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Impact of experience-dependent and -independent factors on gene expression in songbird brain

Drnevich, Jenny; Replogle, Kirstin L.; Lovell, Peter; Hahn, Thomas P.; Johnson, Frank; Mast, Thomas G.; Nordeen, Ernest; Nordeen, Kathy; Strand, Christy; London, Sarah E.; Mukai, Motoko; Wingfield, John C.; Arnold, Arthur P.; Ball, Gregory F.; Brenowitz,
Fonte: National Academy of Sciences Publicador: National Academy of Sciences
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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165.79%
Songbirds provide rich natural models for studying the relationships between brain anatomy, behavior, environmental signals, and gene expression. Under the Songbird Neurogenomics Initiative, investigators from 11 laboratories collected brain samples from six species of songbird under a range of experimental conditions, and 488 of these samples were analyzed systematically for gene expression by microarray. ANOVA was used to test 32 planned contrasts in the data, revealing the relative impact of different factors. The brain region from which tissue was taken had the greatest influence on gene expression profile, affecting the majority of signals measured by 18,848 cDNA spots on the microarray. Social and environmental manipulations had a highly variable impact, interpreted here as a manifestation of paradoxical “constitutive plasticity” (fewer inducible genes) during periods of enhanced behavioral responsiveness. Several specific genes were identified that may be important in the evolution of linkages between environmental signals and behavior. The data were also analyzed using weighted gene coexpression network analysis, followed by gene ontology analysis. This revealed modules of coexpressed genes that are also enriched for specific functional annotations...

Social structures depend on innate determinants and chemosensory processing in Drosophila

Schneider, Jonathan; Dickinson, Michael H.; Levine, Joel D.
Fonte: National Academy of Sciences Publicador: National Academy of Sciences
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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165.87%
Flies display transient social interactions in groups. However, whether fly–fly interactions are stochastic or structured remains unknown. We hypothesized that groups of flies exhibit patterns of social dynamics that would manifest as nonrandom social interaction networks. To test this, we applied a machine vision system to track the position and orientation of flies in an arena and designed a classifier to detect interactions between pairs of flies. We show that the vinegar fly, Drosophila melanogaster, forms nonrandom social interaction networks, distinct from virtual network controls (constructed from the intersections of individual locomotor trajectories). In addition, the formation of interaction networks depends on chemosensory cues. Gustatory mutants form networks that cannot be distinguished from their virtual network controls. Olfactory mutants form networks that are greatly disrupted compared with control flies. Different wild-type strains form social interaction networks with quantitatively different properties, suggesting that the genes that influence this network phenotype vary across and within wild-type populations. We have established a paradigm for studying social behaviors at a group level in Drosophila and expect that a genetic dissection of this phenomenon will identify conserved molecular mechanisms of social organization in other species.

Associations between early life adversity and executive function in children adopted internationally from orphanages

Hostinar, Camelia E.; Stellern, Sarah A.; Schaefer, Catherine; Carlson, Stephanie M.; Gunnar, Megan R.
Fonte: National Academy of Sciences Publicador: National Academy of Sciences
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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185.9%
Executive function (EF) abilities are increasingly recognized as an important protective factor for children experiencing adversity, promoting better stress and emotion regulation as well as social and academic adjustment. We provide evidence that early life adversity is associated with significant reductions in EF performance on a developmentally sensitive battery of laboratory EF tasks that measured cognitive flexibility, working memory, and inhibitory control. Animal models also suggest that early adversity has a negative impact on the development of prefrontal cortex-based cognitive functions. In this study, we report EF performance 1 y after adoption in 2.5- to 4-y-old children who had experienced institutional care in orphanages overseas compared with a group of age-matched nonadopted children. To our knowledge, this is the youngest age and the soonest after adoption that reduced EF performance has been shown using laboratory measures in this population. EF reductions in performance were significant above and beyond differences in intelligence quotient. Within the adopted sample, current EF was associated with measures of early deprivation after controlling for intelligence quotient, with less time spent in the birth family before placement in an institution and lower quality of physical/social care in institutions predicting poorer performance on the EF battery.

