomes, and cost-effectiveness, rather than process, or methodology. Conclusions suggest that while the programs are helping the government in redressing the imbalance of educational opportunities...

Achieving World-Class Education in Brazil : The Next Agenda

Bruns, Barbara; Evans, David; Luque, Javier
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.49%
Education is improving in Brazil. The average years of education has almost doubled over the last 20 years, as has the proportion of adults who have completed secondary school. Brazil's high school students have improved consistently in math and language performance over the last decade. These gains stem from the federal government's priority attention to education through both reforms and resources over the past 15 years. The progress laid out in this book is impressive and praiseworthy, but Brazil still trails its competitors in several of the ways that matter most. Student learning, while improving, still lags far behind wealthier nations. Many secondary schools lose the majority of their students well before graduation. Teachers are drawn from among the lowest achievers and have few performance incentives, and it shows in how class time is used. This important book explores not only the basis for Brazil's progress, but also what it must do to bridge the remaining quality gap to a first-rate education for its children. It provides detailed recommendations for strengthening the performance of teachers...

Language, Literacy, and Learning in Primary Schools : Implications for Teacher Development Programs in Nigeria

Adekola, Olatunde A.
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.52%
Language, Literacy, and Learning in Primary Schools is a synthesis of the findings arising from four years of policy research and development in Nigeria's primary schools that focused on the gap between what teachers should know and be able to do, and the realities of teaching and learning in classrooms. It begins by critically examining the outcomes of primary schooling as measured by learning achievement results from national assessments, and by identifying some core learning problems for Nigerian primary school children. It reviews the findings from recent research reports that studied teaching and learning processes in primary school classrooms, and it identifies the pedagogical issues in primary classrooms that contribute to poor learning achievements. This report describes a research and development program that set out to improve teaching and learning in core learning skill areas of the curriculum.

Skilling Up Vietnam : Preparing the Workforce for a Modern Market Economy

Bodewig, Christian; Badiani-Magnusson, Reena; Macdonald, Kevin; Newhouse, David; Rutkowski, Jan
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.48%
Education has played an important role in making Vietnam a development success story over the last 20 years. In the 1990s and early 2000s Vietnam experienced rapid economic growth. The accelerated growth was driven predominantly by productivity increases that came in the wake of a rapid shift of employment from low-productivity agriculture to higher-productivity nonfarm jobs. Vietnam's economy began to industrialize and modernize. Poverty fell dramatically. And education played an enabling role. Vietnam's committed effort to promote access to primary education for all and to ensure its quality through centrally set minimum quality standards has contributed to the country's reputation for having a young, well-educated workforce. Results from the 2012 Program for International Student Assessment (PISA) and new evidence from an adult skills survey presented in this book show that literacy and numeracy among Vietnam's youth and young urban adult workforce are strong and exceed those of even some wealthier countries. Despite its clear progress...

O letramento na educação básica no Brasil: uma análise a partir dos resultados do SAEB 2001 e 2003 Information literacy on brazilian basic education: SAEB results 2001 - 2003 analysis p.39-52

Vital, Luciane Paula; Floriani, Vivian Mengarda
Fonte: Associação Catarinense de Bibliotecários Publicador: Associação Catarinense de Bibliotecários
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; ; Descritiva, Levantamento dedados Formato: text/html; application/pdf
Publicado em 05/11/2006 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.48%
[Resumo] O delineamento da sociedade da informação requer indivíduos competentes no uso da informação. Algumas características podem ser consideradas essenciais para transitar nessa nova sociedade. O letramento aparece como um conceito que traça as habilidades necessárias para o uso adequado das informações produzidas. A competência no uso da informação deve ser iniciada na educação básica. Este artigo tem por objetivo fazer uma análise do letramento na educação básica no Brasil, por meio dos resultados obtidos no Sistema Nacional de Avaliação da Educação Básica (SAEB) nos anos de 2001 e 2003, sob a óptica do letramento. Os resultados obtidos permitem-nos inferir que apesar de o SAEB demonstrar ter uma preocupação com a dimensão social do letramento, a descrição dos níveis de proficiência explicita que uma maior ênfase é dada às habilidades individuais de leitura. Foi possível ainda, constatar que a maioria dos estudantes não desenvolveu, ao final do ensino fundamental e médio, competências e habilidades para o efetivo uso do letramento na Sociedade da Informação. É preciso que ações emergenciais sejam tomadas a fim de amenizar os impactos decorrentes de indivíduos sem capacidade de utilizarem-se do letramento como ferramenta estratégica para sobreviver na sociedade da informação. [Abstract] The Information Society required individuals competent about information use. Some characteristics can be considered essential to transit in this new society. The information literacy appears as concept that focuses the skills and abilities necessary for using information. The information competence should be begun in the basic education. This article objective analyze information literacy by the results obtained in the National System of Evaluation of the Basic Education (SAEB) in the years 2001 and 2003. The results allow inferring that SAEB have a concern with the social dimension of information literacy; give levels description of explicit proficiency that a larger emphasis is given to the reading individual abilities. It was possible verify that most students didn't develop...