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Perception of biological motion without local image motion

Beintema, J. A.; Lappe, M.
Fonte: National Academy of Sciences Publicador: National Academy of Sciences
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 16/04/2002 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.89%
A vivid perception of the moving form of a human figure can be obtained from a few moving light points on the joints of the body. This is known as biological motion perception. It is commonly believed that the perception of biological motion rests on image motion signals. Curiously, however, some patients with lesions to motion processing areas of the dorsal stream are severely impaired in image motion perception but can easily perceive biological motion. Here we describe a biological motion stimulus based on a limited lifetime technique that tests the perception of a moving human figure in the absence of local image motion. We find that subjects can spontaneously recognize a moving human figure in displays without local image motion. Their performance is very similar to that for classic point-light displays. We also find that tasks involving the discrimination of walking direction or the coherence of a walking figure can be performed in the absence of image motion. Thus, although image motion may generally aid processes such as segmenting figure from background, we propose that it is not the basis for the percept of biological motion. Rather, we suggest biological motion is derived from dynamic form information on body posture evolving over time.

Systemic Darwinism

Winther, Rasmus Grønfeldt
Fonte: National Academy of Sciences Publicador: National Academy of Sciences
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.92%
Darwin's 19th century evolutionary theory of descent with modification through natural selection opened up a multidimensional and integrative conceptual space for biology. We explore three dimensions of this space: explanatory pattern, levels of selection, and degree of difference among units of the same type. Each dimension is defined by a respective pair of poles: law and narrative explanation, organismic and hierarchical selection, and variational and essentialist thinking. As a consequence of conceptual debates in the 20th century biological sciences, the poles of each pair came to be seen as mutually exclusive opposites. A significant amount of 21st century research focuses on systems (e.g., genomic, cellular, organismic, and ecological/global). Systemic Darwinism is emerging in this context. It follows a “compositional paradigm” according to which complex systems and their hierarchical networks of parts are the focus of biological investigation. Through the investigation of systems, Systemic Darwinism promises to reintegrate each dimension of Darwin's original logical space. Moreover, this ideally and potentially unified theory of biological ontology coordinates and integrates a plurality of mathematical biological theories (e.g....