Brain on stress: How the social environment gets under the skin

McEwen, Bruce S.
Fonte: National Academy of Sciences Publicador: National Academy of Sciences
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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195.84%
Stress is a state of the mind, involving both brain and body as well as their interactions; it differs among individuals and reflects not only major life events but also the conflicts and pressures of daily life that alter physiological systems to produce a chronic stress burden that, in turn, is a factor in the expression of disease. This burden reflects the impact of not only life experiences but also genetic variations and individual health behaviors such as diet, physical activity, sleep, and substance abuse; it also reflects stable epigenetic modifications in development that set lifelong patterns of physiological reactivity and behavior through biological embedding of early environments interacting with cumulative change from experiences over the lifespan. Hormones associated with the chronic stress burden protect the body in the short run and promote adaptation (allostasis), but in the long run, the burden of chronic stress causes changes in the brain and body that can lead to disease (allostatic load and overload). Brain circuits are plastic and remodeled by stress to change the balance between anxiety, mood control, memory, and decision making. Such changes may have adaptive value in particular contexts, but their persistence and lack of reversibility can be maladaptive. However...

Early childhood poverty, immune-mediated disease processes, and adult productivity

Ziol-Guest, Kathleen M.; Duncan, Greg J.; Kalil, Ariel; Boyce, W. Thomas
Fonte: National Academy of Sciences Publicador: National Academy of Sciences
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
165.81%
This study seeks to understand whether poverty very early in life is associated with early-onset adult conditions related to immune-mediated chronic diseases. It also tests the role that these immune-mediated chronic diseases may play in accounting for the associations between early poverty and adult productivity. Data (n = 1,070) come from the US Panel Study of Income Dynamics and include economic conditions in utero and throughout childhood and adolescence coupled with adult (age 30–41 y) self-reports of health and economic productivity. Results show that low income, particularly in very early childhood (between the prenatal and second year of life), is associated with increases in early-adult hypertension, arthritis, and limitations on activities of daily living. Moreover, these relationships and particularly arthritis partially account for the associations between early childhood poverty and adult productivity as measured by adult work hours and earnings. The results suggest that the associations between early childhood poverty and these adult disease states may be immune-mediated.

Factors underlying variable DNA methylation in a human community cohort

Lam, Lucia L.; Emberly, Eldon; Fraser, Hunter B.; Neumann, Sarah M.; Chen, Edith; Miller, Gregory E.; Kobor, Michael S.
Fonte: National Academy of Sciences Publicador: National Academy of Sciences
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
175.83%
Epigenetics is emerging as an attractive mechanism to explain the persistent genomic embedding of early-life experiences. Tightly linked to chromatin, which packages DNA into chromosomes, epigenetic marks primarily serve to regulate the activity of genes. DNA methylation is the most accessible and characterized component of the many chromatin marks that constitute the epigenome, making it an ideal target for epigenetic studies in human populations. Here, using peripheral blood mononuclear cells collected from a community-based cohort stratified for early-life socioeconomic status, we measured DNA methylation in the promoter regions of more than 14,000 human genes. Using this approach, we broadly assessed and characterized epigenetic variation, identified some of the factors that sculpt the epigenome, and determined its functional relation to gene expression. We found that the leukocyte composition of peripheral blood covaried with patterns of DNA methylation at many sites, as did demographic factors, such as sex, age, and ethnicity. Furthermore, psychosocial factors, such as perceived stress, and cortisol output were associated with DNA methylation, as was early-life socioeconomic status. Interestingly, we determined that DNA methylation was strongly correlated to the ex vivo inflammatory response of peripheral blood mononuclear cells to stimulation with microbial products that engage Toll-like receptors. In contrast...

Achievements and challenges in the biology of environmental effects

Rutter, Michael
Fonte: National Academy of Sciences Publicador: National Academy of Sciences
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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175.93%
The starting point for the study of adverse experiences is that some have enduring consequences that continue after the period of exposure to the adversity. That raises four basic issues: whether social adversities can be considered homogeneous, whether the crucial effect lies in the “objective” or subjectively perceived “effective” environment, whether the effects are environmentally mediated, and whether the form of biological embedding involves psychological or health consequences. The findings in the literature are discussed in relation to the biological effects of supposedly positive or normal experiences, the use of natural experiments to determine the causal effects of early experience, the heterogeneity of social adversity, the possible mediators of the biological embedding, gene–environment interdependence, and remaining challenges.

