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Um estudo sobre terminais intermodais para granéis sólidos.; A study about intermodal terminals to solid bulk cargo.

Andrade, Luís Emmanuel Carvalho de
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 13/03/2003 Português
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Este trabalho está relacionado coma implantação de adequados terminais intermodais para granéis sólidos nas margens das hidrovias, de modo a aumentar a participação do modal fluvial na matriz de transporte do país. Apresenta-se, inicialmente, um panorama da distribuição modal de transportes em que se enfatiza a deficiência dos terminais fluviais existentes como umfator responsável por esta distribuição. É estabelecido, então, como objetivo do trabalho o desenvolvimento do projeto de umterminal intermodal para a hidrovia Tietê-Paraná. O primeiro passo para o projeto é um estudo de demandas e de capacidade da via onde se define: o tipo de carga, quantidade de carga movimentada atualmente e a projeção de demanda, bem como a distribuição da movimentação ao longo do ano. E, emseguida, estima-se a capacidade de movimentação da via. Para desenvolver o projeto é feita uma compilação de diretrizes propostas para dimensionamento de terminais e de seus subsistemas (hidroviário, ferroviário, rodoviário, de armazenagem e de movimentação). Além disto, são analisados os critérios para avaliação do terminal. Antes de desenvolver o projeto, faz-se uma análise crítica dos terminais existentes na hidrovia, assinalando-se suas falhas. Para o dimensionamento do terminal são formuladas diversas configurações que envolvem combinações de diferentes taxas de movimentação e diferentes capacidades de armazenagem. Utilizando a técnica de simulação...

Uma abordagem de ensaio de resistência mecânica de carvão vegetal.; An approach of charcoal mechanical strength tests.

Kurauchi, Martim Hideki Nakayama
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 30/07/2014 Português
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A indústria de ferro e aço corresponde a cerca de 8% das emissões globais de CO2. O carvão vegetal é uma alternativa existente ao uso de carvão fóssil e coque na indústria metalúrgica e é utilizado em alguns altos fornos no Brasil. Embora possua algumas vantagens em termos de maior reatividade e menor teor de cinzas em relação ao coque, o carvão vegetal possui baixa resistência mecânica e alta friabilidade, dificultando o transporte, manuseio e os processos. Não existem normas para avaliar a resistência à compressão de carvão vegetal, e os métodos existentes empregados em outras pesquisas consistem em preparar corpos de prova livres de defeitos e comprimi-los na direção das fibras. Por se tratar de um material com formato irregular, granular e anisotrópico, estes ensaios podem não revelar o comportamento de um leito de carvão vegetal, como um todo, quando sujeito a cargas compressivas. Isto pode não representar condições industriais, onde a carga sobre o carvão não é aplicada exclusivamente na direção das fibras, mas é aplicada de maneira aleatória. Esta dissertação propõe uma abordagem para se quantificar os efeitos da aplicação de cargas compressivas sobre um leito de carvão vegetal distribuído aleatoriamente. Isto representa uma tentativa de simular condições mais próximas das industriais...

Distribuição longitudinal de sementes de soja e características físicas do solo no plantio direto

Cortez, Jorge W.; Furlani, Carlos E. A.; Silva, Rouverson P. da; Lopes, Afonso
Fonte: Associação Brasileira de Engenharia Agrícola (SBEA) Publicador: Associação Brasileira de Engenharia Agrícola (SBEA)
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 502-510
Português
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As técnicas do plantio direto são complementares às atuais técnicas de conservação do solo, que envolvem menor mobilização e permanência de cobertura vegetal na superfície do solo. O trabalho foi realizado na UNESP - Jaboticabal, de novembro de 2003 a março de 2004, e teve como objetivo avaliar o efeito de culturas, manejos e marchas do trator na semeadura da soja no plantio direto. O delineamento utilizado para instalação do experimento foi em blocos ao acaso, no esquema de parcelas subsubdivididas, com quatro repetições. Foram analisados: estande inicial, distribuição longitudinal de plantas, resistência mecânica à penetração, densidade e teor de água no solo. O estande inicial não foi influenciado pelos tratamentos. A distribuição longitudinal das plantas foi afetada pela marcha do trator. A resistência do solo à penetração sofreu efeito apenas na camada de 0,20 a 0,25 m na interação culturas, manejos e marchas do trator. A interação culturas e manejos na camada de 0,10 a 0,20 m para densidade indicou a presença de resistência maior do que 0 a 0,10 m e de 0,20 a 0,30 m. O teor de água no solo foi menor nas camadas superficiais do solo, influenciado pelos manejos.; The techniques of the no tillage are complemental to the current techniques of conservation of the soil...

