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Comparação de dois métodos de aplicação de fungicidas, irrigação por gotejamento e pulverização convencional no controle do mofo cinzento (Botrytis cinerea Pers.: Fr.) em vasos com plantas de lisianthus (Eustoma grandiflorum (Raf.) Shinn.)

Katz, Ieoschua; da Cunha, Antonio Ribeiro; Sousa, Antônio de Pádua; de Herdani, Egberto Egon
Fonte: Universidade Estadual Paulista Publicador: Universidade Estadual Paulista
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 328-338
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Plan disease control techniques are used through the irrigation water, which reduces the labor and it improves application uniformity with smaller contact of the operator with toxic products, lower environmental impact and lower production cost. In order to control Botrytis cinerea the lisianthus culture, this work aimed to evaluate two fungicide application methods with different treatments. The fungicides were: thiophanate methyl (50 g i.a. L-1), thiophanate methyl + chlorothalonil (50 g i.a. L-1 + 35 g i.a. L-1) and iprodione (50 g i.a. L-1). Number of lesions, number of diseased floral buttons and height of the lisianthus plants were evaluated. It was possible to deduce, that in the growth stage (number of lesions in the plant) as well as in the final stage (number of floral buttons) of the lisianthus culture, the most efficient treatments were 2 (thiophanate methyl + chlorothalonil) and 3 (iprodione). Considering that treatment 2 is a mixture of two fungicides, a systemic and a contact one, independently of application methods, the mixture increased efficiency in relation to treatment 1 (thiophanate methyl). Thus, chemigation was as efficient as spreading technique.

Bursaphelenchus hofmanni Braasch, 1998 associated with peat growth substrate in hops nurseries in the Czech Republic

Cermak, Václav; Vieira, Paulo; Cudejkova, Mária; Gaar, Vladimir; Tomankova, Katerina; Mikuskova, Katerina; Eisenback, Jonh; Mota, Manuel
Fonte: Nematology Publicador: Nematology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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To date, seven Bursaphelenchus species have been re- ported in surveys of the Czech Republic (Cˇ ermák et al., 2013). However, the occurrence of some species, such as Bursaphelenchus hofmanni Braasch, 1998, is limited to single detections in imported coniferous wood (un- publ. data in Braasch, 2001). During a survey to deter- mine pathogenic agents on hops (Humulus lupulus L.) conducted by State Phytosanitary Administration (CZ) in hops fields and nurseries in 2012, B. hofmanni was found in a mixture of peat and soil in a hops seedling nurs- ery in Žatec (Bohemia, Czech Republic). The occurrence of Bursaphelenchus species in non-woody plants or sub- strates has been previously reported for species of the fungivorus group, such as B. gonzalezi Loof, 1964, B. hunti Giblin & Kaya, 1983 and B. fungivorus Franklin & Hooper, 1962. Species belonging to the hofmanni group are often associated with wood products such as packag- ing material (Gu et al., 2006) and, to our knowledge, this is the first time that this species has been found associated with peat substrate and soil. Nematodes were isolated from 60 g of peat substrate (3 parts peat to 1 part soil) associated with hops seedlings, and extracted using the Baermann funnel technique. Specimens belonging to Bursaphelenchus were killed and fixed in hot 4% formalin and transferred to pure glycerin according to De Grisse (1969). Two mature females and two males were used to establish a culture maintained in Botryotinia fuckeliana...