Social information changes the brain

Fernald, Russell D.; Maruska, Karen P.
Fonte: National Academy of Sciences Publicador: National Academy of Sciences
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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165.81%
Social animals live in complex physical and social environments requiring them to attend and rapidly respond to social and environmental information by changing their behavior. A key social influence is rank or status, a ubiquitous element in animal societies. Rank typically regulates access to reproduction and other resources, among other consequences for individuals. Because reproduction is arguably the most important event in any animals’ life, understanding how reproduction is regulated by social status and related physiological factors can instruct our understanding of evolutionary change. This article reviews evidence from a model social system in which reproduction is tightly controlled by social status. Surprisingly, changes in social status have rapid and profound effects over very short time scales and radically alter overt behavior, as well as physiological, cellular, and molecular factors that regulate reproductive capacity.

Leveraging the biology of adversity to address the roots of disparities in health and development

Shonkoff, Jack P.
Fonte: National Academy of Sciences Publicador: National Academy of Sciences
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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175.85%
Extensive evidence that personal experiences and environmental exposures are embedded biologically (for better or for worse) and the cumulative knowledge of more than four decades of intervention research provide a promising opportunity to mobilize evolving scientific insights to catalyze a new era of more effective early childhood policy and practice. Drawing on emerging hypotheses about causal mechanisms that link early adversity with lifelong impairments in learning, behavior, and health, this paper proposes an enhanced theory of change to promote better outcomes for vulnerable, young children by strengthening caregiver and community capacities to reduce or mitigate the impacts of toxic stress, rather than simply providing developmental enrichment for the children and parenting education for their mothers.

Putting the concept of biological embedding in historical perspective

Hertzman, Clyde
Fonte: National Academy of Sciences Publicador: National Academy of Sciences
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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185.92%
This paper describes evidence that led to the concept of biological embedding and research approaches designed to elucidates its mechanisms. Biological embedding occurs when experience gets under the skin and alters human biological and developmental processes; when systematic differences in experience in different social environments in society lead to systematically different biological and developmental states; when these differences are stable and long term; and, finally, when they have the capacity to influence health, well-being, learning, or behavior over the life course. Biological embedding emerged from insights in population health on the unique characteristics of socioeconomic gradients: Ubiquity in poor and postscarcity societies alike; gradient seen regardless of whether socioeconomic status is measured by income, education, or occupation; cutting widely across health, well-being, learning, and behavior outcomes; replicating itself on new conditions entering society; and, often, showing that flatter gradients mean better overall societal outcomes. Most important, the gradient begins the life course as a gradient in developmental health, suggesting that the emergence of a multifaceted resilience/vulnerability early in life is the best place to look for evidence of biological embedding. To understand its character...

Rigor, vigor, and the study of health disparities

Adler, Nancy; Bush, Nicole R.; Pantell, Matthew S.
Fonte: National Academy of Sciences Publicador: National Academy of Sciences
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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165.8%
Health disparities research spans multiple fields and methods and documents strong links between social disadvantage and poor health. Associations between socioeconomic status (SES) and health are often taken as evidence for the causal impact of SES on health, but alternative explanations, including the impact of health on SES, are plausible. Studies showing the influence of parents’ SES on their children’s health provide evidence for a causal pathway from SES to health, but have limitations. Health disparities researchers face tradeoffs between “rigor” and “vigor” in designing studies that demonstrate how social disadvantage becomes biologically embedded and results in poorer health. Rigorous designs aim to maximize precision in the measurement of SES and health outcomes through methods that provide the greatest control over temporal ordering and causal direction. To achieve precision, many studies use a single SES predictor and single disease. However, doing so oversimplifies the multifaceted, entwined nature of social disadvantage and may overestimate the impact of that one variable and underestimate the true impact of social disadvantage on health. In addition, SES effects on overall health and functioning are likely to be greater than effects on any one disease. Vigorous designs aim to capture this complexity and maximize ecological validity through more complete assessment of social disadvantage and health status...