Analise de sensibilidade de seis sistemas de recolhimento do palhiço da cana-de-açucar (Saccharum spp.); Analysis of six recovery systems for sugarcane trash

Marcio Beraldo Michelazzo
Fonte: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp Publicador: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 18/05/2005 Português
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A biomassa é uma fonte de energia renovável, disponível e alternativa. Quando a colheita é feita sem realização de queimada, a biomassa da cana-de-açúcar, na forma de palhiço, é uma das fontes de energia renovável com enorme potencial no Brasil. Todavia, o aproveitamento desses resíduos em larga escala é dificultado pelo alto custo de seu recolhimento, principalmente no que diz respeito ao recolhimento, adensamento e transporte. Este trabalho analisou tecnicamente algumas características envolvidas no recolhimento do palhiço, tais como massa específica final do palhiço e complexidade das máquinas envolvidas, juntamente com uma análise econômica, por meio de um modelo de cálculo de custo, por meio de simulação de eficiências e capacidades operacionais que compõem cada sistema de recolhimento do palhiço. De acordo com os resultados, o sistema colheita integral apresentou o menor custo de recolhimento do palhiço, tanto para distância pequenas como para grandes distâncias. Seguido pelos sistemas picado a granel, fardo cilíndrico, fardo algodoeiro, peletização e briquetagem; Sugarcane is one of the energy sources most readily available in Brazil, mainly due to residues such as trash (tops, dry and green leaves). However...

Experimental Design Optimization of a Sequential Injection Method for Promazine Assay in Bulk and Pharmaceutical Formulations

Idris, Abubakr M.; Assubaie, Fahad N.; Sultan, Salah M.
Fonte: Hindawi Publishing Corporation Publicador: Hindawi Publishing Corporation
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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Experimental design optimization approach was utilized to develop a sequential injection analysis (SIA) method for promazine assay in bulk and pharmaceutical formulations. The method was based on the oxidation of promazine by Ce(IV) in sulfuric acidic media resulting in a spectrophotometrically detectable species at 512 nm. A 33 full factorial design and response surface methods were applied to optimize experimental conditions potentially controlling the analysis. The optimum conditions obtained were 1.0 × 10−4 M sulphuric acid, 0.01 M Ce(IV), and 10 μL/s flow rate. Good analytical parameters were obtained including range of linearity 1–150 μg/mL, linearity with correlation coefficient 0.9997, accuracy with mean recovery 98.2%, repeatability with RSD 1.4% (n = 7 consequent injections), intermediate precision with RSD 2.1% (n = 5 runs over a week), limits of detection 0.34 μg/mL, limits of quantification 0.93 μg/mL, and sampling frequency 23 samples/h. The obtained results were realized by the British Pharmacopoeia method and comparable results were obtained. The provided SIA method enjoys the advantages of the technique with respect to rapidity, reagent/sample saving, and safety in solution handling and to the environment.