Botrytis Cinerea mating types distribution and NEP1 protein sequence analysis

Duarte, José Manuel Martins Abrantes Teixeira
Fonte: Universidade Técnica de Lisboa Publicador: Universidade Técnica de Lisboa
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado
Publicado em //2008 Português
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Mestrado em Engenharia Agronómica - Instituto Superior de Agronomia; Botrytis cinerea [teleomorph: Botryotinia fuckeliana] is a heterothallic filamentous plant pathogenic Ascomycete with over two hundred different hosts, and its control at the crop level is still very difficult to achieve. Sexual reproduction as an active part in the fungus dispersal and variability has been underestimated until recent years. Research leading to more insight into the MAT locus and the fundamental principles of the mating process can prompt new strategies for B. cinerea control. During the B. cinerea infection process, phytotoxic proteins such as NEP1 are produced. Their function is yet to be unraveled, but it was postulated that they might play a role in speciation in the genus Botrytis. This report describes a mating type screening of a population of 80 field isolates of B. cinerea. Findings indicate a typical 1:1 Mendelian distribution of the MAT loci, and one strain with both MAT genes is reported. A scan of the MAT locus suggests the absence of the MAT1-1 locus in dual mating strains. Furthermore, Southern blotting demonstrates for the first time the possible presence of a complete MAT1-1 locus in a dual mating strain, instead of the predicted incomplete MAT1-1 locus (dMAT1). Besides the MAT loci...

Whole-Genome Analysis of Two-Component Signal Transduction Genes in Fungal Pathogens

Catlett, Natalie L.; Yoder, Olen C.; Turgeon, B. Gillian
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /12/2003 Português
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Two-component phosphorelay systems are minimally comprised of a histidine kinase (HK) component, which autophosphorylates in response to an environmental stimulus, and a response regulator (RR) component, which transmits the signal, resulting in an output such as activation of transcription, or of a mitogen-activated protein kinase cascade. The genomes of the yeasts Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Schizosaccharomyces pombe, and Candida albicans encode one, three, and three HKs, respectively. In contrast, the genome sequences of the filamentous ascomycetes Neurospora crassa, Cochliobolus heterostrophus (Bipolaris maydis), Gibberella moniliformis (Fusarium verticillioides), and Botryotinia fuckeliana (Botrytis cinerea) encode an extensive family of two-component signaling proteins. The putative HKs fall into 11 classes. Most of these classes are represented in each filamentous ascomycete species examined. A few of these classes are significantly more prevalent in the fungal pathogens than in the saprobe N. crassa, suggesting that these groups contain paralogs required for virulence. Despite the larger numbers of HKs in filamentous ascomycetes than in yeasts, all of the ascomycetes contain virtually the same downstream histidine phosphotransfer proteins and RR proteins...

A New Group of Aromatic Prenyltransferases in Fungi, Catalyzing a 2,7-Dihydroxynaphthalene 3-Dimethylallyl-transferase Reaction*

Haug-Schifferdecker, Elisa; Arican, Deniz; Brückner, Reinhard; Heide, Lutz
Fonte: American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Publicador: American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Five fungal genomes from the Ascomycota (sac fungi) were found to contain a gene with sequence similarity to a recently discovered small group of bacterial prenyltransferases that catalyze the C-prenylation of aromatic substrates in secondary metabolism. The genes from Aspergillus terreus NIH2624, Botryotinia fuckeliana B05.10 and Sclerotinia sclerotiorum 1980 were expressed in Escherichia coli, and the resulting His8-tagged proteins were purified and investigated biochemically. Their substrate specificity was found to be different from that of any other prenyltransferase investigated previously. Using 2,7-dihydroxynaphthalene (2,7-DHN) and dimethylallyl diphosphate as substrates, they catalyzed a regiospecific Friedel-Crafts alkylation of 2,7-DHN at position 3. Using the enzyme of A. terreus, the Km values for 2,7-DHN and dimethylallyl diphosphate were determined as 324 ± 25 μm and 325 ± 35 μm, respectively, and kcat as 0.026 ± 0.001 s−1. A significantly lower level of prenylation activity was found using dihydrophenazine-1-carboxylic acid as aromatic substrate, and only traces of products were detected with aspulvinone E, flaviolin, or 4-hydroxybenzoic acid. No product was formed with l-tryptophan, l-tyrosine, or 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate. The genes for these fungal prenyltransferases are not located within recognizable secondary metabolic gene clusters. Their physiological function is yet unknown.