Prenatal exposure to antidepressants and depressed maternal mood alter trajectory of infant speech perception

Weikum, Whitney M.; Oberlander, Tim F.; Hensch, Takao K.; Werker, Janet F.
Fonte: National Academy of Sciences Publicador: National Academy of Sciences
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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165.79%
Language acquisition reflects a complex interplay between biology and early experience. Psychotropic medication exposure has been shown to alter neural plasticity and shift sensitive periods in perceptual development. Notably, serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SRIs) are antidepressant agents increasingly prescribed to manage antenatal mood disorders, and depressed maternal mood per se during pregnancy impacts infant behavior, also raising concerns about long-term consequences following such developmental exposure. We studied whether infants’ language development is altered by prenatal exposure to SRIs and whether such effects differ from exposure to maternal mood disturbances. Infants from non–SRI-treated mothers with little or no depression (control), depressed but non–SRI-treated (depressed-only), and depressed and treated with an SRI (SRI-exposed) were studied at 36 wk gestation (while still in utero) on a consonant and vowel discrimination task and at 6 and 10 mo of age on a nonnative speech and visual language discrimination task. Whereas the control infants responded as expected (success at 6 mo and failure at 10 mo) the SRI-exposed infants failed to discriminate the language differences at either age and the depressed-only infants succeeded at 10 mo instead of 6 mo. Fetuses at 36 wk gestation in the control condition performed as expected...

Conserved epigenetic sensitivity to early life experience in the rat and human hippocampus

Suderman, Matthew; McGowan, Patrick O.; Sasaki, Aya; Huang, Tony C. T.; Hallett, Michael T.; Meaney, Michael J.; Turecki, Gustavo; Szyf, Moshe
Fonte: National Academy of Sciences Publicador: National Academy of Sciences
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
175.82%
Early life experience is associated with long-term effects on behavior and epigenetic programming of the NR3C1 (GLUCOCORTICOID RECEPTOR) gene in the hippocampus of both rats and humans. However, it is unlikely that such effects completely capture the evolutionarily conserved epigenetic mechanisms of early adaptation to environment. Here we present DNA methylation profiles spanning 6.5 million base pairs centered at the NR3C1 gene in the hippocampus of humans who experienced abuse as children and nonabused controls. We compare these profiles to corresponding DNA methylation profiles in rats that received differential levels of maternal care. The profiles of both species reveal hundreds of DNA methylation differences associated with early life experience distributed across the entire region in nonrandom patterns. For instance, methylation differences tend to cluster by genomic location, forming clusters covering as many as 1 million bases. Even more surprisingly, these differences seem to specifically target regulatory regions such as gene promoters, particularly those of the protocadherin α, β, and γ gene families. Beyond these high-level similarities, more detailed analyses reveal methylation differences likely stemming from the significant biological and environmental differences between species. These results provide support for an analogous cross-species epigenetic regulatory response at the level of the genomic region to early life experience.

Gene–environment interplay in Drosophila melanogaster: Chronic food deprivation in early life affects adult exploratory and fitness traits

Burns, James Geoffrey; Svetec, Nicolas; Rowe, Locke; Mery, Frederic; Dolan, Michael J.; Boyce, W. Thomas; Sokolowski, Marla B.
Fonte: National Academy of Sciences Publicador: National Academy of Sciences
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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195.96%
Early life adversity has known impacts on adult health and behavior, yet little is known about the gene–environment interactions (GEIs) that underlie these consequences. We used the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster to show that chronic early nutritional adversity interacts with rover and sitter allelic variants of foraging (for) to affect adult exploratory behavior, a phenotype that is critical for foraging, and reproductive fitness. Chronic nutritional adversity during adulthood did not affect rover or sitter adult exploratory behavior; however, early nutritional adversity in the larval period increased sitter but not rover adult exploratory behavior. Increasing for gene expression in the mushroom bodies, an important center of integration in the fly brain, changed the amount of exploratory behavior exhibited by sitter adults when they did not experience early nutritional adversity but had no effect in sitters that experienced early nutritional adversity. Manipulation of the larval nutritional environment also affected adult reproductive output of sitters but not rovers, indicating GEIs on fitness itself. The natural for variants are an excellent model to examine how GEIs underlie the biological embedding of early experience.