Mitochondrial DNA mutations affect calcium handling in differentiated neurons

Trevelyan, Andrew J.; Kirby, Denise M.; Smulders-Srinivasan, Tora K.; Nooteboom, Marco; Acin-Perez, Rebeca; Enriquez, José Antonio; Whittington, Miles A.; Lightowlers, Robert N.; Turnbull, Doug M.
Fonte: Oxford University Press Publicador: Oxford University Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Mutations in the mitochondrial genome are associated with a wide range of neurological symptoms, but many aspects of the basic neuronal pathology are not understood. One candidate mechanism, given the well-established role of mitochondria in calcium buffering, is a deficit in neuronal calcium homoeostasis. We therefore examined calcium responses in the neurons derived from various ‘cybrid’ embryonic stem cell lines carrying different mitochondrial DNA mutations. Brief (∼50 ms), focal glutamatergic stimuli induced a transient rise in intracellular calcium concentration, which was visualized by bulk loading the cells with the calcium dye, Oregon Green BAPTA-1. Calcium entered the neurons through N-methyl-d-aspartic acid and voltage-gated calcium channels, as has been described in many other neuronal classes. Intriguingly, while mitochondrial mutations did not affect the calcium transient in response to single glutamatergic stimuli, they did alter the responses to repeated stimuli, with each successive calcium transient decaying ever more slowly in mitochondrial mutant cell lines. A train of stimuli thus caused intracellular calcium in these cells to be significantly elevated for many tens of seconds. These results suggest that calcium-handling deficits are likely to contribute to the pathological phenotype seen in patients with mitochondrial DNA mutations.

Transfer, Imaging, and Analysis Plate for Facile Handling of 384 Hanging Drop 3D Tissue Spheroids

Cavnar, Stephen P.; Salomonsson, Emma; Luker, Kathryn E.; Luker, Gary D.; Takayama, Shuichi
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Three-dimensional culture systems bridge the experimental gap between in vivo and in vitro physiology. However, nonstandardized formation and limited downstream adaptability of 3D cultures have hindered mainstream adoption of these systems for biological applications, especially for low- and moderate-throughput assays commonly used in biomedical research. Here we build on our recent development of a 384-well hanging drop plate for spheroid culture to design a complementary spheroid transfer and imaging (TRIM) plate. The low-aspect ratio wells of the TRIM plate facilitated highfidelity, user-independent, contact-based collection of hanging drop spheroids. Using the TRIM plate, we demonstrated several downstream analyses, including bulk tissue collection for flow cytometry, high-resolution low working-distance immersion imaging, and timely reagent delivery for enzymatic studies. Low working-distance multiphoton imaging revealed a cell type–dependent, macroscopic spheroid structure. Unlike ovarian cancer spheroids, which formed loose, disk-shaped spheroids, human mammary fibroblasts formed tight, spherical, and nutrient-limited spheroids. Beyond the applications we describe here, we expect the hanging drop spheroid plate and complementary TRIM plate to facilitate analyses of spheroids across the spectrum of throughput...

Health risks in international container and bulk cargo transport due to volatile toxic compounds

Baur, Xaver; Budnik, Lygia Therese; Zhao, Zhiwei; Bratveit, Magne; Djurhuus, Rune; Verschoor, Louis; Rubino, Federico Maria; Colosio, Claudio; Jepsen, Jorgen R
Fonte: BioMed Central Publicador: BioMed Central
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 20/05/2015 Português
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To ensure the preservation and quality of the goods, physical (i.e. radiation) or chemical pest control is needed. The dark side of such consents may bear health risks in international transport and production sharing. In fact, between 10% and 20% of all containers arriving European harbors were shown to contain volatile toxic substances above the exposure limit values. Possible exposure to these toxic chemicals may occur not only for the applicators but also the receiver by off gassing from products, packing materials or transport units like containers. A number of intoxications, some with lethal outcome, occur not only during the fumigation, but also during freight transport (on bulk carriers and other transport vessels), as well as in the logistic lines during loading and unloading. Risk occupations include dock-workers, seafarers, inspectors, as well as the usually uninformed workers of importing enterprises that unload the products. Bystanders as well as vulnerable consumers may also be at risk. Ongoing studies focus on the release of these toxic volatile substances from various goods. It was shown that the half-lives of the off-gassing process range between minutes and months, depending on the toxic substance, its chemical reactivity...