Biosynthesis of UDP-4-keto-6-deoxyglucose and UDP-rhamnose in Pathogenic Fungi Magnaporthe grisea and Botryotinia fuckeliana*

Martinez, Viviana; Ingwers, Miles; Smith, James; Glushka, John; Yang, Ting; Bar-Peled, Maor
Fonte: American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Publicador: American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Background: Rhamnose-containing glycans are involved in host-pathogen interactions.

Frequent Gain and Loss of Introns in Fungal Cytochrome b Genes

Yin, Liang-Fen; Hu, Meng-Jun; Wang, Fei; Kuang, Hanhui; Zhang, Yu; Schnabel, Guido; Li, Guo-Qing; Luo, Chao-Xi
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 07/11/2012 Português
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In this study, all available cytochrome b (Cyt b) genes from the GOBASE database were compiled and the evolutionary dynamics of the Cyt b gene introns was assessed. Cyt b gene introns were frequently present in the fungal kingdom and some lower plants, but generally absent or rare in Chromista, Protozoa, and Animalia. Fungal Cyt b introns were found at 35 positions in Cyt b genes and the number of introns varied at individual positions from a single representative to 32 different introns at position 131, showing a wide and patchy distribution. Many homologous introns were present at the same position in distantly related species but absent in closely related species, suggesting that introns of the Cyt b genes were frequently lost. On the other hand, highly similar intron sequences were observed in some distantly related species rather than in closely related species, suggesting that these introns were gained independently, likely through lateral transfers. The intron loss-and-gain events could be mediated by transpositions that might have occurred between nuclear and mitochondria. Southern hybridization analysis confirmed that some introns contained repetitive sequences and might be transposable elements. An intron gain in Botryotinia fuckeliana prevented the development of QoI fungicide resistance...

Impacto potencial das mudanças climáticas sobre as doenças da videira no Brasil.

GARRIDO, L. da R.; ANGELOTTI, F.
Fonte: In: GHINI, R.; HAMADA, E.; BETTIOL, W. (Ed.). Impactos das mudanças climáticas sobre doenças de importantes culturas no Brasil. Jaguariúna: Embrapa Meio Ambiente, 2011. Publicador: In: GHINI, R.; HAMADA, E.; BETTIOL, W. (Ed.). Impactos das mudanças climáticas sobre doenças de importantes culturas no Brasil. Jaguariúna: Embrapa Meio Ambiente, 2011.
Tipo: Capítulo em livro técnico-científico (ALICE) Formato: cap. 20, p. 331-356.
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2011

Impactos das mudanças climáticas sobre a distribuição espacial da podridão cinzenta em videira no Brasil.

PALLADINO, R. P.; HAMADA, E.; GARRIDO, L. da R.; ANGELOTTI, F.
Fonte: In: CONGRESSO INTERINSTITUCIONAL DE INICIAÇÃO CIENTÍFICA, 5., 2011, Campinas. Anais... Campinas: Embrapa Monitoramento por Satélite, 2011. 1 CD ROM. Publicador: In: CONGRESSO INTERINSTITUCIONAL DE INICIAÇÃO CIENTÍFICA, 5., 2011, Campinas. Anais... Campinas: Embrapa Monitoramento por Satélite, 2011. 1 CD ROM.
Tipo: Artigo em anais de congresso (ALICE) Formato: Nº 11420.
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Resumo: A podridão cinzenta, causada pelo fungo Botryotinia fuckeliana (Botrytis cinerea), existente em praticamente todos os vinhedos do mundo, causa sérias reduções na qualidade e na quantidade de uva produzida. O estudo teve como objetivo avaliar os impactos das mudanças climáticas na favorabilidade de ocorrência da podridão cinzenta da videira no Brasil. Foram utilizadas informações de temperatura média e período de molhamento foliar do período de referência (1961 ? 1990) e do futuro (2011 ? 2040, 2041 ? 2070 e 2071 ? 2100) para o Brasil, dos cenários A2 e B1, organizadas no banco de dados em Sistema de Informações Geográficas (SIG) Idrisi 32. A favorabilidade foi obtida aplicando-se equações lógicas, de acordo com as condições e restrições de período de molhamento foliar e temperatura média, resultando em mapas de distribuição espacial da podridão cinzenta no Brasil. De modo geral, é esperado um quadro positivo para o futuro, pois as áreas onde a condição para o desenvolvimento da doença era muito favorável diminuem, e as áreas de condição desfavorável apresentam um aumento principalmente durante o inverno. Abstract; The gray mold, caused by the fungus Botryotinia fuckeliana (Botrytis cinerea)...