Preventing abusive head trauma resulting from a failure of normal interaction between infants and their caregivers

Barr, Ronald G.
Fonte: National Academy of Sciences Publicador: National Academy of Sciences
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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175.8%
Head trauma from abuse, including shaken baby syndrome, is a devastating and potentially lethal form of infant physical abuse first recognized in the early 1970s. What has been less recognized is the role of the early increase in crying in otherwise normal infants in the first few months of life as a trigger for the abuse. In part, this is because infant crying, especially prolonged unsoothable crying, has been interpreted clinically as something wrong with the infant, the infant’s caregiver, or the interactions between them. Here, we review an alternative developmental interpretation, namely, that the early increase in crying is a typical behavioral development in normal infants and usually does not reflect anything wrong or abnormal. We also review evidence indicating that this normal crying pattern is the most common trigger for abusive head trauma (AHT). Together, these findings point to a conceptualization of AHT as the consequence of a failure in an otherwise common, iterative, and developmentally normal infant–caregiver interaction. They also imply that there is a window of opportunity for prevention of AHT, and potentially other forms of infant abuse, through a public health primary universal prevention strategy aimed at changing knowledge and behaviors of caregivers and society in general concerning normal development of infants and the significance of early increased infant crying. If effective...

Genetic and environmental vulnerabilities in children with neurodevelopmental disorders

Karmiloff-Smith, Annette; D’Souza, Dean; Dekker, Tessa M.; Van Herwegen, Jo; Xu, Fei; Rodic, Maja; Ansari, Daniel
Fonte: National Academy of Sciences Publicador: National Academy of Sciences
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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165.79%
One might expect that children with varying genetic mutations or children raised in low socioeconomic status environments would display different deficits. Although this expectation may hold for phenotypic outcomes in older children and adults, cross-syndrome comparisons in infancy reveal many common neural and sociocognitive deficits. The challenge is to track dynamic trajectories over developmental time rather than focus on end states like in adult neuropsychological studies. We contrast the developmental and adult approaches with examples from the cognitive and social domains, and we conclude that static models of adult brain lesions cannot be used to account for the dynamics of change in genetic and environmentally induced disorders in children.

Variations in postnatal maternal care and the epigenetic regulation of metabotropic glutamate receptor 1 expression and hippocampal function in the rat

Bagot, Rosemary C.; Zhang, Tie-Yuan; Wen, Xianglan; Nguyen, Thi Thu Thao; Nguyen, Huy-Binh; Diorio, Josie; Wong, Tak Pan; Meaney, Michael J.
Fonte: National Academy of Sciences Publicador: National Academy of Sciences
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
175.77%
Variations in maternal care in the rat affect hippocampal morphology and function as well as performance on hippocampal-dependent tests of learning and memory in the offspring. Preliminary genome-wide analyses of gene transcription and DNA methylation of the molecular basis for such maternal effects suggested differences in the epigenetic state and transcriptional activity of the Grm1 gene in the rat as a function of maternal care. Grm1 encodes the type I metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR1), and we found increased mGluR1 mRNA and protein in hippocampus from the adult offspring of mothers showing an increased frequency of pup licking/grooming (i.e., high-LG mothers) that was associated with a decrease in the methylation of Grm1. ChIP assays showed increased levels of histone 3 lysine 9 acetylation and histone 3 lysine 4 trimethylation of Grm1 in hippocampus from the adult offspring of high-LG compared with low-LG mothers. These histone posttranslational modifications were highly correlated, and both associate inversely with DNA methylation and positively with transcription. Studies of mGluR1 function showed increased hippocampal mGluR1-induced long-term depression in the adult offspring of high-LG compared with low-LG mothers, as well as increased paired-pulse depression (PPD). PPD is an inhibitory feedback mechanism that prevents excessive glutamate release during high-frequency stimulation. The maternal effects on both long-term depression and PPD were eliminated by treatment with an mGluR1-selective antagonist. These findings suggest that variations in maternal care can influence hippocampal function and cognitive performance through the epigenetic regulation of genes implicated in glutamatergic synaptic signaling.