Evaluation of bulk and packaged distribution strategies in a specialty chemical company

Hernández López, José Joaquín, 1974-
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 100 leaves; 9411313 bytes; 9422865 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
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A logistics cost model is developed for a chemical distribution system from a single plant using bulk and packaged transportation strategies. The purpose of this research is to provide a tool that helps understand the cost trade offs in the operation of a logistics system at a strategic level for large scale systems and complex distribution systems. An analytical modeling approach was used to determine variables that define transportation, storage and material handling costs in the system. Several distribution strategies were evaluated and benchmarked in terms of costs against the current. Savings offered by the packaged distribution system for a single plant were marginal; extension of the current model to evaluate cost reduction opportunities across the complete network of plants and distribution centers is proposed for further research effort.; by Jose Joaquin Hernandez Lopez.; Thesis (M. Eng. in Logistics)--Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Engineering Systems Division, 2003.; "June 2003."; Includes bibliographical references (leaves 99-100).

Private Participation in Port Facilities : Recent Trends

Sommer, Dirk
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
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The private sector has become increasingly involved in the operation of common-user port facilities during the 1990s, following public sector dominance of the sector since the 1940s. During the past decade the reform of port administration has gained momentum in industrial and developing countries alike. Between 1990 and 1998, 112 port projects with private participation reached financial closure in twenty-eight developing countries, with investment commitments totaling more than US$9 billion. Most projects are in East Asia and Latin America, and most are long-term concessions. This Note provides an overview of the emerging trends in developing countries and outlines the main issues for the future. These issues include sustaining competition at a regional level, across networks, and with other transport sectors, such as road and rail.

Review of Cost of Compliance with the New International Freight Transport Security Requirements : Consolidated Report of the Investigations Carried Out in Ports in the Africa, Europe and Central Asia, and Latin America and Caribbean Regions

Kruk, C. Bert; Donner, Michel Luc
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
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Without transport there is no economic development and, in a reciprocal conclusion, the more efficient transport is, the better is the development. Bearing in mind that more than 90 percent of the world trade in tons per year is transported by sea and against the background of increasing ship sizes (especially in the container trade) and continuously growing globalization, the requirements for adequate and secure port facilities and the resulting logistics challenges are accelerating worldwide. The International Ship and Port Facility Security Code (ISPS code) is a comprehensive set of measures to enhance the security of ships and port facilities and came into force on the July 1, 2004. The ISPS code is implemented through chapter XI-2 special measures to enhance maritime security in the International Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea (SOLAS). The code has two parts, one mandatory (part A) and one recommendatory (part B). Compliance is mandatory for the 148 contracting parties to SOLAS; detailed implementation of the code is a matter for the individual national governments. The introduction of the ISPS Code has led to many questions and misunderstandings. The code does not...

A Multioutput Cost Function for Port Terminals : Some Guidelines for Regulation

Tovar, Beatriz; Jara-Díaz, Sergio; Trujillo, Lourdes
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
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Cargo handling in ports is a multioutput activity, as freight can arrive in many forms such as containers, bulk, rolling stock, or noncontainerized general cargo. In this paper Tovar, Jara-D�, and Trujillo analyze the operation of port terminals through the estimation of a multioutput cost model that uses monthly data on three firms located at the Las Palmas port in Spain. This permits the calculation of product-specific marginal costs, economies of scale (general and by firm), and economies of scope, which are key tools to help the regulators in their task.