Etiología y control de la necrosis de flores y pudrición de frutos de pepino en Morelos, México

Núñez-Rios,Tania; Leyva-Mir,Santos Gerardo; Rodríguez-Pérez,Juan Enrique; Mariscal-Amaro,Luis Antonio
Fonte: Universidad Autónoma Chapingo Publicador: Universidad Autónoma Chapingo
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/08/2013 Português
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Durante muestreos realizados en 2010, se observaron síntomas severos de necrosis de flores, tizón de hojas y pudrición de frutos en parcelas de pepino de Totolapan, Morelos, México. La incidencia de la enfermedad fluctuó entre 40 y 50 %. Se aislaron colonias fungosas a partir de hojas, flores y frutos sintomáticos colectados en diferentes sitios. Las características morfológicas de las colonias, conidios y esclerocios de los aislados fungosos fueron similares a Botrytis cinerea. Un aislado representativo de B. cinerea se seleccionó para análisis molecular mediante la amplificación de la región ITS. La patogenicidad del aislado se verificó mediante la inoculación de una suspensión conidial sobre 10 plántulas y 10 frutos de pepino. Cinco plántulas y frutos asperjados con agua destilada estéril sirvieron como control. Las plántulas y frutos control permanecieron sanos, mientras que los frutos inoculados con la suspensión de conidios desarrollaron lesiones grises a los cinco días después de la inoculación. B. cinerea se reaisló consistentemente a partir de hojas y frutos con lesiones. Con base en el aislamiento, identificación morfológica y molecular, así como pruebas de patogenicidad, se determinó a B. cinerea como el agente causal de la necrosis de flores...

Identificación y sensibilidad in vitro a fungicidas del agente causal de la podredumbre del tallo en plántulas de Eucalyptus cinerea en Mérida, Venezuela

Carrero,Chrystian; Cedeño,Luis; Quintero,Kleyra; Pino,Henry; Rodríguez,Luis
Fonte: ASOCIACIÓN INTERCIENCIA Publicador: ASOCIACIÓN INTERCIENCIA
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/11/2003 Português
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En noviembre 2001 se detectó podredumbre en el tallo de plántulas de Eucalyptus cinerea producidas bajo condiciones controladas en invernadero de la Facultad de Ciencias Forestales y Ambientales de la Universidad de Los Andes. La enfermedad mató 5% de las plántulas. Los síntomas iniciales se apreciaron como clorosis, flacidez y, finalmente, necrosis. Las características morfométricas de las estructuras reproductivas permitieron identificar el patógeno como Botrytis cinerea Pers.: Fr. [teleomorfo Botryotinia fuckeliana (de Bary) Whetzel]. Los factores predisponentes en el desarrollo de la enfermedad fueron alta temperatura (32ºC) y alta humedad relativa (80%). Pruebas de patogenicidad confirmaron, por primera vez en Venezuela, la patogénesis entre B. cinerea y E. cinerea. Se evaluó la sensibilidad in vitro de B. cinerea a los fungicidas Benomilo, Myclobutanil, Azoxystrobin, Clorotalonil, Procloraz y Mancozeb. La mayor sensibilidad ocurrió con Procloraz, el cual inhibió completamente el desarrollo del hongo.