Early environments and the ecology of inflammation

McDade, Thomas W.
Fonte: National Academy of Sciences Publicador: National Academy of Sciences
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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165.8%
Recent research has implicated inflammatory processes in the pathophysiology of a wide range of chronic degenerative diseases, although inflammation has long been recognized as a critical line of defense against infectious disease. However, current scientific understandings of the links between chronic low-grade inflammation and diseases of aging are based primarily on research in high-income nations with low levels of infectious disease and high levels of overweight/obesity. From a comparative and historical point of view, this epidemiological situation is relatively unique, and it may not capture the full range of ecological variation necessary to understand the processes that shape the development of inflammatory phenotypes. The human immune system is characterized by substantial developmental plasticity, and a comparative, developmental, ecological framework is proposed to cast light on the complex associations among early environments, regulation of inflammation, and disease. Recent studies in the Philippines and lowland Ecuador reveal low levels of chronic inflammation, despite higher burdens of infectious disease, and point to nutritional and microbial exposures in infancy as important determinants of inflammation in adulthood. By shaping the regulation of inflammation...

Social stratification, classroom climate, and the behavioral adaptation of kindergarten children

Boyce, W. Thomas; Obradović, Jelena; Bush, Nicole R.; Stamperdahl, Juliet; Kim, Young Shin; Adler, Nancy
Fonte: National Academy of Sciences Publicador: National Academy of Sciences
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
165.82%
Socioeconomic status (SES) is the single most potent determinant of health within human populations, from infancy through old age. Although the social stratification of health is nearly universal, there is persistent uncertainty regarding the dimensions of SES that effect such inequalities and thus little clarity about the principles of intervention by which inequalities might be abated. Guided by animal models of hierarchical organization and the health correlates of subordination, this prospective study examined the partitioning of children's adaptive behavioral development by their positions within kindergarten classroom hierarchies. A sample of 338 5-y-old children was recruited from 29 Berkeley, California public school classrooms. A naturalistic observational measure of social position, parent-reported family SES, and child-reported classroom climate were used in estimating multilevel, random-effects models of children's adaptive behavior at the end of the kindergarten year. Children occupying subordinate positions had significantly more maladaptive behavioral outcomes than their dominant peers. Further, interaction terms revealed that low family SES and female sex magnified, and teachers’ child-centered pedagogical practices diminished...

Effects of early intervention and the moderating effects of brain activity on institutionalized children's social skills at age 8

Almas, Alisa N.; Degnan, Kathryn A.; Radulescu, Anca; Nelson, Charles A.; Zeanah, Charles H.; Fox, Nathan A.
Fonte: National Academy of Sciences Publicador: National Academy of Sciences
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
175.84%
The present study examined the social skills of previously institutionalized, 8-y-old Romanian children from the Bucharest Early Intervention Project and the influence of attachment security and brain electrical activity (alpha power) on these skills. Participants included children randomized to an intervention involving foster care [Foster Care Group (FCG)], children randomized to remain in institutions [Care As Usual Group (CAUG)], and never-institutionalized children living with their families in the Bucharest community [Never-Institutionalized Group (NIG)]. A continuous rating of children’s attachment security to their primary caregiver was assessed at 42 mo of age. When children were 8 y old, teachers rated their social skills, and the children’s resting electroencephalogram alpha power was recorded. Teachers rated social skills of FCG children who were placed into foster care before 20 mo of age as no different from NIG children, and both of these groups were higher than CAUG children and FCG children placed after 20 mo. Electroencephalogram alpha power at age 8 significantly moderated the relations between attachment security and social skills. These findings characterize institutionalized children’s social skills in middle childhood within the context of a randomized intervention while highlighting the roles of both relational and biological factors in these developmental trajectories.