Trade and Transport Facilitation in South Asia : Systems in Transition, Volume 2. Annexes

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
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Over the past few decades, the World trading system has become increasingly more open. Tariff rates have been reduced and quantitative restrictions (quotas) have been progressively eliminated, e.g. the Multi-Fiber Agreement (MFA). Most countries have adopted more outward-looking economic policies, seeking to increase growth and employment through expanding exports. Such outward looking policies have even been adopted by countries which previously pursued policies based on import substitution as in South Asia. Protective trade restrictions still persist, but tend to be in terms of more subtle non-tariff barriers (such as sanitary or phyto-sanitary standards), though anti-dumping measures and temporary quantity restrictions are still used by many countries to shield domestic producers. Trade regulations no longer solely attempt to protect domestic producers; their scope has extended to cover the need for enhanced security and the desire for greater consumer protection through the traceability of the production chain for many agricultural products. Intense competition compels firms to reduce costs throughout their manufacturing and distribution processes. Outsourcing to lower cost firms and countries has been one major source of cost reduction...

A 3DOF system for 3 dimensional stockpile surface scanning using laser

Lu, T.F.; Zhao, S.; Xu, S.; Koch, B.; Hurdsman, A.
Fonte: IEEE; 345 E 47TH ST, NEW YORK, NY 10017 USA Publicador: IEEE; 345 E 47TH ST, NEW YORK, NY 10017 USA
Tipo: Conference paper
Publicado em //2011 Português
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In material handing operations, raw materials are often stacked in a number of layers and subsequently reclaimed by benches. The quality grade may be different between layers. Also, the blending effect happens simultaneously with the stacking and reclaiming operations, how to meet the target grade required by the customers while lowering operation costs are rising academic concerns. By acquiring the shapes and dimensions of the layers of 3D stockpiles, the flows of bulk materials can be tracked, the compositions and distributions predicted, planned and controlled with much ease leading to increased efficiencies in Australia’s current bulk handling infrastructure, consequently increasing export potential and reducing costs. This paper describes a 3DOF laser scanning system which was designed to accurately measure, model and record the quantity of bulk solids in a laboratory environment. Pilot experiments and results demonstrate good, precise and fast performance of the system.; Tien-Fu Lu, Shi Zhao, Shihong Xu, Ben Koch and Alan Hurdsman

Study on Regulation of Private Operators in the Port of Djibouti

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Other Infrastructure Study; Economic & Sector Work
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Within a partnership framework with the Emirate of Dubai, the government of Djibouti has developed, during the last decade, an outstanding port and logistics hub with few precedents in other African countries. The objective of the present study is to strengthen the competitiveness of the ports of Djibouti (old port of Djibouti and new port of Doraleh) and ensure their medium-term and long-term development by designing a modern and efficient regulation system for private port operators, and specifically addressing issues related to the quality of service and pricing, in addition to institutional related issues. The port of Djibouti's competitiveness can be measured by its capacity to counter competition from other ports through the quality of its infrastructures and services, performance and port costs. Real or potential competition facing the port of Djibouti concerns non-captive traffic and its two components, transit and transshipment traffic. The port of Djibouti's natural competitors for Ethiopia's transit traffic are the ports of Berbera...

OECS Ports : An Efficiency and Performance Assessment

Cubas, Diana; Briceno-Garmendia, Cecilia; Bofinger, Heinrich C.
Fonte: World Bank Group, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank Group, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research; Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper
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Handling charges in Caribbean ports are two to three times higher than in similar ports in other regions of the world. In some cases, it costs significantly less to ship a container to Hong Kong SAR, China, or Europe than it does to ship to a neighboring island no more than 100 miles away. The reasons for high port-handling costs are linked to procedural inefficiencies along the logistics chain, high freight rates that shipping lines attribute to empty backhauls, and the poor performance of port management and operations. The Organization of Eastern Caribbean States shares the larger Caribbean region's advantages, challenges, and concerns related to the performance of port management and operations. Yet performance assessments have been difficult to make because of data constraints. This report seeks to provide such an assessment along four distinct policy dimensions: (i) traffic development, (ii) the institutional and regulatory framework, (iii) infrastructure development, and (iv) performance, including pricing and finance issues. The report concludes by benchmarking the efficiency of Organization of Eastern Caribbean States ports against other Latin American ports using a stochastic frontier approach...

Maritime Transport Costs and Port Efficiency

Clark, Ximena; Dollar, David; Micco, Alejandro
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
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Recent literature has emphasized the importance of transport costs and infrastructure in explaining trade, access to markets, and increases in per capita income. For most Latin American countries transport costs are a greater barrier to U.S. markets than import tariffs. The authors investigate the determinants of the costs of shipping to the United States using a large database (more than 300,000 observations a year) on shipments of products at the six-digit level of the Harmonized System of classification from different ports around the world. They find that distance and containerization matter. They find that the efficiency of ports is also important. Improving the efficiency of a port from the 25th to the 75th percentile reduces shipping costs by 12 percent. (On average, having bad ports is equivalent to being 60 percent farther away from markets.) Inefficient ports also increase handling costs, which are part of shipping costs. Finally, the authors try to explain variations in port efficiency. They find that the variations are linked to excessive regulation...

Multioutput analysis of cargo handling firms: An application to a Spanish port

Tovar de la Fe, Beatriz; Trujillo, Lourdes; Jara Díaz, Sergio Rodolfo
Fonte: SPRINGER Publicador: SPRINGER
Tipo: Artículo de revista
Português
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Cargo handling in ports is a multioutput activity, as freight can arrive in many forms such as containers, bulk, rolling stock, or non-containerised general cargo. In this paper, the operation of cargo handling firms in a Spanish port is analysed through the estimation of a multioutput cost model that uses monthly data on three representative firms located at the Las Palmas port. This permits the calculation of product specific marginal costs, economies of scale (general and by firm) and economies of scope, which help identifying optimal pricing policies and the potential cost advantages of increasing production.

Bulk Scheduling with DIANA Scheduler

Anjum, Ashiq; McClatchey, Richard; Ali, Arshad; Willers, Ian
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 07/02/2006 Português
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Results from and progress on the development of a Data Intensive and Network Aware (DIANA) Scheduling engine, primarily for data intensive sciences such as physics analysis, are described. Scientific analysis tasks can involve thousands of computing, data handling, and network resources and the size of the input and output files and the amount of overall storage space allocated to a user necessarily can have significant bearing on the scheduling of data intensive applications. If the input or output files must be retrieved from a remote location, then the time required transferring the files must also be taken into consideration when scheduling compute resources for the given application. The central problem in this study is the coordinated management of computation and data at multiple locations and not simply data movement. However, this can be a very costly operation and efficient scheduling can be a challenge if compute and data resources are mapped without network cost. We have implemented an adaptive algorithm within the DIANA Scheduler which takes into account data location and size, network performance and computation capability to make efficient global scheduling decisions. DIANA is a performance-aware as well as an economy-guided Meta Scheduler. It iteratively allocates each job to the site that is likely to produce the best performance as well as optimizing the global queue for any remaining pending jobs. Therefore it is equally suitable whether a single job is being submitted or bulk scheduling is being performed. Results suggest that considerable performance improvements are to be gained by adopting the DIANA scheduling approach.; Comment: 4 pages...

Avoiding structural failures on mobile bulk materials handling equipment

Schmidt,M.J.; van Rensburg,B.W.J.
Fonte: Journal of the Southern African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy Publicador: Journal of the Southern African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/03/2015 Português
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Bulk materials handling systems are extensively used in the mining and minerals industry, where a fairly high incidence of structural failure is experienced, notwithstanding design compliance with appropriate standards. A number of case studies are explored to demonstrate how insufficient controls or protection systems have contributed to structural failures on mobile bulk handling equipment. The importance of design integration across engineering disciplines is highlighted. The revision of ISO 5049-1 (1994) is proposed to provide specific rules and guidelines pertaining to machine protection systems. It is further recommended that the structural design engineer of the original equipment manufacturer (OEM) fulfils a more prominent role during the final acceptance and handover of mobile bulk handling equipment, with specific reference to protection systems.